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Providing Integrated Treatment to the Criminal Justice Population: Engaging Mandated Clients Victoria Simon, Ph.D., MFT.

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Presentation on theme: "Providing Integrated Treatment to the Criminal Justice Population: Engaging Mandated Clients Victoria Simon, Ph.D., MFT."— Presentation transcript:

1 Providing Integrated Treatment to the Criminal Justice Population: Engaging Mandated Clients Victoria Simon, Ph.D., MFT

2 An overview… RNR Overview Engagement and the impact of GENERATIONAL POVERTY Engagement and the impact of TRAUMA Trauma Treatment Self-Sabotage: why we see it and how to help The impact of ENVIRONMENT and COMMUNITY 2

3 Risk-Needs-Responsivity Model Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) Model developed in the 1980s and operationalized in the 1990s Designed for treatment of a criminal justice population Risk – Must be assessed Need – Must be targeted to level of risk and criminogenic issues Responsivity – Must be provided in a format that makes sense for this population 3

4 RNR, continued Risk – Must be assessed – Criminal behaviors can be reliably predicted – The “big eight” antisocial attitudes antisocial associates history of antisocial behaviors antisocial personality pattern problematic circumstances at home problematic circumstances at school/work problematic leisure circumstances substance abuse 4

5 RNR, continued Needs – Treatment design and delivery must be specified for offenders Moral Reconation Therapy Values The Con Game Thinking Errors Mindfulness – – – Treatment must target criminogenic needs 5

6 RNR, Continued Responsivity – Describes how treatment should be provided Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with Cognitive Social learning approach (practicing pro-social behaviors, problem solving tools and experience, etc.) Focus on client’s learning style Focus on motivation and stage of change (pre- contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance) Focus on abilities and strengths 6

7 RNR, continued When working with a criminal justice population, why is it important that treatment design and delivery be specified for offenders? – Standard outpatient programs that don’t address criminogenic need (1% INCREASE in recidivism) – Programs addressing criminogenic need (19% decrease in recidivism) – Programs with criminogenic and CBT/RNR approaches (32% decrease in recidivism) 7

8 The Impact of GENERATIONAL POVERTY data compiled by Dr. Carrie Petrucci; following from (Payne, et al., 2009) - Characteristics of Generational Poverty Defined as two or more generations in poverty The mother is usually the center of the family -Impacts of Generational Poverty -Allostatic load (“wear and tear” on the body from the neuroendocrine, nervous, cardiovascular, metabolic and immune systems): the greater the allostatic load, the greater the impairment to other brain functions Negatively impacted by poverty and its effects: – Language – Memory ability – Working memory – Executive functions 8

9 Impact on learning: Decreased Executive Functioning impacts: behavior self regulation adult intelligence problem solving Working memory includes the ability to do the following: Giving/receiving multiple directions at once Planning Task Completion Behavioral self regulation Ability to identify options Generational Poverty, continued 9

10 - Impacts of Generational Poverty on treatment The majority of EBP and PP curriculums – even those designed for the offender population – don’t take into account the impacts of generational poverty on learning – Curriculums are primarily reading/writing intensive – Demand independent problem solving – Depend on memory without repetition or role play – Require planning and task completion – Often use language that is set in a more formal register (rather than the casual register that clients use) 10

11 Generational Poverty, continued What has NOT been impacted by Generational Poverty? Visual and spatial abilities - suggesting that visual teaching and learning techniques are the most effective – Training for treatment staff needed about how to modify information within a sensory learning format Sight, sound, smell, taste, visual, tactile experience Repetition and role play is vital 11

12 The Impact of TRAUMA Trauma data from Lynne Marsenich, LCSW – What is Trauma? A Traumatic event is one in which a person experiences, witnesses or is confronted with actual or threatened death or serious injury, or threat to the physical integrity of oneself or others Responses to trauma often include intense fear, helplessness or horror 12

13 Trauma, continued – Prevalence Individuals with trauma histories from childhood onward make up the majority of clients with mental health and substance abuse issues 90% of all clients receiving MH support have been exposed to or experienced trauma (Mueser et al., 1998) 75% of all clients receiving SA treatment report trauma histories (SAMSHA/CSAT, 2000) Males are most likely to report witnessing violence, while females report being victims of violence (Hennessey et al., 2004) 13

14 Trauma, continued – Trauma experiences When abused in childhood, individuals commonly experience trauma and re-victimization through domestic violence, sexual assaults, gang and drug related violence, homelessness and poverty Females sexually abused during childhood are 2.4 times more likely than non abused females to be sexually assaulted as adults (NASMHDP/NTAC, p. 55) Adults with trauma histories are frequently traumatized further in incarcerated settings and in the community by supervising and social service agencies – Unsafe environments – Coercive interventions 14

15 Trauma, continued – Trauma and the Criminal Justice population The majority of men and women in the criminal justice system report having been abused as children Trauma experiences are interpersonal in nature, intentional, prolonged and repeated; they may extend over years of life They include sexual abuse and/or incest, physical abuse, severe neglect, psychological abuse They include witness and threats of violence (personal and community), repeated abandonment and sudden and traumatic losses 15

16 Trauma, continued – Trauma Informed Interventions Incorporate knowledge about trauma – prevalence, impact and recovery – in all aspects of service delivery Create environments that are hospitable and engaging for survivors Consider factors of gender and culture Minimize re-victimization Facilitate recovery and empowerment Symptoms are not understood as pathology but primarily as attempts to cope and survive Survivors are survivors – their strengths need to be recognized 16

17 Trauma, continued – Trauma Informed Interventions, continued A collaborative relationship between the consumer and the provider Both the consumer and provider are assumed to have valid and valuable knowledge bases The consumer’s safety must be guaranteed and trust must be developed over time 17

18 Trauma Treament Trauma Narrative vs. Symptom Management 18

19 SELF SABOTAGE – Why do we see self-sabotage? Success tests limits and creates vulnerability Fear of embarrassment/shame if there is real or perceived failure Ambivalence about new image Practical concerns 19

20 Self-Sabotage, continued How to address self-sabotage – Basic CBT approaches Increase awareness of fears/concerns Look at Pros/Cons Teach thought stopping and replacement tools Take small steps Seek peer support Ensure that there are support systems in place for practical needs Allow for both forward and backward movement 20

21 Questions to ask when looking to increase engagement Do clients feel comfortable in their treatment environment? Is the treatment environment welcoming? Does the client feel safe? Do the female clients feel safe? Does the treatment environment understand and address literacy? Are groups offered in a sensory learning format? Is individual literacy support provided to clients who have reading/writing/comprehension issues? 21

22 Questions for increase engagement, continued Is the treatment provider aware of client’s trauma history? Is there not only trauma treatment, but trauma informed care? Are there coercive treatment interventions being used? How are “mandatory” services handled? 22

23 Questions for increase engagement, continued How is Malingering handled? – Has the client learned pro-social behaviors yet? – When the client says that something is wrong, do people listen? – If the client says that something is “a little wrong,” do people listen? – Does the client feel shut down when they make a request? 23

24 The Impact of ENVIRONMENT and COMMUNITY How is a discussion about the environment and community of a treatment agency relevant to a training on the treatment of offenders? 24

25 ENVIRONMENT and COMMUNITY, continued – What makes people stay connected? Retention is driven by emotional factors! – The Power of Habit by Charles Duhigg sites a study done in 2000 for YMCA to determine why certain clubs had significantly higher retention than others. The conclusion? “Retention, the data said, was driven by emotional factors, such as whether employees knew members’ names or said hello when they walked in.” (p. 211) – This is most likely the same reason that community based organizations are the ONLY treatment providers to invert the retention numbers (70% retention vs. the 30% that is typically seen) – Underlines the importance of feeling “connected” to an agency 25

26 A Welcoming Environment – This is as simple as good customer service – Why do social service agencies think they work in an industry where the idea of “customer service” doesn’t apply? – Basic customer service skills that don’t seem to be expected in the social service world: Either answer your phone or return your calls Don’t make promises unless you can keep them Listen to your customers Deal with complaints Be helpful – even if there is no immediate profit in it Train your staff to be helpful, courteous and knowledgeable Take the extra step Think outside the box 26

27 Please feel free to get in touch with additional questions at any time… Victoria Simon 213 620 5712 x 100 27

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