Presentation on theme: "Japanese Aggression & Chinese Patriotism. Adopt this mindset…. For much of the 20 th century, China was trying to recover from and rise up against foreign."— Presentation transcript:
Adopt this mindset…. For much of the 20 th century, China was trying to recover from and rise up against foreign bullying and domination. WHY? Because from the mid-19 th century onward, foreign powers undermined China’s sovereignty in many different ways
1840s to early 1900s Opium Wars- 1839 to 1842 and the Second Opium War from 1856 to 1860. By the 1820s China was importing 900 tons of Bengali opium annually. This trade drained silver and many Chinese became addicted. The Emperor banned opium, which upset foreign traders Britain attacked China’s coasts, and forced them to sign an unequal treaty. French political cartoon from the late 1890s shows helpless China being divided among Britain, Germany, Russia, France and Japan.
1840s to early 1900s First treaty-The Treaty of Nanking (1842) Opened the way for further opium trade Ceded territory (including Hong Kong) Unilaterally fixed Chinese tariffs at a low rate, granted extraterritorial rights to foreigners in China (which were not offered to Chinese abroad)
1840s to early 1900s However, the court still refused to accept foreign ambassadors and obstructed the trade clauses of the treaties. Disputes over the treatment of British merchants in Chinese ports and on the seas led to the Second Opium War (1856-1860) and the Treaty of Tientsin. Treaty of Tientsin (1858)- The Second French Empire, United Kingdom, Russian Empire, and the United States were the parties involved.
1840s to early 1900s These treaties opened more Chinese ports to the foreigners, allowed Christian missionary activity, and legalized the import of opium. They were ratified by the Emperor of China in the Convention of Peking in 1860, after the end of the war. CHINA CLEARLY COULD NOT DEFEND ITSELF!
Reactions HOW DID CHINA REACT/RESPOND TO THIS TREND? VIOLENCE IN THE FORM OF REBELLIONS- BOXER REBELLION OF 1900: v iolent anti-foreign and anti- Christian movement which took place in China between 1899 and 1901. Fall of Qing Dynasty (1912): Ended over 2,000 years of imperial rule. The 1911 Revolution was the downfall. MAY 4 TH INCIDENT/MOVEMENT: An anti-imperialist, cultural, and political movement growing out of student demonstrations in Beijing on May 4, 1919. This led to….. FOUNDING OF NEW POLITICAL PARTIES- CCP
Further Reactions Further Japanese aggression (Twenty-One Demands, etc.) led to more surges of Chinese patriotism. Some resorted to violence- bombing stores that sold Japanese-made goods, attempting to assassinate Japanese officials within China. Others turned to non-aggressive ways- boycotts of certain foreign goods, government policies aimed to encourage patriotic support of the domestic economy
Further Reactions The Nationalists started the National Goods Campaign. This was designed to support import substitution as a way to counter the domination of foreign goods in China. Chinese citizens were encouraged to buy items with “National Goods” designation
Next You will all read about a patriotic Chinese businessman whose company was designated a “National Goods” producer. Focus on how he used his business to pursue his personal and professional mission to strengthen China.
Directions 1. You will be divided into groups of 3-4. (by 9) 2. I will distribute the reading “Song Feiqing and the Oriental Corporation”- read this quietly and independently. 3. Once you finish the reading, choose one task with your group to present to the class tomorrow. 4. You will have the rest of the hour to complete this task 5. BE PREPARED to present your task to the rest of the class tomorrow. Everyone will present! 6. See me for any questions or comments.