2ObjectivesExplain how the political crisis of 1789 led to popular revolts.Summarize the moderate reforms enacted by the National Assembly in August 1789.Identify additional actions taken by the National Assembly as it pressed onward.Analyze how other European nations reacted to the events unfolding in France.
3What political and social reforms did the National Assembly institute in the first stage of the French Revolution?The members of the National Assembly voted to end their own privileges after the storming of the Bastille.From providing equal rights to all male citizens before the law, to the abolishment of their exclusion from taxes, the National Assembly aimed to change an unjust system.
4Historians have divided the period of the French Revolution into four different phases. National AssemblyFrance became a constitutional monarchyReign of TerrorA radical phase with escalating violenceEnd of the monarchyDirectoryA period of reaction against extremismAge of NapoleonConsolidation of many changesA period of war throughout Europe
5Political Crisis Leads to Revolt The political crisis of in France coincided with the worst famine in memory.Rumors were rampant and created panic.During the period known as the “Great Fear,” peasants believed that government troops were seizing their crops.Believing that nobles were trying to reinstate medieval dues, peasants stole grain and set fire to old manor records.Although the violence died down, peasant anger against the ancient regime remained high.
6Between June and the beginning of August there were riots in the countryside. Peasants burned their nobles' chateaux, monasteries and buildings which housed public records. They particularly targeted documents which contained records of their feudal obligations. It was called "The Great Fear" and spread quickly throughout France.
7In Paris, the revolutionary center of France, several factions competed for power. National GuardModerateLed by the Marquis de LafayetteA mainly middle-class militiaParis CommuneRadicalReplaced the royalist government of ParisMobilized violent action for the revolution
8The National Assembly Acts The National Assembly reacted to the uprisings and voted to end the privileges of the nobility.Nobles gave up old manorial dues and exclusive hunting rights.Nobles ended their special legal status and their exemptions from paying taxes.The assembly enacted the equality of all male citizens before the law.
9At the end of August, 1789, the National Assembly issued the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen.Modeled after the American Declaration of Independence, it announcedFree and equal rights for all menNatural rights for all menEquality before the law for all menFreedom of religion for all citizensTaxes levied fairly for all citizens
10The Declaration of the Rights of Man did not please everyone. Louis XVI did not want to accept the reforms of the National Assembly.Women such as Olympe de Gouges called for equal citizenship for women.
11Some 6,000 women marched on Versailles on October 5, 1789. They were angry about the famine resented Queen Marie Antoinette, who lived a life of luxuryThey demanded to see the king.The women brought the king and queen to Paris, where they lived as virtual prisoners.
12On October 4, 1789, a crowd of women demanding bread for their families gathered other discontented Parisians, including some men, and marched toward Versailles, arriving soaking wet from the rain. They demanded to see "the Baker," "the Baker's wife," and "the Baker's boy". The King agreed to meet with some of the women and promised to distribute all the bread in Versailles to the crowd. The arrival of the National Guard on the scene determined to take the King back to Paris complicated things for the King.Some of the crowd got into the Queen's quarters and Marie Antoinette barely escaped by way of a secret passage (still partly intact at the Palace at Versailles) to the King's room. He agreed to address the people from his balcony. "My friends," he said, "I will go to Paris with my wife and my children." It was a fatal mistake. It was the last time the King saw Versailles.
13The National Assembly Presses Onward The National Assembly placed the Church under state control.It dissolved convents and monasteries.It ended papal authority over the French Church.The Civil Constitution of the Clergy made bishops and priests elected, salaried officials.This move was condemned by the pope, many bishops and priests, and large numbers of French peasants.
14The National Assembly produced the Constitution of 1791 The National Assembly produced the Constitution of This set up a limited monarchy.Make lawsCollect taxesDecide on issues of war and peaceThe new Legislative Assembly had the power toModerate reformers considered that the Constitution of 1791 completed the French Revolution.
15At the time of the creation of the Constitution of 1791, Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette attempted to escape France.To many, this attempt meant that Louis was a traitor to the revolution.The emperor of Austria and king of Prussia signed the Declaration of Pilnitz supporting Louis and threatening to intervene.As French émigrés spread fear of revolution in other nations, France prepared for war.
16Radicals Take OverThe sans-culottes and the Jacobins pushed the revolution to more radical action.Sans-culottes demanded a republic and an end to monarchy.Jacobins gained the upper hand in the Legislative Assembly and declared war on Austria, Prussia, Britain, and other states.Fighting began in 1792 and lasted on and off until 1815.Sans-culottes
17Terms and Peoplefactions – dissenting groups of peopleMarquis de Lafayette – the leader of the National Guard, a largely middle-class militia; fought alongside George Washington in the American RevolutionOlympe de Gouges – a journalist who believed that the Declaration of the Rights of Man should grant equal citizenship to womenMarie Antoinette – Austrian-born queen of France; Louis XVI’s wife
18Terms and People (continued) émigré – a person who flees his or her country for political reasonssans-culottes – working-class men and women who made the French Revolution more radicalrepublic – system of government in which officials are chosen by the peopleJacobins – members of a revolutionary political club made during the French Revolution