Presentation on theme: "Which of the following statements do you most agree with?"— Presentation transcript:
1Which of the following statements do you most agree with? Before we begin….Which of the following statements do you most agree with?People should never take part in political revolutionPeople should take part in political revolution only if their family is in danger.People should take part in political revolution only if their basic human rights are not met.People should take part in political revolution
2La Marseillaise, French National Anthem The French Revolutionand NapoleonvideoFOCUSWhat were the causes and effects of the French Revolution, and how did the revolution lead to the Napoleonic era?La Marseillaise, French National Anthem
3Four Segments of this Unit What were the causes and effects of the French Revolution, and how did the revolution lead to the Napoleonic era?Section 1:On the Eve of RevolutionSection 2:The French Revolution UnfoldsSection 3:Radical Days of the RevolutionSection 4:The Age of Napoleon
4There will be plenty of visuals Storming of the Bastille, a prison in Paris Was a symbol of royal power in the 1700s, used for political prisonersThe king could arrest anyone on a secret warrant and keep them there without trial
5(6.1) I. On the Eve of Revolution A) French Society DividedB) Financial TroublesC) Louis XIV calls the Estates-GeneralD) Parisians Storm the Bastille
6A) French Society Divided How did France look in 1789?26 million French citizensStill clinging to an outdated social system from the Middle AgesAncien régime (old order) was divided into three social classes (estates)First Estate, Second Estate, and the Third Estate
7The Three Estates The First Estate: Clergy (100,000) Church owned about 10% of the land, collected tithes, and paid no direct taxes to the stateHigh church leaders such as bishops and abbots lived very wellSome social services provided (Nuns, monks, and priests ran schools, hospitals, and orphanages)Remember that the Enlightenment targeted church for reform… criticizing the idleness of some clergy, the church’s interference in politics, and intolerance of dissentCleric, Knight, and WorkmanIn response many in this class criticized the Enlightenment for undermining religion and moral order
8The Three Estates The Second Estate: Nobility (300,000) Only 0.5% of the populationRights included top jobs in government, the army, the courts, and the ChurchAlthough they owned land, they had little financial incomeAs prices began to rise, they felt the pinchFeared losing their traditional privileges, especially freedom from paying taxesMembers of the Second Estate
9The Three Estates The Third Estate: ‘Everybody else’ The most diverse social classTwo ‘layers’ – Bourgeoisie and rural peasantsBourgeoisie included: bankers, merchants, and manufacturers, lawyers, doctors, journalists, and professorsRural peasants were the bulk of the Third EstateMembers of the Third Estate
10The Three Estates The Third Estate: ‘Everybody else’ The most diverse social class, two ‘layers’ – Bourgeoisie and rural peasantsBourgeoisie included: bankers, merchants, manufacturers, lawyers, doctors, journalists, and professorsRural peasants were the bulk of the Third EstateUrban poor were unemployedMembers of the Third EstateThe poorest members were urban workers (apprentices, journeymen) in printing and cloth making
11What was the Third Estate? “1. What is the Third Estate? Everything 2. What has it been until now in the political order? Nothing 3. What does it want to be? Something.” Abbé Emmanuel SieyésThe vast Third Estate- peasants, dentists, laborers, and more- comprising more than 95% of France, was now ready to fight for equality
12Trouble begins to brewWhether rich or poor, members of the Third Estate resented privileges by their “social betters.” Although wealthy bourgeois families could buy political office, the best jobs were still reserved for nobles.Urban workers earned miserable wages. Even the smallest increase in the price of bread, brought the threat of greater hunger or even starvation.
13Trouble begins to brew First and Second Estates paid no taxes Peasants burdened by taxes on everything from land to soap to saltHow does the cartoonist portray the Third Estate? What were the differences among the social classes in pre-revolutionary France?taxes, money, land, and jobs available
14Follow-Up from Yesterday To what estate did most of the French population belong?the Third EstateHow did the lives of the clergy and nobles differ from members of the Third Estate?The clergy and nobles paid almost no taxes, while Third Estate paid taxes on almost everything.Many of the clergy and nobles were wealthy and occupied positions of influence, while most of the Third Estate was poor and powerless.
15(6.1) I. On the Eve of Revolution A) French Society DividedB) Financial TroublesC) Louis XIV calls the Estates-GeneralD) Parisians Storm the Bastille
16B) Financial Troubles National Debt Soars One of the causes of the economic troubles was mushrooming financial crisis due to years of deficit spending. So what is deficit spending?Debt from the Seven Years War and lavish courtBad harvests sent food prices soaring
17Economic Reform FailsLouis XVI chooses Jacques Necker as his financial advisorNecker urged king to reduce extravagant court spending, reform government, and abolish tariffs on tradeAlso proposed taxing the First and Second EstatesNobles and high clergy were outraged and forced King Louis XVI to dismiss himPressure for reform mounted, wealthy and powerful classes demand that king to summon the Estates-General
18Louis XVI Calls the Estates-General At the end of 1788, France is on the verge of bankruptcyBread riots are spreadingNobles (the Second Estate) are afraid of taxes, begin to denounce ‘royal tyranny’King Louis XVI tells the Three Estates to prepare their cahiers (notebooks) which lists their grievancesIn other words...“bring it on”the Estates-General hadn’t been called for 175 years
19Estates Prepare Grievance Notebooks Many cahiers called for reforms such as fairer taxes, freedom of the press, or regular meetings of the E-GTensions rise: Tax collectors were “bloodsuckers of the nation who drink the tears of the unfortunate from goblets of gold.” -The courts of nobles were “vampires sucking the last drop of blood” from the people.Delegates take the Tennis Court Oath, swore “never to separate and to meet wherever the circumstances might require until we have established a sound and just constitution.”
20Remember John Locke….“People have a natural right to life, liberty, and property. Rulers have a responsibility to protect these rights. People have the right to change a government that fails to do so.”Do you see how this quote relates to the events of the meeting of the Estates-General?
21inspiring Enlightenment ideas Circle back...What three factors led to the start of the French Revolution?social inequalitieseconomic troublesinspiring Enlightenment ideas
22Parisians Storm the Bastille Reform-minded clergy and nobles join the Assembly and advocate changeLouis XVI becomes concerned, orders royal troops to streets of ParisCrowds gather outside the Bastille, demanding weapons and gunpowderJuly 14, 1789 – “Bastille Day”This ‘rage’ demonstrated a new sense of empowerment by Parisians
23(6.2) I. The French Revolution Unfolds A) Political Crisis Leads to RevoltB) The National Assembly ActsC) The National Assembly Presses OnwardD) Radicals Take Over
24A) Political Crisis Leads to Revolt Europe stares at France in DisbeliefMidway through 1789 and the country is experiencing the worst famine in memoryStarving peasants roaming the countryside, flocking to towns where they join those who are unemployedGrain prices are soaring, people spending up to 80% of their income on breadWhen no one is in control, rumors spread“GREAT FEAR”
25A) Political Crisis Leads to Revolt “GREAT FEAR”Tales of attacks on villages and towns“Government troops are seizing peasant crops”IN RESPONSEPeasants unleash their fury on nobles trying to reimpose medieval duesSet fire to old records, stealing grain from storehouses
26(6.2) I. The French Revolution Unfolds A) Political Crisis Leads to RevoltB) The National Assembly ActsC) The National Assembly Presses OnwardD) Radicals Take Over
27B) The National Assembly Acts Special Privilege EndsIn response to the Bastille stampede, nobles in the National Assembly vote to end their own privilegesAgree to give up their manorial dues, exclusive hunting rights, special legal status, and exemption from taxesWhat are ‘manorial dues’ ?Peasants farmed small plots of land and owed rent and labor to their lord…most were not free to leave the estate.
28B) The National Assembly Acts Declaration of the Rights of ManIssued by the Assembly in late AugustModeled in part on America’s Declaration of Independence (13 years before)Based on the writings of Locke and the philosophes, the constitution insisted that governments exist to protect the natural rights of citizens
29B) The National Assembly Acts Declaration of the Rights of ManAll men were “born and remain free and equal in rights.”They enjoyed natural rights to “liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.”Furthermore, all male citizens were equal before the lawEvery Frenchman had an equal right to hold public office
30B) The National Assembly Acts Declaration of the Rights of ManIn addition, the declaration asserted freedom of religion and called for taxes to be levied according to ability to pay“Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”But what about women?1791: Olympe de Gouges demands equal rights in her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen
31B) The National Assembly Acts But did the Nobles really listen?Nobles continue to enjoy gala banquets while people were starving in the streets.By autumn, anger turns to action…
32B) The National Assembly Acts Women March on VersaillesIn early October 6,000 women march 13 miles in pouring rain from Paris to Versailles to confront the kingCrowd’s anger was directed at Marie AntoinetteWomen would not leave unless king agreed to return to ParisVideo: Chateau de Versailles
33B) The National Assembly Acts Louis XVI returns to Paris“Now we won’t have to go so far when we want to see our king”The royal family moves to the Tuileries palaceFor the next three years, they are virtual prisonersNote how the National Assembly reacted to peasant uprisings. The nobles in the National Assembly voted to give up privileges.
34(6.2) I. The French Revolution Unfolds A) Political Crisis Leads to RevoltB) The National Assembly ActsC) The National Assembly Presses OnwardD) Radicals Take Over
35C) The National Assembly Presses Onward The church is placed under state controlThe National Assembly follows the king to ParisWorked to draft a constitution and solve ongoing financial crisisIn order to pay off their debt, the Assembly votes to take over and sell Church landsRemember, 95% of France was Roman Catholic, so the Church had great power and was the largest land owner at the time
36C) The National Assembly Presses Onward The ‘Dechristianisation’ of FranceInvolved revoking church lands and destroying all signs of the religion, such as crossesThe threat of death and imprisonment forced French religious figures to resignIn its place, the government started civic cults such as the Cult of Reason and the Cult of Supreme Being
37C) The National Assembly Presses Onward Notre Dame Cathedral RansackedMany sculptures and treasures were destroyedThe cathedral was rededicated to the Cult of Reason, later to the Cult of the Supreme BeingThe Virgin Mary replaced by Lady Liberty on several altarsThe cathedral also used as warehouse for food storage
38C) The National Assembly Presses Onward The Constitution of 1791 Establishes a New GovernmentThe main task of producing a constitution is completed!Limited monarchy replaces a absolute monarchyNew Legislative Assembly has power to make laws, collect taxes, and decide on issues of war and peaceLawmakers to be elected by tax- paying male citizens over age 25
39C) The National Assembly Presses Onward The Constitution of 1791 Establishes a New Government
40C) The National Assembly Presses Onward The Constitution of 1791 Establishes a New GovernmentGovernment is made more efficient, replacing provinces with 83 departments of equal sizeOld provincial courts abolished and laws were reformedDid this complete the revolution?Those of the Enlightenment were satisfied, but it also put power in the hands of men with the means and leisure to serve in government
41C) The National Assembly Presses Onward Louis’s Escape FailsJune 1791, Marie Antoinette convinces King Louis XVI that it’s time to leave townWhy would the French people see this as treason?
42(6.2) I. The French Revolution Unfolds A) Political Crisis Leads to RevoltB) The National Assembly ActsC) The National Assembly Presses OnwardD) Radicals Take Over
43Rulers Fear Spread of Revolution D) Radicals Take OverRulers Fear Spread of RevolutionEuropean rulers refer to the French Revolution as the “French Plague”Border patrols (by surrounding countries) to maintain stabilityHorror stories spread by émigrés (nobles, clergy, and other who fled France)
44Rulers Fear Spread of Revolution D) Radicals Take OverRulers Fear Spread of RevolutionÉmigrés report of attacks on their privileges, their property, their religion…even their lives!Enlightened rulers turn against France – Catherine the Great burns Voltaire’s letters and locks up critics“When ancient opinions and rules of life are taken away…we have no compass to govern us”
45Threats Come from Abroad D) Radicals Take OverThreats Come from AbroadWhen news of the king’s failed escape reaches other countries, there is talk of interventionAugust 1791, king of Prussia and the emperor of Austria (who is also Marie Antoinette’s brother) issues Declaration of PilnitzThe declaration stated Austria would go to war if and only if all the other major European powers also went to war with France. Leopold chose this wording so that he would not be forced to go to war; he knew William Pitt, prime minister of Great Britain, did not support war with France. Leopold merely issued the declaration to satisfy the French emigres who had taken refuge in his country and were calling for foreign interference in their homeland.
46Threats Come from Abroad D) Radicals Take OverThreats Come from AbroadThis “declaration” threatens to intervene to protect the French monarchy, but was it a bluff?Revolutionaries in France now prepare for warNo one was going to stop their movement and it was FULL STEAM AHEAD!
47D) Radicals Take Over Radicals Fight for Power and Declare War October 1791, France’s Legislative Assembly takes officeSurvives less than a yearAssignats, the revolutionary currency, drops in value, causing prices to riseResults in hoarding, food shortagesSans-culottes demand a republic…a government ruled by elected representatives instead of a monarchThe National Assembly Declares War on Tyranny