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A) People should never take part in political revolution B) People should take part in political revolution only if their family is in danger. C) People.

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Presentation on theme: "A) People should never take part in political revolution B) People should take part in political revolution only if their family is in danger. C) People."— Presentation transcript:

1 A) People should never take part in political revolution B) People should take part in political revolution only if their family is in danger. C) People should take part in political revolution only if their basic human rights are not met. D) People should take part in political revolution Before we begin…. Which of the following statements do you most agree with?

2 What were the causes and effects of the French Revolution, and how did the revolution lead to the Napoleonic era? La Marseillaise, French National Anthem FOCUS video

3 Four Segments of this Unit What were the causes and effects of the French Revolution, and how did the revolution lead to the Napoleonic era? Section 1: On the Eve of Revolution Section 2: The French Revolution Unfolds Section 3: Radical Days of the Revolution Section 4: The Age of Napoleon

4 Storming of the Bastille, a prison in Paris Was a symbol of royal power in the 1700s, used for political prisoners There will be plenty of visuals The king could arrest anyone on a secret warrant and keep them there without trial

5 (6.1) I. On the Eve of Revolution  A) French Society Divided  B) Financial Troubles  C) Louis XIV calls the Estates-General  D) Parisians Storm the Bastille

6 A) French Society Divided  26 million French citizens  Still clinging to an outdated social system from the Middle Ages  Ancien régime (old order) was divided into three social classes (estates) How did France look in 1789?  First Estate, Second Estate, and the Third Estate

7 The Three Estates The First Estate: Clergy (100,000) Church owned about 10% of the land, collected tithes, and paid no direct taxes to the state High church leaders such as bishops and abbots lived very well Some social services provided (Nuns, monks, and priests ran schools, hospitals, and orphanages) Remember that the Enlightenment targeted church for reform… criticizing the idleness of some clergy, the church’s interference in politics, and intolerance of dissent Cleric, Knight, and Workman In response many in this class criticized the Enlightenment for undermining religion and moral order

8 The Three Estates The Second Estate: Nobility (300,000) Only 0.5% of the population Members of the Second Estate Rights included top jobs in government, the army, the courts, and the Church Although they owned land, they had little financial income As prices began to rise, they felt the pinch Feared losing their traditional privileges, especially freedom from paying taxes

9 The Three Estates The Third Estate: ‘Everybody else’ The most diverse social class Two ‘layers’ – Bourgeoisie and rural peasants Bourgeoisie included: bankers, merchants, and manufacturers, lawyers, doctors, journalists, and professors Rural peasants were the bulk of the Third Estate Members of the Third Estate

10 The Three Estates The Third Estate: ‘Everybody else’ The most diverse social class, two ‘layers’ – Bourgeoisie and rural peasants Bourgeoisie included: bankers, merchants, manufacturers, lawyers, doctors, journalists, and professors Rural peasants were the bulk of the Third Estate Urban poor were unemployed Members of the Third Estate The poorest members were urban workers (apprentices, journeymen) in printing and cloth making

11 What was the Third Estate? “1. What is the Third Estate? Everything 2. What has it been until now in the political order? Nothing 3. What does it want to be? Something.” Abbé Emmanuel Sieyés The vast Third Estate- peasants, dentists, laborers, and more- comprising more than 95% of France, was now ready to fight for equality

12 Trouble begins to brew Whether rich or poor, members of the Third Estate resented privileges by their “social betters.” Although wealthy bourgeois families could buy political office, the best jobs were still reserved for nobles. Urban workers earned miserable wages. Even the smallest increase in the price of bread, brought the threat of greater hunger or even starvation.

13 Trouble begins to brew  First and Second Estates paid no taxes  Peasants burdened by taxes on everything from land to soap to salt How does the cartoonist portray the Third Estate? What were the differences among the social classes in pre-revolutionary France? taxes, money, land, and jobs available

14 Follow-Up from Yesterday  To what estate did most of the French population belong?  How did the lives of the clergy and nobles differ from members of the Third Estate? the Third Estate The clergy and nobles paid almost no taxes, while Third Estate paid taxes on almost everything. Many of the clergy and nobles were wealthy and occupied positions of influence, while most of the Third Estate was poor and powerless.

15 (6.1) I. On the Eve of Revolution  A) French Society Divided  B) Financial Troubles  C) Louis XIV calls the Estates-General  D) Parisians Storm the Bastille

16  One of the causes of the economic troubles was mushrooming financial crisis due to years of deficit spending. So what is deficit spending? B) Financial Troubles  Debt from the Seven Years War and lavish court  Bad harvests sent food prices soaring National Debt Soars

17  Louis XVI chooses Jacques Necker as his financial advisor Economic Reform Fails  Necker urged king to reduce extravagant court spending, reform government, and abolish tariffs on trade  Nobles and high clergy were outraged and forced King Louis XVI to dismiss him  Pressure for reform mounted, wealthy and powerful classes demand that king to summon the Estates-General  Also proposed taxing the First and Second Estates

18  At the end of 1788, France is on the verge of bankruptcy  Bread riots are spreading  Nobles (the Second Estate) are afraid of taxes, begin to denounce ‘royal tyranny’  King Louis XVI tells the Three Estates to prepare their cahiers (notebooks) which lists their grievances  In other words...“bring it on” Louis XVI Calls the Estates-General the Estates-General hadn’t been called for 175 years

19  Many cahiers called for reforms such as fairer taxes, freedom of the press, or regular meetings of the E-G  Tensions rise: Tax collectors were “bloodsuckers of the nation who drink the tears of the unfortunate from goblets of gold.” -The courts of nobles were “vampires sucking the last drop of blood” from the people. Estates Prepare Grievance Notebooks  Delegates take the Tennis Court Oath, swore “never to separate and to meet wherever the circumstances might require until we have established a sound and just constitution.”

20 “People have a natural right to life, liberty, and property. Rulers have a responsibility to protect these rights. People have the right to change a government that fails to do so.” Remember John Locke…. Do you see how this quote relates to the events of the meeting of the Estates-General?

21  What three factors led to the start of the French Revolution? Circle back... social inequalities economic troubles inspiring Enlightenment ideas

22  Reform-minded clergy and nobles join the Assembly and advocate change  Louis XVI becomes concerned, orders royal troops to streets of Paris  Crowds gather outside the Bastille, demanding weapons and gunpowder Parisians Storm the Bastille July 14, 1789 – “Bastille Day”  This ‘rage’ demonstrated a new sense of empowerment by Parisians

23 (6.2) I. The French Revolution Unfolds  A) Political Crisis Leads to Revolt  B) The National Assembly Acts  C) The National Assembly Presses Onward  D) Radicals Take Over

24 A) Political Crisis Leads to Revolt  Midway through 1789 and the country is experiencing the worst famine in memory  Starving peasants roaming the countryside, flocking to towns where they join those who are unemployed  Grain prices are soaring, people spending up to 80% of their income on bread  When no one is in control, rumors spread Europe stares at France in Disbelief

25 A) Political Crisis Leads to Revolt  Tales of attacks on villages and towns  “Government troops are seizing peasant crops”  Peasants unleash their fury on nobles trying to reimpose medieval dues  Set fire to old records, stealing grain from storehouses

26 (6.2) I. The French Revolution Unfolds  A) Political Crisis Leads to Revolt  B) The National Assembly Acts  C) The National Assembly Presses Onward  D) Radicals Take Over

27 B) The National Assembly Acts  In response to the Bastille stampede, nobles in the National Assembly vote to end their own privileges  Agree to give up their manorial dues, exclusive hunting rights, special legal status, and exemption from taxes Special Privilege Ends What are ‘manorial dues’ ? Peasants farmed small plots of land and owed rent and labor to their lord…most were not free to leave the estate.

28 B) The National Assembly Acts  Issued by the Assembly in late August  Modeled in part on America’s Declaration of Independence (13 years before)  Based on the writings of Locke and the philosophes, the constitution insisted that governments exist to protect the natural rights of citizens Declaration of the Rights of Man

29 B) The National Assembly Acts  All men were “born and remain free and equal in rights.”  They enjoyed natural rights to “liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.”  Furthermore, all male citizens were equal before the law  Every Frenchman had an equal right to hold public office Declaration of the Rights of Man

30 B) The National Assembly Acts  In addition, the declaration asserted freedom of religion and called for taxes to be levied according to ability to pay  “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”  But what about women?  1791: Olympe de Gouges demands equal rights in her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen Declaration of the Rights of Man

31 B) The National Assembly Acts  Nobles continue to enjoy gala banquets while people were starving in the streets.  By autumn, anger turns to action… But did the Nobles really listen?

32 B) The National Assembly Acts  In early October 6,000 women march 13 miles in pouring rain from Paris to Versailles to confront the king Women March on Versailles  Crowd’s anger was directed at Marie Antoinette  Women would not leave unless king agreed to return to Paris Video: Chateau de Versailles

33 B) The National Assembly Acts  “Now we won’t have to go so far when we want to see our king”  The royal family moves to the Tuileries palace  For the next three years, they are virtual prisoners Louis XVI returns to Paris Note how the National Assembly reacted to peasant uprisings. The nobles in the National Assembly voted to give up privileges.

34 (6.2) I. The French Revolution Unfolds  A) Political Crisis Leads to Revolt  B) The National Assembly Acts  C) The National Assembly Presses Onward  D) Radicals Take Over

35 C) The National Assembly Presses Onward The church is placed under state control  The National Assembly follows the king to Paris  Worked to draft a constitution and solve ongoing financial crisis  In order to pay off their debt, the Assembly votes to take over and sell Church lands  Remember, 95% of France was Roman Catholic, so the Church had great power and was the largest land owner at the time

36 C) The National Assembly Presses Onward The ‘Dechristianisation’ of France  Involved revoking church lands and destroying all signs of the religion, such as crosses  The threat of death and imprisonment forced French religious figures to resign  In its place, the government started civic cults such as the Cult of Reason and the Cult of Supreme Being

37 C) The National Assembly Presses Onward Notre Dame Cathedral Ransacked  Many sculptures and treasures were destroyed  The cathedral was rededicated to the Cult of Reason, later to the Cult of the Supreme Being  The Virgin Mary replaced by Lady Liberty on several altars  The cathedral also used as warehouse for food storage

38 C) The National Assembly Presses Onward The Constitution of 1791 Establishes a New Government  The main task of producing a constitution is completed!  Limited monarchy replaces a absolute monarchy  New Legislative Assembly has power to make laws, collect taxes, and decide on issues of war and peace  Lawmakers to be elected by tax- paying male citizens over age 25

39 C) The National Assembly Presses Onward The Constitution of 1791 Establishes a New Government

40 C) The National Assembly Presses Onward The Constitution of 1791 Establishes a New Government  Government is made more efficient, replacing provinces with 83 departments of equal size  Old provincial courts abolished and laws were reformed  Those of the Enlightenment were satisfied, but it also put power in the hands of men with the means and leisure to serve in government Did this complete the revolution?

41 C) The National Assembly Presses Onward Louis’s Escape Fails  June 1791, Marie Antoinette convinces King Louis XVI that it’s time to leave town  Why would the French people see this as treason?

42 (6.2) I. The French Revolution Unfolds  A) Political Crisis Leads to Revolt  B) The National Assembly Acts  C) The National Assembly Presses Onward  D) Radicals Take Over

43 D) Radicals Take Over Rulers Fear Spread of Revolution  European rulers refer to the French Revolution as the “French Plague”  Border patrols (by surrounding countries) to maintain stability  Horror stories spread by émigrés (nobles, clergy, and other who fled France)

44 D) Radicals Take Over Rulers Fear Spread of Revolution  Émigrés report of attacks on their privileges, their property, their religion…even their lives!  Enlightened rulers turn against France – Catherine the Great burns Voltaire’s letters and locks up critics  “When ancient opinions and rules of life are taken away…we have no compass to govern us”

45 D) Radicals Take Over Threats Come from Abroad  When news of the king’s failed escape reaches other countries, there is talk of intervention  August 1791, king of Prussia and the emperor of Austria (who is also Marie Antoinette’s brother) issues Declaration of Pilnitz The declaration stated Austria would go to war if and only if all the other major European powers also went to war with France. Leopold chose this wording so that he would not be forced to go to war; he knew William Pitt, prime minister of Great Britain, did not support war with France. Leopold merely issued the declaration to satisfy the French emigres who had taken refuge in his country and were calling for foreign interference in their homeland.

46 D) Radicals Take Over Threats Come from Abroad  This “declaration” threatens to intervene to protect the French monarchy, but was it a bluff?  Revolutionaries in France now prepare for war  No one was going to stop their movement and it was FULL STEAM AHEAD!

47 D) Radicals Take Over Radicals Fight for Power and Declare War  October 1791, France’s Legislative Assembly takes office  Survives less than a year  Assignats, the revolutionary currency, drops in value, causing prices to rise  Results in hoarding, food shortages  Sans-culottes demand a republic…a government ruled by elected representatives instead of a monarch The National Assembly Declares War on Tyranny

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