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Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 1 Systems of Neuromorphic Adaptive Plastic Scalable Electronics Bidder’s Workshop and Teaming Meeting.

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Presentation on theme: "Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 1 Systems of Neuromorphic Adaptive Plastic Scalable Electronics Bidder’s Workshop and Teaming Meeting."— Presentation transcript:

1 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 1 Systems of Neuromorphic Adaptive Plastic Scalable Electronics Bidder’s Workshop and Teaming Meeting March 4, 2008 Dr. Todd Hylton, Program Manager DARPA DSO

2 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 2 Introduction and Motivation

3 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 3 Motivation and Objective The SyNAPSE program seeks to break the programmable machine paradigm and define a new path for creating useful, intelligent machines von Neumann Machines Neuromorphic Machines Machine Complexity e.g. Gates; Memory; Neurons; Synapses Power; Size [log] Human level performance Dawn of a new age Dawn of a new paradigm “simple” “complex” Environmental Complexity e.g. Input Combinatorics [log] Program Objective A trade between universality and efficiency Problem As compared to biological systems, today’s intelligent machines are less efficient by a factor of a million to a billion in complex environments. For intelligent machines to be useful, they must compete with biological systems. Objective Develop electronic, neuromorphic machine technology that scales to biological level. Human CortexSimulated Human Cortex 15 Watts10 10 Watts I Liter4x Liters Lansner et al

4 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 4 Vision & Impact ICTransistor µProcessor & memory Programmable machines End of scaling Defect intolerant Architectural bottleneck Software limited No path to biologically competitive intelligence 60 years Increased component density Increased component function Defect tolerant Neuromorphic information, learning, cognition, understanding architecture Path to biologically competitive intelligence <<60 years The SyNAPSE program seeks to extend the development of modern electronics into a new revolutionary new era using a similar paradigm. “Cortical” Microcircuit Electronic Synapse “Cortex” Fabric Intelligent machines DARPA Sy NAPSE Historical Evolution of Modern Electronics Vision for the Future

5 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 5 Human NeoCortexNeuromorphic Electronics ~10 10 synapses/cm intersection/cm 2 in crossbar arrays w/ 100 nm pitch ~10 6 Neurons/cm 2 ~5x10 8 transistors/cm 2 in state of the art CMOS ~5 x 10 8 long range ~1 Hz ~30 Gbit/sec multiplexed digital addressing Biological-Scale Neuromorphic Electronic Devices Inspiration Conclusion: Gross statistics of biological neural systems might be realized in modern electronics.

6 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 6 Key Challenges and Goals

7 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 7 Key Goal: Electronic Synapse The electronic synapse performs computation, memory, and adaptation in a neuromorphic system. Computation occurs in the electron current (i=v*g) injected through the synapse conductance g between neurons in response to (spike) voltage v. Memory occurs as a slowly changing electrophysical property that modifies g. Neuromorphic adaptation (aka plasticity) occurs as g changes in response to the same voltages used for computation. Crossbar synapse Axonic electrode Dendritic electrode Soma

8 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 8 Key Goal: Spike Time Dependent Plasticity Pulse interference at the synapse Pre-synaptic Neuron Post-synaptic Neuron Neurons encode information as “spikes” and communicate to other neurons in both both forward (axonic) and backward (dendritic) directions. The time-relation between forward and backward spikes arriving at a synapse determines if the synaptic connection should be increased or decreased. Connection strength increases (decreases) whenever forward spikes are causally (acausually) correlated to backward spikes. t pre t post ΔtΔt synaptic potential time % change in synaptic conductance Δt = (t pre – t post ) 0 0 ++ --

9 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 9 Key Goal: Neuromorphic Architecture Possible approaches –“Bottom-up” based on neuro-psycho- physical models of biological systems –“Top-down” based on large scale neuro- informatics / connectomics –Artificial Neural Networks –First principles design –“Evolutionary” optimization of model structures

10 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 10 Key Goal: Electronic Implementation Chip fabrication –Novel materials and structures on CMOS Spike processing –Spike time encoding –Spike time dependent plasticity Connectivity –Hardwired –Addressed / programmable –On-chip / off chip Power Size Supports Neuromorphic Architecture

11 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 11 Key Goal: Large Scale Simulation Using programmable machines to design and test intelligent machines –Architectural design, validation, development –Chip design / validation –Mammalian scale simulations of systems and components –Functional performance testing in environments Large scale digital hardware –“Supercomputer” scale –Specialized hardware development may be appropriate –Rebuilding the current computer architecture “from scratch” is outside the scope of this solicitation

12 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 12 Key Goal: Training & Evaluation Environments Train and evaluate machine intelligence across capabilities found in mammalian species (10 6 range of brain size) Virtual environment for the evolution of intelligent machines Fill long-standing need for authoritative machine intelligence evaluation (Image removed)

13 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 13 Approach: Training & Evaluation Environments Sensory Perception Decision & Planning Navigation & Survival Task Area Features Cognitive Area Quantitative measures of complexity Objective measures of performance Easily scaled Human interaction “Abstract” cognition Identification/classification of spatio- temporal objects in animation or video Multi-dimensional complexity variability Core task of all cognitive systems Interaction in complex, dynamic environments. Comparison to small animal studies Exercises all levels of cognition Most difficult to score and scale (Image removed)

14 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 14 Disciplinary Integration Challenge Neuroscience Neuroinformatics Neurophysiology Neuroanatomy Neural models Neural simulation Animal models Computer Science & Electrical Engineering Large Scale Computation CAD Tools Design Validation Electronic Architecture VLSI CMOS Device Design Analog-Digital Asynchronous Sub-threshold neuromorphic Fabrication Test Packaging Materials & Physics Crossbars Electronic Synapses CMOS Integration Theory Information Computation Communication Cognition Learning Disciplinary Gap S yNAPSE must bridge the disciplinary gap (Image removed)

15 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 15 Program Plan and Milestones

16 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 16 Program Approach Measure Make Model Employ theoretical and empirical approaches constrained by practicality. Hardware Architecture Simulation Environment Sponsor a suite of complementary capabilities to build, train, and evaluate devices. Attack the problem “bottom-up” and “top- down” and force disciplinary integration with a common set of objectives. Top-down (simulation) Bottom-up (devices) Biological Scale Machine Intelligence Materials (e.g. memristors) Components (e.g. synapse / neuron) Circuits (e.g. center-surround) Networks (e.g. cortical column) Modules (e.g. visual cortex) System (SyNAPSE)

17 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 17 Program Components Hardware will likely include CMOS devices, novel synaptic components, and combinations of hard-wired and programmable/virtual connectivity and will support critical information processing techniques like spike time encoding and spike time dependent plasticity. Architectures will support critical structures and functions observed in biological systems such as connectivity, hierarchical organization, core component circuitry, competitive self-organization, and modulatory/reinforcement systems. Large scale digital simulations of circuits and systems will be used to prove component and whole system functionality and to inform overall system development in advance of neuromorphic hardware implementation. Environments will be evolving virtual platforms for the training, evaluation and benchmarking of intelligent machines

18 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 18 Program Outline Phase 1Phase 2Phase 3Phase 4 Emulation & Simulation Simulate large neural subsystem dynamics “Mouse” level benchmark (~ 10 6 neuron) Hardware Component synapse (and neuron) development CMOS process and core circuit development ~10 6 neuron single chip implementation “Mouse” level Architecture & Tools Microcircuit architecture development ~10 6 neuron design for simulation and hardware layout ~10 8 neuron multi-chip robot at “Cat” level ~10 8 neuron design for simulation and hardware layout “Cat” level benchmark (~ 10 8 neuron) Build Sensory, Planning and Navigation environments “Small mammal” complexity Environment Comprehensive design capability Phase 0 CMOS process integration System level architecture development Add Audition, Proprioception and Survival “All mammal” complexity Add Touch and Symbolic environments Sustain Preparatory studies only Program Phases 1-4 may be combined per the BAA instructions

19 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 19 Phase 0 Go No-Go Metrics Hardware Synaptic density scalable to > /cm 2 Operating speed >10 Hz Consumes < Joules per synaptic operation (at scale) Dynamic range of synaptic conductance > 10 with >3 bit resolution Synaptic conductance increase >1%/pulse for presynaptic spike applied somewhere within 80-1 msec before a postsynaptic spike Synaptic conductance decrease >1%/pulse for presynaptic spike applied somewhere within 80-1 msec after postsynaptic spike. 0%-0.02% conductance decrease if presynaptic spike applied > 100 msec before or after postsynaptic spike Maintains performance over 3 x 10 8 synaptic operations Architecture Specify and validate by simulation the function of core microcircuit assemblies using measured synaptic properties. The microcircuits must support the larger system architecture and support spike time encoding, spike time dependent plasticity, and competitive neural dynamics. ~ 9 months

20 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 20 Go/No-Go Milestones Set 1 Hardware Demonstrate all core micro-circuit functions in hardware Specify a chip fabrication process supporting the architecture with >10 10 synapse/cm 2 and >10 6 neurons/cm 2 Architecture Demonstrate a complete neuromorphic design methodology that can specify all the components, subsystems, and connectivity of a complete system. Specify a corresponding electronic implementation of the neuromorphic design methodology supporting > synapses, > neurons, mammalian connectivity, < 1 kW, < 2L Simulation Demonstrate dynamic neural activity, network stability, synaptic plasticity and self- organization in response to sensory stimulation and system-level modulation/reinforcement in a system of ~ 10 6 neurons modeled on mammalian cortex Environment Demonstrate virtual Visual Perception, Decision and Planning, and Navigation Environments with a selectable range of complexity corresponding roughly to the capabilities demonstrated across a ~10 4 range in brain size in small-to-medium mammalian species

21 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 21 Go/No-Go Milestones Set 2 Hardware Demonstrate chip fabrication of >10 10 synapse/cm 2, >10 6 neurons/cm 2 Architecture Design a neural system of ~10 6 neurons and ~10 10 synapses for simulation testing Design a corresponding single chip neural system of ~10 6 neurons and ~10 10 synapses Simulation Demonstrate a simulated neural system of ~10 6 neurons performing at “mouse” level in the virtual environment Environment Expand the Sensory Environment to include training and evaluation of Auditory Perception and Proprioception Expand the Navigation Environment to include features stressing Competition for Resources and Survival Demonstrate a selectable range of complexity corresponding roughly to the capabilities demonstrated across a ~10 6 range in brain size mammalian species

22 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 22 Go/No-Go Milestones Set 3 Hardware Fabricate a single chip neural system of ~10 6 neurons and package into a fully functioning assembly. Show “mouse” level performance in the virtual environment. Architecture Design a neural system of ~10 8 neurons and ~10 12 synapses for simulation testing Design a corresponding single chip neural system of ~10 8 neurons and ~10 12 synapses Simulation Demonstrate a simulated neural system of ~10 8 neurons performing at “cat” level Environment Add Touch to the Sensory Environment Add Symbolic Environment

23 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 23 Final Metric – Milestone Set 4 Hardware Fabricate a multi-chip neural system of ~10 8 neurons and instantiate into a robotic platform performing at “cat” level

24 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 24 Proposal Technical Requirements

25 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 25 Proposal Requirements (1) Describe an approach to developing an integrated neuromorphic architecture serving as a foundation for the development of intelligent machines. –Describe the base components of your architecture and their function. These base components may be the analogs of biological neurons, synapses and/or small assemblies of such elements. Describe the computational, communication and learning functions of these base components. –Describe one or more core micro-assemblies of the base components and their corresponding function. –Describe your approach for developing functional assemblies from the core assemblies. These assemblies should provide core cognitive functions such as sensory perception, motor control, executive control and others. –Describe your approach to integrate functional assemblies into complete cognitive systems including sensory perception, declarative learning and memory, procedural learning and memory, executive control, and motor function. –Describe any plan to incorporate neuro-anatomical/physiological data into the architecture.

26 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 26 Proposal Requirements (2) Describe a high-level, conceptual electronics implementation capable of supporting the neuromorphic architecture of (1) having –10 10 neurons –10 14 synapses –operating with temporal dynamics comparable to biological systems –total power <1kW –total volume <2L –interfaces for sensory inputs and motor outputs

27 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 27 Proposal Requirements (3) Describe an approach to developing nanometer-scale, plastic synaptic components consistent with (1) and (2). Multiple approaches are encouraged for this task. Describe an approach to developing electronic neuronal processing units (neurons) consistent with (1), (2) and (3). Describe an electronic coding, communication and synaptic update scheme consistent with (1), (2), and (3). Describe a plan of computer simulation/emulation to enable the near real-time simulation of neuromorphic systems up to 10 8 neurons and synapses. Describe a plan to obtain and import descriptions of neural systems from neuro-biological databases (as appropriate). Describe key technical challenges and approaches to achieving these goals and any other items in the critical path.

28 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 28 Proposal Requirements (4) Describe an approach for developing a virtual training and evaluation environment comprised of the following tasks. –A Planning and Decision (Game) Task that provides quantitative measures of complexity and objective and comparative measures of performance; –A Sensory Perception Task that provides quantitative measures of performance of identification/classification of spatio-temporal objects in animation or video; –A Navigation Task that captures the challenges confronted in navigating in complex, dynamic environments. The purpose of this task is to evaluate a collection of cognitive capabilities and to provide a point of comparison to animal studies. Describe a means to scale the complexity of these tasks over the entire range of mammalian intelligence (~10 6 range in brain size). Describe a capability for hosting the environment including hardware, software and system support. Describe an interface for interacting with the environment.

29 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 29 Proposal Requirements (5) Environmental tasks will require Adaptation in dynamic, uncertain, probabilistic environments that include partial, erroneous and sometimes contradictory information Response times that force speed-accuracy tradeoffs Knowledge Integration over –Different sources and times of knowledge acquisition; and –Multiple levels of perception, planning and reasoning. Interaction with other (human or machine) agents. Feedback based on –Reinforcement of generic, high-level goals –Supervision using a tutor (learning mode) Scalability to match system complexity and support incremental learning Scoring to provide quantitative measures of performance Benchmarking to provide comparative measures of performance.

30 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 30 Proposal Evaluation

31 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 31 Evaluation Criteria 1)Ability to Meet Go/No-Go Metrics 2)Scientific and Technical Merit 3)Value to Defense 4)Management Approach and Proposer’s Capabilities and Related Experience 5)Cost and Schedule Realism.

32 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 32 Ability to Meet Go/No-Go Metrics The proposal establishes clear and well defined research go/no-go metrics to be used as exit and entry criteria for Government approval to progress through phases of the proposed effort. The feasibility and likelihood of the proposed approach for satisfying the program go/no-go metrics are explicitly described and clearly substantiated. The proposal reflects a mature and quantitative understanding of the proposed go/no-go metrics, the statistical confidence with which they may be measured, and their relationship to the concept of operations that will result from successful performance

33 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 33 Scientific and Technical Merit Proposers must demonstrate that their proposal is innovative and unique, that the technical approach is sound, that they have an understanding of critical technical issues and risk, and that they have a plan for mitigation of those risks. A significant improvement in capability or understanding above the state of the art must be demonstrated. All milestones must be clearly and quantitatively described.

34 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 34 Proposers must demonstrate the long- term potential of successful research to radically change military capability or improve national security with a clear statement of the goals of their program, and a quantitative comparison with existing technology as appropriate. Value to Defense

35 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 35 Management Approach and Proposer’s Capabilities and Related Experience The appropriateness, effectiveness, and reliability of the management structure are appropriate to the diversity of tasks, technologies and partnering strategy. The qualifications of Principal Investigator and key Task Leaders are appropriate and support the overall management plan. The qualifications of the proposer’s key personnel are of adequate range, depth, and mix of expertise to address all technical and programmatic aspects of the proposal. The proposer's prior experience in similar efforts must clearly demonstrate an ability to deliver products that meet the proposed technical performance within the proposed budget and schedule. The proposed team has the expertise to manage the cost and schedule. Similar efforts completed/ongoing by the proposer in this area are fully described including identification of other Government sponsors.

36 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 36 Cost and Schedule Realism The objective of this criterion is to establish that the proposed costs are realistic for the technical and management approach offered, as well as to determine the proposer’s practical understanding of the effort. This will be principally measured by cost per labor-hour and number of labor-hours proposed. The evaluation criterion recognizes that undue emphasis on cost may motivate proposers to offer low-risk ideas with minimum uncertainty and to staff the effort with junior personnel in order to be in a more competitive posture. DARPA discourages such cost strategies. Cost reduction approaches that will be received favorably include innovative management concepts that maximize direct funding for technology and limit diversion of funds into overhead. The proposer’s abilities to aggressively pursue performance metrics in the shortest timeframe and to accurately account for that timeframe will be evaluated, as well as proposer’s ability to understand, identify, and mitigate any potential risk in schedule

37 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 37 Administrative Items

38 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 38 BAA Solicitation Schedule BAA –Estimated posting date – March 17, 2008 Proposal Due Date –May 2, 2008, no later than 4:00PM EST –BAA will remain open for 1 year Anticipated Contract Award –August 2008 Approved for public release, distribution unlimited

39 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 39 Proposal Format Proposals must consist of two volumes-technical and cost. Technical- Maximum of 55 pages including references, tables, and charts. Please do not include separate articles or CDs as these will not be used in the review process. Cost-contains a cover sheet, detailed cost break down, and supporting cost and pricing information. For detailed description of proposal format see the BAA at Approved for public release, distribution unlimited

40 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 40 Other Comments on the Proposal DARPA requests proposals for the full scope of development –All proposals must address all of the technical areas listed in the BAA –Proposals addressing only individual components of the overall program will be considered non-responsive Coherent integration and management of multidisciplinary research organizations is required. Structure proposals to reduce risk early and to give the government flexibility in task/phase funding Approved for public release, distribution unlimited

41 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 41 Teaming Website A teaming website has been created to facilitate the organization of teams to address all program component areas. Approved for public release, distribution unlimited

42 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited 42 Discussion Discussions are strongly encouraged during teaming and proposal formulation. Please submit questions by noon so that they may be answered during the FAQ segment of the workshop. Approved for public release, distribution unlimited


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