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Systematics of Soft Particle Production at RHIC: George S.F. Stephans Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lessons from (And some thoughts for the future)

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Presentation on theme: "Systematics of Soft Particle Production at RHIC: George S.F. Stephans Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lessons from (And some thoughts for the future)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Systematics of Soft Particle Production at RHIC: George S.F. Stephans Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lessons from (And some thoughts for the future)

2 XLII Rencontres de Moriond La Thuile, Italy 24-Mar-2007George S.F. Stephans Detector

3 XLII Rencontres de Moriond La Thuile, Italy 24-Mar-2007George S.F. Stephans Energy dependence of particle production: First RHIC physics result Theory 1999 Theory 2000 PHOBOS 2001 PHOBOS 2000 Theory 1999 Theory 2000 PHOBOS 2001 Phys.Rev.Lett. 88 (2002) Phys.Rev.Lett. 85 (2000) 3100

4 XLII Rencontres de Moriond La Thuile, Italy 24-Mar-2007George S.F. Stephans Impact of first measurement  Invalidated many of the theoretical predictions in existence  Provided support for further development of theories of parton saturation  If theory is validated, this process may dominate low-x physics at high enough energy, even in p+p  Implied that tracking and other measurements in heavy ion collisions at the LHC may not be as horrendous as previously thought  Furthermore, found that dN/d  per participant pair in Au+Au is equal to dN/d  in p+p at twice the center of mass energy (next slide).

5 XLII Rencontres de Moriond La Thuile, Italy 24-Mar-2007George S.F. Stephans A+A, p+p, & e + +e - energy dependence Phys. Rev. C74, (R) (2006) What will happen at the LHC TeV, TeV)? Correspondence between e + +e - and  s)/2 known for some time.

6 XLII Rencontres de Moriond La Thuile, Italy 24-Mar-2007George S.F. Stephans Pseudorapidity dependence  I PHOBOS Au+Au dN ch /d  Scale by N part /2 Shift to  =  - y beam PHOBOS Au+Au dN ch /d  / 6% central Effectively viewed in rest frame of one nucleus Phys.Rev.Lett. 91 (2003)

7 XLII Rencontres de Moriond La Thuile, Italy 24-Mar-2007George S.F. Stephans Pseudorapidity dependence  II Energy and pseudorapidity dependencies factorize Phys.Rev. C74 (2006) Nucl.Phys. A774 (2006) 113 Called “ extended longitudinal scaling ” and “ limiting fragmentation ”

8 XLII Rencontres de Moriond La Thuile, Italy 24-Mar-2007George S.F. Stephans Pseudorapidity dependence  III dN ch /d  / central data LHC prediction Acta Phys. Pol. 35 (2004) 2873

9 XLII Rencontres de Moriond La Thuile, Italy 24-Mar-2007George S.F. Stephans Pseudorapidity dependence  IV Au-Au data, h ± 0-40% centrality Systematic errors only  '=|  |-y beam v2v2 A similar effect is seen for elliptic flow However, v 2 at  =0 in 200 GeV Au+Au is claimed to approach the hydro limit What will happen at the LHC??? Phys.Rev.Lett. 94 (2005)

10 XLII Rencontres de Moriond La Thuile, Italy 24-Mar-2007George S.F. Stephans Centrality dependence  I  Impact parameter varies in heavy ion collisions: Not just “more of the same”  Large impact parameter  Few nucleons participate  Few collisions  Smaller average number of collisions per participant  Small impact parameter  Many nucleons participate  Many, many collisions  Larger average number of collisions per participant  Common claim is that “harder” (“softer” ) processes scale with collisions (participants). Relative abundance of “harder” processes should rise with beam energy.  Centrality dependence should change with energy

11 XLII Rencontres de Moriond La Thuile, Italy 24-Mar-2007George S.F. Stephans Centrality dependence  II Energy and centrality dependencies factorize Effect of “ harder ” processes?? Phys.Rev. C74 (2006) arXiv:nucl-ex/

12 XLII Rencontres de Moriond La Thuile, Italy 24-Mar-2007George S.F. Stephans Centrality dependence  III Phys.Rev.Lett. 94 (2005) Nucl.Phys. A774 (2006) Energy and centrality dependencies factorize even at p T ~4 GeV/c

13 XLII Rencontres de Moriond La Thuile, Italy 24-Mar-2007George S.F. Stephans Centrality dependence  IV 200 GeV p+p, Cu+Cu & Au+Au Midrapidity ratio of anti-particles over particles (“chemistry”) at most weakly dependent on system size 200, 62.4 GeV Cu+Cu arXiv:nucl-ex/

14 XLII Rencontres de Moriond La Thuile, Italy 24-Mar-2007George S.F. Stephans Particle production summary Star formation in galaxies follows a quite simple pattern and simple patterns often mean that there are only [a] few basic physical mechanisms at work.... We can now find out what these mechanisms are by measuring how star formation behaves with time and mass of the galaxy and compare that behavior to models. Kai Noeske UC Santa Cruz quoted in Science News 171, 121 (2007) Particle production in heavy ion collisions particle production energy, pseudorapidity, centrality, and p T

15 XLII Rencontres de Moriond La Thuile, Italy 24-Mar-2007George S.F. Stephans What’s next?  Fully incorporate all data, including p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu & Au+Au (over expanded range of centrality) into the systematic studies  Continue expanding analysis into new area of fluctuations, including flow (last talk) and search for rare events of various types  Continue expanding analysis into new area of correlations, including both inclusive (next slide) and relative to a high p T trigger particle

16 XLII Rencontres de Moriond La Thuile, Italy 24-Mar-2007George S.F. Stephans Clusters in particle production :clusters         Define K eff = effective cluster size i.e. number of particles/cluster PHOBOS Preliminary h±h± 200 GeV 0-10% central scale error 2 p+p Cu+Cu Particles produced in clusters of 2-3. Looking forward to doing systematics. arXiv:nucl-ex/

17 XLII Rencontres de Moriond La Thuile, Italy 24-Mar-2007George S.F. Stephans Conclusions  Many properties of single particle production in RHIC energies are describable with a small number of surprisingly simple scalings  Range from very basic such as total multiplicity to more complicated features such as elliptic flow  Dependencies on incoming energy, pseudorapidity, centrality, & p T factorize to a surprising degree  Onward to more complicated observables  (And eventually to

18 XLII Rencontres de Moriond La Thuile, Italy 24-Mar-2007George S.F. Stephans Collaboration Burak Alver, Birger Back, Mark Baker, Maarten Ballintijn, Donald Barton, Russell Betts, Richard Bindel, Wit Busza (Spokesperson), Vasundhara Chetluru, Edmundo García, Tomasz Gburek, Joshua Hamblen, Conor Henderson, David Hofman, Richard Hollis, Roman Hołyński, Burt Holzman, Aneta Iordanova, Chia Ming Kuo, Wei Li, Willis Lin, Constantin Loizides, Steven Manly, Alice Mignerey, Gerrit van Nieuwenhuizen, Rachid Nouicer, Andrzej Olszewski, Robert Pak, Corey Reed, Christof Roland, Gunther Roland, Joe Sagerer, Peter Steinberg, George Stephans, Andrei Sukhanov, Marguerite Belt Tonjes, Adam Trzupek, Sergei Vaurynovich, Robin Verdier, Gábor Veres, Peter Walters, Edward Wenger, Frank Wolfs, Barbara Wosiek, Krzysztof Woźniak, Bolek Wysłouch ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORYBROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY INSTITUTE OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS PAN, KRAKOWMASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NATIONAL CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, TAIWANUNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT CHICAGO UNIVERSITY OF MARYLANDUNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER 9 Current Ph.D. Students


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