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Developmental Psychology. Studying Development Major Issues –Nature vs. Nurture How much is heredity? How much is environment? How do the two interact?

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Presentation on theme: "Developmental Psychology. Studying Development Major Issues –Nature vs. Nurture How much is heredity? How much is environment? How do the two interact?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Developmental Psychology

2 Studying Development Major Issues –Nature vs. Nurture How much is heredity? How much is environment? How do the two interact? –Critical and sensitive periods Are some experiences especially important at particular ages? –Continuity vs. Discontinuity Is development continuous and gradual or progressing through distinct stages? –Stability vs. Change Do our characteristics remain consistent as we age?

3 Studying Stages: Jean Piaget Pioneer in Child Psychology Studied his own children (and others) to help answer the question “How does knowledge grow?” Suggested that children purposefully interact with their environment, learning and thinking in different ways through the stages of development.

4 Preoperational Stage: The child begins to represent the world with words and images. These words and images reflect increased symbolic thinking and go beyond the connection of sensory information and physical action. Formal Operational Stage The adolescent reasons in more abstract idealistic and logical ways. Sensorimotor Stage: The infant constructs an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with physical actions: progressing from reflexive, instinctual action at birth to the beginning of symbolic thought toward end of the stage. Concrete Operational Stage: The child can now reason logically about concrete events and classify objects into different sets. Figure –15 years of age through adulthood Birth to 2 years of age 2 to 7 years of age 7 to 11 years of age Piaget’s Four Stages of Cognitive Development

5 Studying Stages: Sigmund Freud Stages focused on erogenous zones –Bodily areas which are chief focus of pleasure –These areas focus of emotional energy during stages –Key to development is “follow the energy” Three aspects of each stage –Physical focus –Psychological Theme –Adult character types “fixated” at that stage

6 Phallic Stage Child’s pleasure focuses on genitals Figure 2.1 Latency Stage Child represses sexual interest and develops social and intellectual skills Anal Stage Child’s pleasure focuses on anus Genital Stage A time of sexual reawakening; source of sexual pleasure becomes someone outside of the family Oral Stage Infant’s pleasure centers on mouth Freudian Stages 6 yrs to puberty Birth to 1½ yrs 1½ to 3 yrs Puberty onward 3 to 6 years

7 Studying Stages: Erik Erikson Each stage characterized by conflict Each conflict has bipolar outcomes Individuals must experience both sides –Syntonic + (success) –Dystonic – (failure) Stages are never completely resolved Personality is a work in progress

8 Erikson’s StagesDevelopmental Period Trust vs MistrustInfancy (first year) Autonomy vs shame & doubt Infancy (1 to 3 years) Initiative vs guiltEarly childhood (3 to 5 years) Industry vs inferiority Middle and late childhood Identity vs identity confusion Adolescence (10 to 20 years) Intimacy vs isolationEarly adulthood (20s, 30s) Generativity vs stagnation Middle adulthood (40s, 50s) Integrity vs despairLate adulthood (60s onward) Figure 2.2 Erikson’s Eight Life-Span Stages

9 Newborn (0-1 month) Physical: 20” long; 7.5 lbs. Gross Motor: lifts chin Fine Motor: n/a Cognitive (Piaget): –Sensorimotor Period: The infant constructs an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with physical actions: progressing from reflexive, instinctual action at birth to the beginning of symbolic thought toward end of the stage. –Reflex activity –Premoral Language: Undifferentiated Crying Emotional and Social: endogenous smile; moro reflex, distress Stages: –Freud: Oral Stage –Erikson: Trust Vs. Mistrust

10 Newborns What can a baby do? –See, hear, smell, cry, smile, and respond to their environment Moro reflex: brisk, symmetrical response to falling sensation; baby throws his arms wide and grabs for mom (aka startle reflex) Babinski reflex: big toe flexes outward, other toes fan out when bottom of foot is stroked (aka plantar reflex) Grasping reflex: infant grabs hold of any object placed in their hand (aka palmar reflex) Rooting reflex: baby will open his mouth and turn toward the direction of anything that touches its cheek. Sucking reflex: infant will suck on anything placed in its mouth By two years of age, all of these reflexes will have disappeared, most are gone by four months of age.

11 The Newborn It’s not all just “buzzing, blooming confusion,” as William James proposed. Visual Acuity: Legally blind; can scan their environment and perceive some forms a few days after birth. Can reasonably see objects about 1 foot away. Scent/Taste: distinguish different odors, can distinguish between their mothers scent and that of other women Touch: sensitive to touch, if slow to respond Hearing: fairly well developed; prefer human voices to other sounds, can distinguish their mother’s voice from that of other females; prefer sounds that became familiar to them in their last weeks of fetal development Nifty factoid: –By the sixth month of prenatal development, the fetus is responsive to sound. They can hear their mother’s voice, and after birth prefer rhymes and stories that were read to them from this point onward.

12 Infant (2-6 months) Physical: 26” long; 16 lbs Gross Motor: lifts head and chest; sits with support (4 mos); rolls over (5-6) Fine Motor: reaches for objects (4); grasps objects (6) Cognitive (Piaget): –Sensorimotor Period –Premoral –Object Permanence: If we can’t see it, it doesn’t exist Language: Differentiated crying, cooing, babbling Emotional and Social: social smile (2), laughter (4), delight Stages: –Freud: Oral Stage –Erikson: Trust Vs. Mistrust

13 The Oral Stage Erogenous zone is the mouth Focus: satisfying hunger Pleasure from –Sucking –Swallowing –Biting Adult Manifestation: –crying, acting helpless, demanding satisfaction, and being "needy.“ (known as “oral-dependent” qualities) –over-eating, being overly talkative, smoking addictions, overindulging in confectionery, chewing on straws or gum, and even alcoholism (known as "oral dependent" qualities) –other symptoms include a sarcastic or "biting" personality (known as “oral sadistic” qualities)

14 Trust vs. Mistrust Predictability I am what I am given Children rely on caregiver Success:Failure: + Trust oneself/others + - Mistrust -

15 Infant (6-12 months) Physical: 29” long; 22 lbs Gross Motor: sit by self (7); stand with help (8); crawl (9); pull to stand up (12) Fine Motor: uses thumb to grasp (8); pincer grasp (12) Cognitive (Piaget): –Sensorimotor Period –Premoral –Object Permanence: if we can’t see it, you must have hidden it. Will search for object, but will not note changes in hiding place, even if it is obvious Language: imperfect imitation; first word (11); three words (12) Emotional and Social: attachment to significant other; differentiated emotional responses Stages: –Freud: Oral Stage –Erikson: Trust Vs. Mistrust

16 Moving from Infancy to Early Childhood Maturation- the internally programmed growth of a child. (sequence is universal, though times/ages are not) 2 months: Raises head 3 months: Rolls over 4 mos. Sit with support 6 mos. Sit without support 8 mos. Pulls up 9 mos. Cruising 10 mos Creeping 11 mos Standing 12 mos Walking

17 Moving from Infancy to Early Childhood Cephalocaudal Principle: the tendency for development to proceed in a head-to-foot direction. –Infants’ heads are disproportionately large Proximodistal Principle: states that development begins along the innermost parts of the body and continues toward the outermost parts. –Arms develop before hands and fingers

18 Environmental and Cultural Influences Diet: malnutrition not only stunts general growth and brain development, but also is a major source of infant death worldwide. Enriched Environment: infants need to interact with other people and suitable manipulatives (toys) Physical Touch: very important; ex: massaging infants accelerates their weight gain and neurological development Experience: if a child is not allowed to crawl/walk at will, they will do so later than the average infant Three Principles: 1.Biology Sets Limits: ex. No infant can be toilet-trained before the nerve fibers that regulate bladder control have matured 2.Environment can be powerful: nurturing environments foster growth 3.Biological and Environmental factors interact: enriched environments enhance brain development, which facilitates our ability to learn and benefit from our environment

19 Toddler (12-18 months) Physical: 32” long; 25 lbs Gross Motor: stands alone (13); walks alone (14); runs (18) Fine Motor: mature grasp (14); marks with crayon (18) Cognitive (Piaget): –Sensorimotor Period –Premoral –Object Permanence: 12 months: It’s not under this blanket, is it still here? 18 months: It’s not under this blanket, what did you do with it? Language: expressive jargon; 2-word sentences (18) Emotional and Social: separation anxiety (13-18) Stages: –Freud: Oral Stage –Erikson: Trust Vs. Mistrust

20 The Young Brain Birth: 25% of its eventual adult weight 6 months: 50% of its adult weight 5 years: 90% of adult size 1 st areas to mature are the deepest parts –Regulate basic survival functions Frontal cortex develops last –Fully develops around 22 years of age Neural Network Development

21 Representational Thought Def: the intellectual ability of a child to picture something in his or her mind. Generally demonstrated around 14 mos. Child’s intelligence has moved to being thought as well as action. Child can remember, process, and recreate things they have seen.

22 Toddler (18-24 months) Physical: 34” long; 27 lbs Gross Motor: kicks ball (24) Fine Motor: turns pages of a book (24) Cognitive (Piaget): –Sensorimotor Period –Premoral –Development of Schema: invention of new meaning through mental combinations Language: words; 2-3 word sentences Emotional and Social: differentiation of emotional responses Stages: –Freud: anal stage –Erikson: autonomy vs. shame and doubt

23 Changes in Thought A schema is a mental representation of the world. –Changes according to experience. –Applied to new experiences until the new experience can be fit into the schema (assimilation). –In order to include the new idea, we change the schema to fit the characteristics of the new object or idea (accommodation).

24 The Anal Stage Erogenous zone is the anus-buttocks region Focus: controlling bowel movements Psychological theme: self-control Pleasure comes from –Bowel movements –Holding it in Adult manifestation: –Anal-retentive character: stingy, with a compulsive seeking of order and tidiness. The person is generally stubborn and perfectionist. –Anal-expulsive character: has a lack of self control, being generally messy and careless.

25 Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt Mastery of Self-control (1 ½ - 3 ½) I am what I will be Children discover their independence Success Failure + Self-certainty + - Dependency, Shame -

26 Toddler (24-36 months) Physical: 38”; 32 lbs Gross Motor: walks up and down stairs well, rides tricycle Fine Motor: feeds self well Cognitive (Piaget): –Preoperational period: The child begins to represent the world with words and images. These words and images reflect increased symbolic thinking and go beyond the connection of sensory information and physical action. –Premoral Language: 900 words; 3-4 word sentences Emotional and Social: anger/temper tantrums Stages: –Freud: anal stage –Erikson: autonomy vs. shame and doubt

27 Early Childhood (3-6 years) Physical: height varies- approx. 48” Gross Motor: walks backward, throw/catch ball, swim, ride bicycle Fine Motor: writes letters, draws simple objects, ties shoes Cognitive (Piaget): –Preoperational period –Premoral Language: can be completely understood, read simple books, 2500 words Emotional and Social: validation; defiance Stages: –Freud: phallic stage –Erikson: initiative vs. guilt

28 The Phallic Stage Pleasure comes from penis/clitoris (focus) Theme: what it means to be a boy or girl Boys –Castration anxiety –Identification of the aggressor (father) –Oedipus Complex Girls –Penis envy –Blames mother –Electra Complex (castration complex ) Ends when child identifies with the parent of the same sex and represses its sexual instincts,

29 Initiative vs. Guilt Are ventures praised or punished? (3 ½ - 6) I am what I can imagine I will be Children given greater interactions and responsibility Success Failure + Purpose/Ambition + - Fear/Guilt – Self-Confidence Low Self-esteem

30 Middle-Late Childhood (7-10 years) Physical: height varies ” Gross Motor: active/able participation in sports of all kinds Fine Motor: writes print and cursive, draws detailed pictures, demonstrates dexterity Cognitive (Piaget): –Concrete-operational period: The child can now reason logically about concrete events and classify objects into different sets. –Conservation: The principle that a given quantity does not change when its appearance is changed. (age 7-8) –Concrete-operational moral reasoning: good understanding of rules – play to win – do not understand that rules can be negotiated Language: reads well, has an increasingly complex vocabulary, enjoys verbal humor Emotional and Social: continues to develop relationships independent of parents, still look for validation Stages: –Freud: phallic stage –Erikson: initiative vs. guilt

31 Latency Period Oedipus/Electra complex repressed Sexual energy sublimated Child identifies with parent of same sex, prefers to associate with them.

32 Industry vs. Inferiority Apprenticeship of life (6 - 10) I am what I learn to make work Children gain knowledge and skills Success: Failure: + Feelings of Competence + - Futility – Social Skills

33 Adolescence (11-19 years) Physical: achieve adult height Gross/Fine Motor: refine physical activity, demonstrates complete physical control Cognitive (Piaget): –Formal operational period**: The adolescent reasons in more abstract idealistic and logical ways. –Formal Moral Reasoning: after about 10 children's moral reasoning becomes autonomous – and they can begin to think about moral issues for themselves Language: reads on an adult level, understands the subtleties of language, enjoys verbal humor Emotional and Social: continues to develop relationships independent of parents, still looks for validation Stages: –Freud: genital stage –Erikson: identity vs. identity confusion

34 Piaget’s Stages of Development Data from adolescent populations indicates only 30 to 35% of high school seniors attain the cognitive development stage of formal operations (Kuhn, Langer, Kohlberg & Haan, 1977).

35 Piaget’s Stages of Development 1.Sensorimotor stage (Infancy). In this period, intelligence is demonstrated through motor activity without the use of symbols. Knowledge of the world is limited (but developing) because its based on physical interactions / experiences. Children acquire object permanence at about 7 months of age (memory). Physical development (mobility) allows the child to begin developing new intellectual abilities. Some symbolic (language) abilities are developed at the end of this stage. 2.Pre-operational stage (Toddler and Early Childhood). In this period (which has two sub-stages), intelligence is demonstrated through the use of symbols, language use matures, and memory and imagination are developed, but thinking is done in a non-logical, nonreversible manner. Egocentric thinking predominates 3.Concrete operational stage (Elementary and early adolescence). In this stage (characterized by 7 types of conservation: number, length, liquid, mass, weight, area, volume), intelligence is demonstrated through logical and systematic manipulation of symbols related to concrete objects. Operational thinking develops (mental actions that are reversible). Egocentric thought diminishes. 4.Formal operational stage (Adolescence and adulthood). In this stage, intelligence is demonstrated through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts. Early in the period there is a return to egocentric thought. Only 35% of high school graduates in industrialized countries obtain formal operations; many people do not think formally during adulthood.

36 Social Context Social factors influence performance on Piaget’s tests (Vygotsky) and development in general –Guidance from a parent, sibling, or teacher can help them solve the problems. –Zone of proximal development: the difference between what a child can do independently and what the child can do with assistance from adults or more advanced peers Example: –2 nd sibling effect: having older siblings around the house stimulates a younger child’s development (cognitive and physical).

37 Genital Stage Sexual interest begins to focus on members of opposite sex Aimed toward reproduction More investment of psychic energy in external object-choices rather than own body (theme) –Sexual partner –Children, social interests Begins with the onset of puberty

38 Identity vs. Identity Confusion Success: Failure: +comfortable with+ -identity confusion- self/others negative identity Adolescence ( ) Who am I? Teens develop sense of self and goals Never resolved “once and for all” Revisited during life transitions (graduation, job, marriage, parenthood, retirement). “to be normal during the adolescent period is by itself abnormal” -- Anna Freud

39 Beyond Puberty Erikson is the only early developmental psychologist who considered development to extend beyond puberty. Piaget’s final stage (formal operational) may or may not actually be achieved during a person’s lifetime. Freud theorized that the adult personality was, of course, represented by the genital stage, but that fixations began to manifest after puberty.

40 Erikson’s StagesDevelopmental Period Trust vs MistrustInfancy (first year) Autonomy vs shame & doubt Infancy (1 to 3 years) Initiative vs guiltEarly childhood (3 to 5 years) Industry vs inferiority Middle and late childhood Identity vs identity confusion Adolescence (10 to 20 years) Intimacy vs isolationEarly adulthood (20s, 30s) Generativity vs stagnation Middle adulthood (40s, 50s) Integrity vs despairLate adulthood (60s onward) Figure 2.2 Erikson’s Eight Life-Span Stages

41 Intimacy vs. Isolation Early adult (20 – 30) We are what we love young adults test out relationships and friendships, learn to compromise independence and accept responsibility Success: Failure: + Intimacy + - Detachment, promiscuity –

42 Generativity vs. Stagnation Middle Adulthood (30 – 50) Marriage, giving birth (to “care”) I am what I can produce start thinking about contributions to future generations Success: Failure: + expansion of ego + - stereotypical- vigor mundane

43 Ego-Integrity vs. Despair Late Adulthood (60+) Integration of all prior stages I am what survives me aged look back on life: crises, aspirations, accomplishments Success: Failure: +wholeness+-feelings of futility- satisfaction with lifedisappointment

44 Looking Back at Erikson Do other cultures go through the same stages? How are the stages affected by cultural changes within our society? –decline of families and extended families –nursing homes –respect for elders vs. ageism


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