2Studying Development Major Issues Nature vs. Nurture How much is heredity?How much is environment?How do the two interact?Critical and sensitive periodsAre some experiences especially important at particular ages?Continuity vs. DiscontinuityIs development continuous and gradual or progressing through distinct stages?Stability vs. ChangeDo our characteristics remain consistent as we age?
3Studying Stages: Jean Piaget Pioneer in Child PsychologyStudied his own children (and others) to help answer the question “How does knowledge grow?”Suggested that children purposefully interact with their environment, learning and thinking in different ways through the stages of development.
411–15 years of age through adulthood Piaget’s Four Stages of Cognitive DevelopmentSensorimotor Stage:The infant constructs an understanding of the worldby coordinating sensory experiences with physicalactions: progressing from reflexive, instinctual actionat birth to the beginning of symbolic thought towardend of the stage.Birth to 2 years of agePreoperational Stage:The child begins to represent the world with wordsand images. These words and images reflectincreased symbolic thinking and go beyond theconnection of sensory information and physical action.2 to 7 years of ageConcrete Operational Stage:The child can now reason logically about concreteevents and classify objects into different sets.7 to 11 years of age11–15 years of age through adulthoodFormal Operational StageThe adolescent reasons in more abstract idealisticand logical ways.Figure 2.3
5Studying Stages: Sigmund Freud Stages focused on erogenous zonesBodily areas which are chief focus of pleasureThese areas focus of emotional energy during stagesKey to development is “follow the energy”Three aspects of each stagePhysical focusPsychological ThemeAdult character types “fixated” at that stage
6Freudian Stages Birth to 1½ yrs 1½ to 3 yrs 3 to 6 years 6 yrs to pubertyPuberty onwardOral StageInfant’spleasurecenters onmouthAnal StageChild’spleasurefocuses onanusPhallicStageChild’spleasurefocuses ongenitalsLatencyStageChildrepressessexualinterestand developssocial andintellectualskillsGenitalStageA time ofsexualreawakening;source ofpleasurebecomessomeoneoutside of thefamilyFigure 2.1
7Studying Stages: Erik Erikson Each stage characterized by conflictEach conflict has bipolar outcomesIndividuals must experience both sidesSyntonic + (success)Dystonic – (failure)Stages are never completely resolvedPersonality is a work in progress
8Erikson’s Stages Developmental Period Erikson’s Eight Life-Span StagesErikson’s StagesDevelopmental PeriodTrust vs MistrustInfancy (first year)Autonomy vs shame & doubtInfancy (1 to 3 years)Initiative vs guiltEarly childhood (3 to 5 years)Industry vs inferiorityMiddle and late childhoodIdentity vs identity confusionAdolescence (10 to 20 years)Intimacy vs isolationEarly adulthood (20s, 30s)Generativity vs stagnationMiddle adulthood (40s, 50s)Integrity vs despairLate adulthood (60s onward)Figure 2.2
9Newborn (0-1 month) Physical: 20” long; 7.5 lbs. Gross Motor: lifts chinFine Motor: n/aCognitive (Piaget):Sensorimotor Period: The infant constructs an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with physical actions: progressing from reflexive, instinctual action at birth to the beginning of symbolic thought toward end of the stage.Reflex activityPremoralLanguage: Undifferentiated CryingEmotional and Social: endogenous smile; moro reflex, distressStages:Freud: Oral StageErikson: Trust Vs. Mistrust
10Newborns What can a baby do? See, hear, smell, cry, smile, and respond to their environmentMoro reflex: brisk, symmetrical response to falling sensation; baby throws his arms wide and grabs for mom (aka startle reflex)Babinski reflex: big toe flexes outward, other toes fan out when bottom of foot is stroked (aka plantar reflex)Grasping reflex: infant grabs hold of any object placed in their hand (aka palmar reflex)Rooting reflex: baby will open his mouth and turn toward the direction of anything that touches its cheek.Sucking reflex: infant will suck on anything placed in its mouthBy two years of age, all of these reflexes will have disappeared, most are gone by four months of age.
11The NewbornIt’s not all just “buzzing, blooming confusion,” as William James proposed.Visual Acuity: Legally blind; can scan their environment and perceive some forms a few days after birth. Can reasonably see objects about 1 foot away.Scent/Taste: distinguish different odors, can distinguish between their mothers scent and that of other womenTouch: sensitive to touch, if slow to respondHearing: fairly well developed; prefer human voices to other sounds, can distinguish their mother’s voice from that of other females; prefer sounds that became familiar to them in their last weeks of fetal developmentNifty factoid:By the sixth month of prenatal development, the fetus is responsive to sound. They can hear their mother’s voice, and after birth prefer rhymes and stories that were read to them from this point onward.
12Infant (2-6 months) Physical: 26” long; 16 lbs Gross Motor: lifts head and chest; sits with support (4 mos); rolls over (5-6)Fine Motor: reaches for objects (4); grasps objects (6)Cognitive (Piaget):Sensorimotor PeriodPremoralObject Permanence: If we can’t see it, it doesn’t existLanguage: Differentiated crying, cooing, babblingEmotional and Social: social smile (2), laughter (4), delightStages:Freud: Oral StageErikson: Trust Vs. Mistrust
13The Oral Stage Erogenous zone is the mouth Focus: satisfying hunger Pleasure fromSuckingSwallowingBitingAdult Manifestation:crying, acting helpless, demanding satisfaction, and being "needy.“ (known as “oral-dependent” qualities)over-eating, being overly talkative, smoking addictions, overindulging in confectionery, chewing on straws or gum, and even alcoholism (known as "oral dependent" qualities)other symptoms include a sarcastic or "biting" personality (known as “oral sadistic” qualities)
14Trust vs. Mistrust Predictability I am what I am given Children rely on caregiverSuccess: Failure:+ Trust oneself/others Mistrust -
15Infant (6-12 months) Physical: 29” long; 22 lbs Gross Motor: sit by self (7); stand with help (8); crawl (9); pull to stand up (12)Fine Motor: uses thumb to grasp (8); pincer grasp (12)Cognitive (Piaget):Sensorimotor PeriodPremoralObject Permanence: if we can’t see it, you must have hidden it. Will search for object, but will not note changes in hiding place, even if it is obviousLanguage: imperfect imitation; first word (11); three words (12)Emotional and Social: attachment to significant other; differentiated emotional responsesStages:Freud: Oral StageErikson: Trust Vs. Mistrust
16Moving from Infancy to Early Childhood Maturation- the internally programmed growth of a child. (sequence is universal, though times/ages are not)8 mos.Pulls up2 months:Raises head3 months:Rolls over9 mos.Cruising12 mosWalking10 mosCreeping4 mos.Sit with support6 mos.Sit without support11 mosStanding
17Moving from Infancy to Early Childhood Cephalocaudal Principle: the tendency for development to proceed in a head-to-foot direction.Infants’ heads are disproportionately largeProximodistal Principle: states that development begins along the innermost parts of the body and continues toward the outermost parts.Arms develop before hands and fingers
18Environmental and Cultural Influences Diet: malnutrition not only stunts general growth and brain development, but also is a major source of infant death worldwide.Enriched Environment: infants need to interact with other people and suitable manipulatives (toys)Physical Touch: very important; ex: massaging infants accelerates their weight gain and neurological developmentExperience: if a child is not allowed to crawl/walk at will, they will do so later than the average infantThree Principles:Biology Sets Limits: ex. No infant can be toilet-trained before the nerve fibers that regulate bladder control have maturedEnvironment can be powerful: nurturing environments foster growthBiological and Environmental factors interact: enriched environments enhance brain development, which facilitates our ability to learn and benefit from our environment
19Toddler (12-18 months) Physical: 32” long; 25 lbs Gross Motor: stands alone (13); walks alone (14); runs (18)Fine Motor: mature grasp (14); marks with crayon (18)Cognitive (Piaget):Sensorimotor PeriodPremoralObject Permanence:12 months: It’s not under this blanket, is it still here?18 months: It’s not under this blanket, what did you do with it?Language: expressive jargon; 2-word sentences (18)Emotional and Social: separation anxiety (13-18)Stages:Freud: Oral StageErikson: Trust Vs. Mistrust
20The Young Brain Birth: 25% of its eventual adult weight 6 months: 50% of its adult weight5 years: 90% of adult size1st areas to mature are the deepest partsRegulate basic survival functionsFrontal cortex develops lastFully develops around 22 years of ageNeural Network Development
21Representational Thought Def: the intellectual ability of a child to picture something in his or her mind.Generally demonstrated around 14 mos.Child’s intelligence has moved to being thought as well as action.Child can remember, process, and recreate things they have seen.
22Toddler (18-24 months) Physical: 34” long; 27 lbs Gross Motor: kicks ball (24)Fine Motor: turns pages of a book (24)Cognitive (Piaget):Sensorimotor PeriodPremoralDevelopment of Schema: invention of new meaning through mental combinationsLanguage: words; 2-3 word sentencesEmotional and Social: differentiation of emotional responsesStages:Freud: anal stageErikson: autonomy vs. shame and doubt
23Changes in Thought A schema is a mental representation of the world. Changes according to experience.Applied to new experiences until the new experience can be fit into the schema (assimilation).In order to include the new idea, we change the schema to fit the characteristics of the new object or idea (accommodation).
24The Anal Stage Erogenous zone is the anus-buttocks region Focus: controlling bowel movementsPsychological theme: self-controlPleasure comes fromBowel movementsHolding it inAdult manifestation:Anal-retentive character: stingy, with a compulsive seeking of order and tidiness. The person is generally stubborn and perfectionist.Anal-expulsive character: has a lack of self control, being generally messy and careless.
25Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt Mastery of Self-control (1 ½ - 3 ½)I am what I will beChildren discover their independenceSuccess Failure+ Self-certainty + - Dependency, Shame -
26Toddler (24-36 months) Physical: 38”; 32 lbs Gross Motor: walks up and down stairs well, rides tricycleFine Motor: feeds self wellCognitive (Piaget):Preoperational period: The child begins to represent the world with words and images. These words and images reflect increased symbolic thinking and go beyond the connection of sensory information and physical action.PremoralLanguage: 900 words; 3-4 word sentencesEmotional and Social: anger/temper tantrumsStages:Freud: anal stageErikson: autonomy vs. shame and doubt
27Early Childhood (3-6 years) Physical: height varies- approx. 48”Gross Motor: walks backward, throw/catch ball, swim, ride bicycleFine Motor: writes letters, draws simple objects, ties shoesCognitive (Piaget):Preoperational periodPremoralLanguage: can be completely understood, read simple books, 2500 wordsEmotional and Social: validation; defianceStages:Freud: phallic stageErikson: initiative vs. guilt
28The Phallic Stage Pleasure comes from penis/clitoris (focus) Theme: what it means to be a boy or girlBoysCastration anxietyIdentification of the aggressor (father)Oedipus ComplexGirlsPenis envyBlames motherElectra Complex (castration complex)Ends when child identifies with the parent of the same sex and represses its sexual instincts,
29Initiative vs. Guilt Are ventures praised or punished? (3 ½ - 6) I am what I can imagine I will beChildren given greater interactions and responsibilitySuccess Failure+ Purpose/Ambition Fear/Guilt –Self-Confidence Low Self-esteem
30Middle-Late Childhood (7-10 years) Physical: height varies ”Gross Motor: active/able participation in sports of all kindsFine Motor: writes print and cursive, draws detailed pictures, demonstrates dexterityCognitive (Piaget):Concrete-operational period: The child can now reason logically about concrete events and classify objects into different sets.Conservation: The principle that a given quantity does not change when its appearance is changed. (age 7-8)Concrete-operational moral reasoning: good understanding of rules – play to win – do not understand that rules can be negotiatedLanguage: reads well, has an increasingly complex vocabulary, enjoys verbal humorEmotional and Social: continues to develop relationships independent of parents, still look for validationStages:Freud: phallic stageErikson: initiative vs. guilt
31Latency Period Oedipus/Electra complex repressed Sexual energy sublimatedChild identifies with parent of same sex, prefers to associate with them.
32Industry vs. Inferiority Apprenticeship of life (6 - 10)I am what I learn to make workChildren gain knowledge and skillsSuccess: Failure:+ Feelings of Competence + - Futility –Social Skills
33Adolescence (11-19 years) Physical: achieve adult height Gross/Fine Motor: refine physical activity, demonstrates complete physical controlCognitive (Piaget):Formal operational period**: The adolescent reasons in more abstract idealistic and logical ways.Formal Moral Reasoning: after about 10 children's moral reasoning becomes autonomous – and they can begin to think about moral issues for themselvesLanguage: reads on an adult level, understands the subtleties of language, enjoys verbal humorEmotional and Social: continues to develop relationships independent of parents, still looks for validationStages:Freud: genital stageErikson: identity vs. identity confusion
34Piaget’s Stages of Development Data from adolescent populations indicates only 30 to 35% of high school seniors attain the cognitive development stage of formal operations (Kuhn, Langer, Kohlberg & Haan, 1977).
35Piaget’s Stages of Development Sensorimotor stage (Infancy). In this period, intelligence is demonstrated through motor activity without the use of symbols. Knowledge of the world is limited (but developing) because its based on physical interactions / experiences. Children acquire object permanence at about 7 months of age (memory). Physical development (mobility) allows the child to begin developing new intellectual abilities. Some symbolic (language) abilities are developed at the end of this stage.Pre-operational stage (Toddler and Early Childhood). In this period (which has two sub-stages), intelligence is demonstrated through the use of symbols, language use matures, and memory and imagination are developed, but thinking is done in a non-logical, nonreversible manner. Egocentric thinking predominatesConcrete operational stage (Elementary and early adolescence). In this stage (characterized by 7 types of conservation: number, length, liquid, mass, weight, area, volume), intelligence is demonstrated through logical and systematic manipulation of symbols related to concrete objects. Operational thinking develops (mental actions that are reversible). Egocentric thought diminishes.Formal operational stage (Adolescence and adulthood). In this stage, intelligence is demonstrated through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts. Early in the period there is a return to egocentric thought. Only 35% of high school graduates in industrialized countries obtain formal operations; many people do not think formally during adulthood.
36Social ContextSocial factors influence performance on Piaget’s tests (Vygotsky) and development in generalGuidance from a parent, sibling, or teacher can help them solve the problems.Zone of proximal development: the difference between what a child can do independently and what the child can do with assistance from adults or more advanced peersExample:2nd sibling effect: having older siblings around the house stimulates a younger child’s development (cognitive and physical).
37Genital StageSexual interest begins to focus on members of opposite sexAimed toward reproductionMore investment of psychic energy in external object-choices rather than own body (theme)Sexual partnerChildren, social interestsBegins with the onset of puberty
38Identity vs. Identity Confusion “to be normal during the adolescent period is by itself abnormal”-- Anna FreudIdentity vs. Identity ConfusionAdolescence ( )Who am I?Teens develop sense of self and goalsNever resolved “once and for all”Revisited during life transitions (graduation, job, marriage, parenthood, retirement).Success: Failure:+comfortable with+ -identity confusion-self/others negative identity
39Beyond PubertyErikson is the only early developmental psychologist who considered development to extend beyond puberty.Piaget’s final stage (formal operational) may or may not actually be achieved during a person’s lifetime.Freud theorized that the adult personality was, of course, represented by the genital stage, but that fixations began to manifest after puberty.
40Erikson’s Stages Developmental Period Erikson’s Eight Life-Span StagesErikson’s StagesDevelopmental PeriodTrust vs MistrustInfancy (first year)Autonomy vs shame & doubtInfancy (1 to 3 years)Initiative vs guiltEarly childhood (3 to 5 years)Industry vs inferiorityMiddle and late childhoodIdentity vs identity confusionAdolescence (10 to 20 years)Intimacy vs isolationEarly adulthood (20s, 30s)Generativity vs stagnationMiddle adulthood (40s, 50s)Integrity vs despairLate adulthood (60s onward)Figure 2.2
41Intimacy vs. Isolation Early adult (20 – 30) We are what we love young adults test out relationships and friendships, learn to compromise independence and accept responsibilitySuccess: Failure:+ Intimacy Detachment, promiscuity –
42Generativity vs. Stagnation Middle Adulthood (30 – 50)Marriage, giving birth (to “care”)I am what I can producestart thinking about contributions to future generationsSuccess: Failure:+ expansion of ego stereotypical-vigor mundane
43Ego-Integrity vs. Despair Late Adulthood (60+)Integration of all prior stagesI am what survives meaged look back on life: crises, aspirations, accomplishmentsSuccess: Failure:+wholeness+ -feelings of futility-satisfaction with life disappointment
44Looking Back at Erikson Do other cultures go through the same stages?How are the stages affected by cultural changes within our society?decline of families and extended familiesnursing homesrespect for elders vs. ageism