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1 Beyond the Great Wall Beyond the Great Wall Experiences with ETDs and Open Access in China and South East Asia Steve O’Connor University Librarian The.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Beyond the Great Wall Beyond the Great Wall Experiences with ETDs and Open Access in China and South East Asia Steve O’Connor University Librarian The."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Beyond the Great Wall Beyond the Great Wall Experiences with ETDs and Open Access in China and South East Asia Steve O’Connor University Librarian The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Steve O’Connor ETD June 2009 With research assistance from Christina Chau

2 2

3 3 OUTLINE Focus on China and Hong Kong Diversity of provinces as a context Demographics of publishing and collecting Drivers behind digital development in China Reform Context Future Directions and observations Steve O’Connor ETD June 2009

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5 Great Wall Great Wall as a metaphor  As a defender against the hordes  Largest internet user population Digital Control in China  On again, off again e.g. Blogs, Access  Power of the ISBN, or ISSN  Issued by Gapp ( General Administration of Press and Publication) Great Wall as a form of arbitrage stretching through the internet 5 Steve O’Connor ETD June 2009

6 ETD’s and Publishing Changing publishing environments in China  Influence of economic agreements in opening up markets for competition  Who owns Chinese publishing?  Future Groupings of Chinese publishing  What will ‘opening’ mean? Impact of neighbouring markets for ‘Greater China’  Taiwan, Macau, Hong Kong Steve O’Connor ETD June

7 7 Number of Books Published in China (By Province)

8 8 Source : National Bureau of Statistics of China – China Statistical Yearbook Province Number of Books Published (2007) Top 3 Shanghai16935 Jiangsu10735 Zhejiang6810 Beijing4916 Bottom 3 Qinghai422 Ningxia372 Tibet371 Median3407

9 9 Number of Books Published in China (By Province) Source : Number of books published : National Bureau of Statistics of China – China Statistical Yearbook Source : Population : National Bureau of Statistics of China. (2008). China population and employment statistics yearbook Beijing: China Statistics Press. Province Number of Books Published (2007) Population (2007) Number of books published per 1m persons Top 3 Shanghai ,580, Jiangsu ,250, Zhejiang681050,600,000134

10 10 Number of Newspapers Published in China (By Province) BLUE: Bottom Grouping RED: Top Grouping

11 11 Number of Newspapers Published in China (By Province) Source : National Bureau of Statistics of China – China Statistical Yearbook Province Number of Newspapers Published (2007) Top 3 Guangdong101 Xinjiang100 Shandong85 Shanghai Jiangsu Zhejiang Beijing Bottom 3 Tibet23 Hainan16 Ningxia15 Median55

12 12 Number of Newspapers Published in China (By Province) Source : Population : National Bureau of Statistics of China. (2008). China population and employment statistics yearbook Beijing: China Statistics Press. Province Number of Newspapers Published (2007) Population (2007) Number of newspapers published per 1m persons Top 3 Guangdong10194,490, Xinjiang10020,950, Shandong Shanghai Jiangsu Zhejiang ,670,000 18,580,000 76,250,000 50,600,

13 Raw number Trends? Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang very strong in Book and Magazine publishing  Yangtze River Delta.. High Population areas Guangdong, Xinjiang strong in Newspaper publishing but not per capita  Pearl River Delta and Far West Ningxia and Tibet are Lowest rankings in all communications  Population an impact Steve O’Connor ETD June

14 Population drivers Strongest official producers are in the Yantze River Delta Strongest Newspaper producers are Xinjiang and Shanghai by a good margin Clearly the intellectual production area is in the area Shanghai/Jiangsu/Zhejiang Statistics are distorted by the absence of unofficial private publishers data

15 New Reform Publishing in China  579 Book Publishing Houses  Unofficial estimates of private publishing houses at 10,000 (around 50% around Beijing)  2007 Total revenues of billion RMB less than many European major publishers  Average print run of 5,000  Each ISBN or ISSN costs between 15,000 and 50,000 RMB  To be re-structured into 6 or 7 Larger units  Private equity to 49%  By Contrast 31,821 publishers and 2653 internet publishers in the USA

16 16 Source : National Bureau of Statistics of China Steve O’Connor ETD June 2009

17 17 Source : National Bureau of Statistics of China Steve O’Connor ETD June 2009

18 18 Publishing in China

19 19 Publishing in China

20 20 Publishing in China

21 21 Publishing in China

22 22 Publishing in China

23 23 Newspaper Publishing in China (Top 3) Source : 國家統計局人口統計司 (Ed.) (1995). 中國人口統計年鑒 = China population statistics yearbook. Beijing: China Statistics Press. p.68. Province Population (1995) Han Nationality Other Nationality % of Han Nationality among Population Guangdong70,516,30070,054,500461, % Xinjiang17,056,7006,781,30010,275, % Shandong89,625,20089,190,200435, %

24 Tracking changes Orderly and disorderly change Growth in late ’80’s and early ‘90’s of media  Cultural Revolution  Tiananamen 1989 June 4 Even slower growth of ETDs slightly later Impact points  Reliability of data?  Official but no access to unofficial data  Other social and ethnic influences and changes Steve O’Connor ETD June

25 There are Universities and there are…. In 2007 there were 2321 Higher Education institutions ( or, 1908 Regular HEI’s) in China Project 211  107 Universities Commenced 1995 Project 985  39 Universities Commenced May 1998

26 26 Project 985 Universities No.ProvincesNo. of Institution 1 Beijing8 2 Shanghai4 3 Shanxi3 4 Hunan3 5 Tianjin2 6 Hubei2 7 Liaoning2 8 Jiangsu2 9 Shandong2 10 Guangdong2 11 Sichuan2 12 Chongqing1 13 Jinan1 14 Heilongjiang1 15 Zhejiang1 16 Anhui1 17 Fujian1 18 Gansu1 Total 39 Nine institutions west of Guangzhou and Hong Kong

27 27 ‘985’ Universities in China 8 Universities 4 Universities Nine institutions west of Guangzhou and Hong Kong

28 Statistics of research students in China 28 Degrees Awarded ( 授予学位数 ) Doctor's Degrees 33,30539,592 ( 博 士 ) Master's Degree 214,488268,154 ( 硕 士 ) Total number of Postgraduates 247,793307,746 ( 研究生 )

29 Chinese Digital Aggregators CNKI owned by Tsinghua Tonfang (Holdings) Wanfang currently owned by Ministry of Education Apabi Owned by Peking Holdings Steve O’Connor ETD June

30 Theses and Dissertations in Wanfang

31 Doctoral Theses by Province (as based on Wanfang Data) Beijing14231 Shanghai13426 Jiangsu8068 Inner Mongolia67 Hebei61 Xinjiang47 median2806

32 Steve O’Connor ETD June

33 33 Theses and Dissertations of Wanfang Data Source : Wanfang – based on message from Wanfang (dated 15 May 2009) 萬方數據學位論文統計(按年代) Statistics of Theses provided by Wanfang Data (By Year) 碩士全文 Master (Full-text) 博士全文 Doctoral (Full-text) 博士後全文 Post-Doctoral (Full- text) 碩士文摘 Master (Abstract) 博士文摘 Doctoral (Abstract) 博士後文摘 Post-Doctoral (Abstract) Total

34 34 Electronic Theses and Dissertations from Wanfang Data ,495 full-text/abstracts as of March % Doctoral & Post-Doctoral Dissertations Liu, Dingfei (Danny). Accessing Chinese Dissertations/Theses through Wanfang Data – Databases and Services. Powerpoint presentation at Forum on Chinese e-Contencts: e-books & e-Dissertations (23 rd March, 2007) (Retreved from the Web in May 2009) Steve O’Connor ETD June 2009

35 35 Theses & Dissertations in CNKI CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure) (http://www.cnki.net):http://www.cnki.net Major supplier of online resources on China, including electronic books, journals, theses and dissertations as follows: China Academic Journals Full-text Database (CAJ) 1915 onward ( most are retrospectively covered) records in total, daily update records China Master Dissertations Full-text Database 2000 onward, records in total China Doctor Dissertations Full-text Database 1999 onward, records in total, daily update 111 records China Core Newspapers Full-text Database 2000 onward, records in total, daily update 9719 records Steve O’Connor ETD June 2009

36 What is really being collected? Doctoral Theses collected by CNKI and Wanfang Year 2000 plus but not all universities Essentially 985 institutions, or Top 39 Universities Highly likely that CNKI will take Wanfang over in near future; negotiations now very active Steve O’Connor ETD June

37 37 Theses & Dissertations in CADLIS Contains 250,000 ETD A&I, including 60,000 pre-16pages Tsinghua University: in charge of implementing CALIS-ETD project 80 member universities have built their ETD systems in local More than 10 universities have collected over 20,000 ETD-full-text in local system provides retrieval of metadata and browse of pre- 16 pages Steve O’Connor ETD June 2009

38 38 Theses & Dissertations in China Steve O’Connor ETD June 2009

39 39 Access to printed theses & dissertations in China NLC (National Library of China) (http://www.nlc.gov.cn)http://www.nlc.gov.cn Print  Deposit Library for doctoral dissertations published in China, starting from the year 1981 as based on government regulations ,000 types of doctoral dissertations in the collection.  Master theses and post-doctoral reports - Collection of Master theses from some local universities - with over ten thousand titles of master theses and post-doctoral reports  More than one thousand titles of overseas Chinese dissertations, e.g. - doctoral dissertations from Taiwan, and - some overseas Chinese graduate dissertation  The Center provides reading (use in the library) and photocopy service document delivery services. NLC also maintains a database on viewing dissertations  NLC Doctoral Dissertation Database Provides in library viewing of first 24 pages of over 60,000 types of dissertations No photocopying No downloading Source: Extracted from the webpage of NLC (National Library of China) (http://www.nlc.gov.cn)http://www.nlc.gov.cn Steve O’Connor ETD June 2009

40 Copyright and clearances Copyright for Chinese theses mostly held by authors but a small percentage by universities and even Advisor. Hong Kong is a mixed situation, some with authors and institutions holding copyright. Authors still required to give permission to make thesis available digitally on the internet IR’s quite strong Steve O’Connor ETD June

41 41 Access to electronic theses & dissertations in Hong Kong * Theses not included at this stage (will be added to IR in the future) Organisation Institutional Repositories of Individual Libraries Library Homepage of Individual Libraries ProQuest Dissertations and Theses 1City University of Hong Kong (CityU) With full-text  Full-text restricted to registered users 2The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK)  Full-text restricted to registered users  3Hong Kong Baptist University (HKBU)  Full-text restricted to registered users 4The University of Hong Kong (HKU) With full-text  With full-text 5The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) With full-text  With full-text  6Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) With full-text  With Full-text 7Lingnan University (LU)  with full-text 8Hong Kong Institute of E*ducation (HKIEd)  Steve O’Connor ETD June 2009

42 42 OpenDOAR: Asia IRs are represented in the category of Asia (listing on 2 pages) CountryNumber of Institutional Repositories 1Afghanistan1 2Azerbaijan1 3Bangladesh1 4China7 5Georgia1 6India35 7Indonesia2 8Israel2 9Japan76 10Kazakhstan1 11Korea, Republic of4 12Kyrgyzstan1 Source: From the webpage of OpenDOAR [http://www.opendoar.org/]http://www.opendoar.org/ Steve O’Connor ETD June 2009

43 43 OpenDOAR: Asia IRs are represented in the category of Asia (continued) CountryNos. of Institutional Repositories 13Malaysia7 14Pakistan2 15Philippines1 16Saudi Arabia3 17Singapore2 18Sri Lanka1 19Taiwan7 20Thailand1 21Turkey4 Total160 Source: From the webpage of OpenDOAR [http://www.opendoar.org/]http://www.opendoar.org/ Steve O’Connor ETD June 2009

44 44 Institutional Repositories of Hong Kong available via the OpenDOAR OrganisationsName of Institutional RepositoriesSize 1City University of Hong Kong (CityU) CityU Institutional Repository1773 items 2The University of Hong Kong (HKU) HKU Scholars Hub 3The University of Hong Kong (HKU) Hong Kong University Theses Online (HKUTO) items 4The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Institutional Repository (HKUST Repository) 3044 items 5 Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) PolyU Institutional Repository1075 items Source: From the webpage of OpenDOAR [http://www.opendoar.org/]http://www.opendoar.org/ Steve O’Connor ETD June 2009

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46 Beyond the Great Wall IR’s in China are not strong at all; not likely to be ETD in full-text will be centralised even more in CNKI Publishing reform in China will see amalgamation of publishers Seeking reform ( and control?) of ISBN’s and ISSN’s Digital Aggregators will grow …. and collecting across region increasing Impact on wider publishing environment promises change but …

47 Promises much…. “As long as officials are still appointed by the Administrator ( GAPP), policies are drafted by officials whose major concern is to avoid making political mistakes rather than radical changes, we cannot expect much” Dong Xiuyu, Veteran Publisher

48 48 謝謝大家 ! Xiexie Dajia


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