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East Asia in the Late Traditional Era

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1 East Asia in the Late Traditional Era
HIS 106 Chapter 19 East Asia in the Late Traditional Era

2 China’s Ming Dynasty 1368-1644 Ruled over earth’s most populous state
Possessed vast internal resources and advanced technology Had the best organized bureaucracy in the world for its time Had strong military

3 Ming Dynasty emerged when Zhu Yuanzhang, a military commander of peasant stock joined in revolts against China’s then Mongol rulers He over threw Mongols and captured most of China He became the Ming’s 1st emperor He took the name Hongwu in 1368

4 Hongwu Uneducated Suspicious of those who were educated like the scholar-gentry (advisors to emperors) Wished to revive Chinese civilization Needed scholar-gentry to do that Gave them high posts in government

5 Restored imperial academies and regional colleges
Reinstated civil service exam – competitive – that determined entry into public service Limited influence of scholar-gentry Sought to stop corruption at court

6 Absorbed the position of Chief Minister into role of emperor
Officials who failed at theirs jobs or were corrupt were severely and publicly beaten

7 Other Reforms of Hongwu
Wanted those at court to choose wives from humble families Limited number of eunuchs at court Exiled rivals for the throne to the provinces Later rulers did not enforce reforms

8 Tried to improve lives of peasants
Built dikes Extended irrigation systems Allowed peasants to own tax-free land Lessened forced labor demands Promoted silk and cotton cloth production as a supplemental source of income

9 However… Rural landlords had become powerful and privileged
They gladly loaned money to peasants When peasant missed a payment, landlords would take his land forcing the peasant to become a tenant laborer

10 Women They were subordinate to men as youths were subordinate to their elders Obedience enforced Imperial women could be influential at court when emperor was weak Non-imperial women were confined to the household

11 In all classes, women’s status was connected to their ability to bear sons
Upper class women may be taught to read and to write They were barred from official positions Non-elite women worked in many occupations

12 Main way to gain independence was to be a courtesan or an entertainer
Literate Accomplished in painting, music, & poetry Sex companions Lived in luxury More personal freedom

13 Agriculture, Population, & Commerce
Early Ming Era Economic growth Contact with those outside of China Population boomed because of better nutrition from new food crops Health improved People lived longer

14 By 1800, population was 300-400 million
Chinese product were in demand Merchants made good profits Government became rich from taxes and bribes In culture – the novel developed and fine arts became more impressive

15 Yunglo 3rd Ming emperor Sponsored expeditions conducted by eunuch Zhenghe 1405 – 1423 To S.E. Asia, Persia, Arabia, and E. Africa Huge fleet of ships used demonstrating a potential for global expansion No one else came close to this potential

16 Chinese people felt these voyages were a waste of money
Voyages stopped in early 1430s when Mongols attacked near Great Wall People felt money should be used to defend China Policy of isolation resulted

17 1390 – first decree limiting overseas commerce
Navy was allowed to decline

18 Europeans Attracted to China
Franciscan, Dominican, and Jesuit missionaries worked to make converts Jesuits tried to convert the court but gained access because of their technical skills and scientific knowledge Ex.: Matteo Ricci and Adam Schall They were thought to be barbarians

19 By late 1500s, Ming Dynasty was in decline
Inferior leadership Increased corruption Public works projects in disrepair Flooding Starvation Rebellion

20 Dynasty fell to Chinese rebels in 1644
No one was able to truly take control until the Jurchens or Manchus seized controll Nurhaci, their leader, established the Qing Dynasty – the last of the imperial dynasties

21 Qing Dynasty Some generals who had helped Manchus take power had second thoughts and revolted They were supported by Taiwan Emperor Kangxi put down the revolt and took over Taiwan in 1683, making it a part of China for the first time

22 Russians Threatened China from the north 1680s, Kangxi drove them out
As a result, Russians were excluded from northern Manchuria

23 18th century, Chinese once again confronted the Mongols and won
By 1800, the Manchu people of the Qing Dynasty had ruled successfully for almost 200 years They had: secure borders, peace and prosperity, and cultural and intellectual achievements

24 By 1900, the Qing Dynasty would be near collapse Why?
Couldn’t withstand incursions by foreign powers Unchanging, isolated, & closed society Felt superior to all others population kept growing

25 The Qing Dynasty finally collapsed in 1911

26 Japan 16th century – Nobunaga tried to bring peace and order to a country mired in civil war Daimyos were competing for power and that threw Japan into chaos It took a succession of 3 military leaders to finally restore unity and order

27 Nobunaga Was the first of these military leaders
Was a daimyo from a monor warrior household Determined to bring order Was one of the first daimyos to use firearms (acquired from the Portuguese)

28 Killed anyone who resisted him
Example: slaughtered thousands of monks and villagers at a Buddhist monastery who resisted him Deposed the last of the Ashikaga shoguns in 1573 ( a family in power since the 14th century) Nobunaga was killed in 1582

29 Toyotomi Hideyoshi Was the 2nd of the 3 generals to work for order and unity Became the master of Japan by 1590 Then launched 2 unsuccessful invasions of Korea Died in 1598

30 Tokugawa Ieyasu Was the 3rd general to fight for unity and power
Appointed shogun by emperor in 1603 Tokugawas remained in power for the next 2 ½ centuries Ruled from Edo (Tokyo) Controlled Honshu

31 Brought remaining daimyos under Tokugawa rule
The long period of civil wars had ended and political unity was restored

32 European Challenge Since 1543, Europeans missionaries and traders had visited Japan in increasing numbers Portuguese sailors had washed up on Japanese shores after a shipwreck in 1543 Traders exchanged Asian and European goods including firearms and printing presses for Japanese silver, copper, and handicrafts

33 The Japanese soon learned to make the firearms themselves and local wars changed forever
Roman Catholic missionaries arrived during Nobunaga’s campaigns He took the missionaries side against his Buddhist opponents

34 Jesuits were successful in Japan by 1580s, claiming to have converted thousands of Japanese
Hideyoshi was afraid converts would not be loyal to him He also feared Europeans would try to conquer Japan

35 In 1580s, official measures to restrict foreigner influence were taken
Christian missionaries were ordered to leave Japanese Christians were persecuted in 1590s Christianity was officially banned Remaining Christians went underground

36 Tokugawa Ieyasu and his successors broadened their campaign to isolate Japan from outside influence
From 1616 onward, merchants were confined to a few cities From 1630 onward, Japanese ships could not sail overseas From the 1640s, only Dutch and Chinese ships could trade at Deshima Island

37 Western books were banned
Isolationism was almost complete by the mid-17th century During the 18th century, the revival of neo-Confucianism that had flourished under earlier Tokugawas gave way to a school of National Learning based upon Japanese culture

38 The elite continued to follow Western development through the Dutch at Deshima

39 Korea and Vietnam Influenced by the Chinese Used Chinese ideographs
Modeled their government after China Accepted Buddhism and Confucianism Accepted Chinese thought about the universe, the state, and human relationships

40 They also saw themselves as separate peoples
Spoke non-Chinese languages Took pride in being non-Chinese

41 Korea Was tribal before 108 BCE
North taken over by Chinese, 108 BCE-4th century CE 4th century, 3 Korean states were set up Were periodically challenged by Chinese and Japanese Made cultural advances in poetry, literature, and pottery, p. 427

42 1392 - a Koryo general established a dynasty that lasted until 1910

43 Vietnam Heavily influenced by china to its north
Was at times under Chinese rule; ex: 111 BCE for the next 1000 years Followed Buddhism Married Chinese officials Treated by China as a border region High culture was for the elite

44 There were 10 major revolts while under Chinese rule
The last revolt led to Vietnamese independence Vietnam would never again be a part of China Governed by dynasties, p. 430

45 Dynasties usually run by military that established a centralized government until there was a breakdown of power 1442 – 1497 saw one of the strongest figures in Vietnamese history with Le Thanh Tong

46 Tong Established schools Introduced neo-Confucianism
Set up a rigorous examination system Established a legal code

47 Until 15th century, Vietnamese only inhabited the north
Southern part was inhabited by Malayan people engaged in trade and piracy Intermittent wars as people in overpopulated north began moving south

48 By 1757, Vietnamese lived in the north and the south
The south differed from the north Seen as a frontier society Less Confucianist Less educated Had minority groups of Islamic Cham people and Cambodians

49 There were tensions between the north and the south 19th century
North was overpopulated and educated South was educationally backwards, had a diverse population, was poorly represented in government, and less developed trade and crafts

50 Vietnamese government ruled over self-sufficient villages
Vietnam, like China and Japan, were not prepared to encounter the West

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