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Urban Reforms Actual Responses to the Industrial Revolution: Europe After 1830.

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Presentation on theme: "Urban Reforms Actual Responses to the Industrial Revolution: Europe After 1830."— Presentation transcript:

1 Urban Reforms Actual Responses to the Industrial Revolution: Europe After 1830

2 The New Industrial City

3 Early 19 th Century London

4 Worker Housing In Manchester

5 Foundation of the Factory System? 1.Wealthy (investors and owners) 2.Mid Level (factory managers, supervisors) 3. Low Level (machine operators)

6 Improvement of Health and Living Conditions

7

8 Public Health Act of 1875 Pave, light, clean town streets Appoint a Medical Officer of Health Appoint a Surveyor and Sanitary Inspector

9 Late 1800’s – Urban Conditions Improve Dramatically Finding uncontaminated water supplies Water purification Sewers built Streets swept

10 Public Bath Houses

11

12 ?

13 Soup Kitchens

14 Metropolitan Police Force

15 A government inspector visiting a factory in England to regulate child labor in the mid- 1800s

16 The Reform Act of 1832

17 Child Labor

18 Why Employers Preferred Hiring Women and Children Men expected higher wages Men wouldn’t take orders as readily Unskilled nature of factory jobs deemed “inappropriate” for men

19 Child Labor in the Mines Child “hurriers”

20 Dangers? Drowning from underground floods Suffocation from poisonous gasses Frequent explosions (candle flames) Cave-ins

21 1833 – Althorp’s Act Banned employment of children under 9 yrs old 9 hour workday for children hour workday for children Forbade night work

22 Other Reforms Mine owners couldn’t employ women, girls, or boys under ten years old Working hours of women and children further limited Fencing around machines Mandatory school attendance

23 Factory Workers At Home

24 1700’s – Trade Clubs 1824 – Unions legal again 1868 – Trade Union Congress 1870’s – Unions win the right to strike End of 1800’s – “New Unions”

25 Unions: The Good, The Bad Strength through unity Threat of a strike (bargaining tool) Social security measures Bargaining power Lack of government and legal support Union funds not legally protected Picketing was illegal Coercion

26 Hold the Fort We meet today in freedom’s cause And raise our voices high; We’ll join our hands in union strong To battle or to die.

27 Hold the Fort Look, my comrades, see the union Banners waving high Reinforcements now appearing Victory is nigh.

28 Hold the Fort CHORUS: Hold the fort for we are coming. Union men, be strong! Side by side we battle onward; Victory will come.

29 Hold the Fort See our numbers still increasing; Hear the bugle blow. By our union we shall triumph Over every foe.

30 Hold the Fort Fierce and long the battle rages But we will not fear. Help will come whene’er it’s needed Cheer, my comrades, cheer.

31 Hold the Fort CHORUS: Hold the fort for we are coming. Union men, be strong! Side by side we battle onward; Victory will come.

32 An allegory of class struggle

33

34 Communism Is Born!

35 The Communist Manifesto (1848) “Workers of the world unite! You have nothing to lose but your chains.” Wealth and power? –Bourgeoisie (upper and upper- middle classes) –Proletariat (working class) Dictatorship of the Proletariat “From each according to his ability, to each according to his need.”

36 Socialism Grows London (1864) – International Workingmen’s Association Germany (1875) – German Socialist Democratic Party Belgium (1879) – Belgian Socialist Party France (1905) – Socialist Party Britain (1901) – Labour Party*


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