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Chapter 16.1: France before the Revolution France Consolidates France: Consolidating the Nation Turmoil of civil war ends with consolidation of royal power.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16.1: France before the Revolution France Consolidates France: Consolidating the Nation Turmoil of civil war ends with consolidation of royal power."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 16.1: France before the Revolution France Consolidates France: Consolidating the Nation Turmoil of civil war ends with consolidation of royal power under Henry IV (r ) and Louis XIII (r ) –Henry IV issued Edict of Nantes (1598) –Louis XIII encouraged investment in shipping Domination of Europe by Louis XIV ( ) –Strengthened state control of national economy –Material needs of army stimulated economy

2 Chapter 16: Political Revolutions in Europe and the Americas Political Revolution Political revolution changes fundamental basis of government Apparent unity can shift rapidly Revolutions often based on a coalition Threshold of victory can bring crisis Struggle to gain power within coalition often more brutal than effort to end prior system

3 Political Revolution English, American and French Revolutions are all labeled “democratic” by analysts These revolutions share common traits Slogans included liberty, equality, fraternity, natural rights, pursuit of happiness, property, no taxation without representation Outcomes often different than stated goals

4 Revolution in North America, 1776 Americans resent British control from 1760s onward British policy built of large army in North America and taxation to support it Grievances lead to Declaration of Independence, 1776 It asserts same concerns as English on eve of the Glorious Revolution

5 Revolution in North America, 1776 The First Anti-Imperial Revolution Represented rejection of colonial rule But westward movement created American imperial ambition Still, American Revolution inspired many subsequent revolutions such as Nehru in India Not a complete political revolution; many groups left out but ideal of equality emerges

6 French Revolution & Napoleon, American Revolution was unique--4 million people, edge of continent, no tradition of class or clerical privilege, built on tradition of British liberty French Revolution was internal revolt against entrenched elites & monarchy, in most populous & powerful European nation All Europe affected by French Revolution

7 French Revolution & Napoleon, Origins of Revolution King’s need for revenue France was divided into three Estates Nobles and clergy were tax exempt Revolt of the Third Estate Want to turn Estates-General into legislature Sieyes, What is the Third Estate? Want delegates to meet as unicameral legs.

8 French Revolution & Napoleon, The Revolt of the Poor Events occur against backdrop of food shortage Assault on Bastille, July 14, 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Great Fear in the countryside Women’s March on Versailles, Oct. 5-6, 1789 Constitution of 1791 Reflects ideals of philosophes Promulgated after wave of protests

9 French Revolution & Napoleon, International War, the 2nd Revolution and the Terror, French actions threaten Europe Civil Constitution of the Clergy Europe attacks the Revolution, 1792 Poor attempt to kill Louis XVI, August 9, 1792 Legislature turns radical after September elections Reign of Terror Levee en masse (national military draft)

10 French Revolution & Napoleon, International War, the 2nd Revolution, and the Terror, [cont.] Radical actions under Robespierre New Calendar Worship of the Supreme Being Success in war prompts reaction against extreme measures Directory established, 1795 Napoleon to power, 1799

11 French Revolution & Napoleon, Napoleon in Power, Consolidates or extends revolutionary ideas Code Napoleon, 1804 “careers open to talent” Concordat with Pope Full citizenship for Protestants and Jews Actions reflect his own modest origins

12 French Revolution & Napoleon, Napoleonic Wars & the Spread of Revolution, Direct or indirect control of Europe by 1810 Flaws in his policies magnified by ambition Unsuccessful in war against Britain Defeated in invasion of Russia, 1812 Nationalism undermines his control of W. Europe Defeated and exiled, 1814 & 1815 Congress of Vienna creates balance of power, 1815 Ch. 16: POLITICAL

13 The End of Colonialism in Latin America, Independence Movements Revolts led by creole elites, direct descendents of original Spanish settlers Helped Spain & Portugal put down Indian revolts Creole fear of indigenous population helped spur drive to independence Revolts led by creoles were for their control of countries & enjoyment of Enlightenment ideals

14 The End of Colonialism in Latin America, After Independence Bolivar & the Challenge of Unification Led independence movements after French invasion of Spain –Active in Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, Columbia Hoped for a unified South America but got local caudillo rule

15 The End of Colonialism in Latin America, After Independence [cont.] Mexico Early Mexican movement opposed Creoles leaders By 1821 independence creoles were in charge Territory lost to U.S. and to breakaway nations Brazil Portuguese monarch fled Napoleon for Brazil Brazil made co-equal with Portugal Brazil became a monarchy

16 The End of Colonialism in Latin America, After Independence [cont.] Paraguay: The New Historiography Dictactor Francia strongly criticized by creoles and gained a bad reputation Revolution based on self-government & land distribution Efforts to defeat Paraguay as a source of inspiration for Argentines and others met with failure

17 The End of Colonialism in Latin America, Religious & Economic Issues

18 Political Revolutions: What Difference Do They Make? Each Revolution has a clear outcome British created constitutional rights, failed to extend them to America, but abolished slavery Philosophes inspired subsequent revolutions Americans promoted freedom but not for all Lat. America: political but not econ. freedom French Revolution is the exception Idea of revolution but prefigures 20th century


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