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Chapter Seven Behavioral Learning Theory: Operant Conditioning.

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1 Chapter Seven Behavioral Learning Theory: Operant Conditioning

2 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 7-2 Chapters – (7-11) Learning and Instruction

3 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 7-3 How do we learn? How do we effectively assess learning?

4 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 7-4 Learning Theories What is learning? –A relatively permanent influence on behavior, knowledge, and thinking skills which comes through experience. (Santrock, 2004)

5 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 7-5 Historical Overview William James ( ) Professor at Harvard University In late 1890’s, he studied the relationship between psychology and teaching Psychology…aims to acquire "a..body of propositions about states of mind [thoughts, feelings, and knowledge]”

6 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 7-6 Pioneers of Educational Psychology Three Pioneers –William James –John Dewey –E. L. Thorndike

7 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 7-7 John Dewey ( ) Est. first ed Psyc Lab in USA “Child is an active learner” “Children learn by doing” “Focus of learning should be thinking” Thinking is the method of intelligent learning, of learning that employs and rewards the mind. (Democracy and Education, p. 171)

8 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 7-8 E. L. Thorndike ( ) Student of William James Schools should hone children’s thinking skills Ed. Psy should have a scientific base and focus on measurement

9 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 7-9 Historical Background Educational Psychology developed before the start of 20 Century Growth spurred by pioneers from various parts of the world

10 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Historical Overview Wilhelm Wundt established first psychological laboratory in 1879 in Germany – study human thought Hermann Ebbinghaus German Psychologist– in 1880’s studied memory and forgetting

11 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Approaches to Learning –Various approaches to learning Behavioral – behavior should be explained by observable experiences, not mental processes. –Classical conditioning; operant conditioning Cognitive – mental processes like thoughts, feeling, motives can be studied in a scientific manner to explain learning –Social learning theory; information process theory; cognitive constructivist; social cognitive constructivist

12 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Chronology of Dev. In Ed Psych. Thorndike’s view – first half of 20 C. Skinner’s view – middle of 20 Century –Behavior is the evidence of learning Cognitive revolution – 1980s cognition is evidence of learning Contextual View – last decades of 20 C and onward.

13 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Behavioral Approaches Classical Conditioning –Ivan Pavlov ( Russian physiologist, 1900’s ) Experiments with dogs –John B. Watson ( American) Applied this theory to children (Albert) Associative learning - no rewards or punishments

14 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Ivan Pavlov ( )

15 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved John B. Watson (1878 to 1958) Give me a dozen healthy infants…and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select--doctor, lawyer, merchant-chief, and yes, even beggarman and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors." (1930)

16 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved How Emotions Are Learned John B. Watson Little Albert – 11 month old baby Presented: White rat (CS) + Loud noise (US) Result: Albert showed fear of the rat and later generalized to beard Copyright ©2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies

17 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Behavioral Approaches Operant Conditioning –E. L. Thorndike Studied cats Law of Effect Behaviors followed by positive outcomes are strengthened and behaviors followed by negative outcomes are weakened

18 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Operant conditioning Theorist –B. F. Skinner extended the work of Thorndike with rats in Skinner boxes Basic assumption –Voluntary responses are strengthened or weakened as a result of their consequences NB: Associative learning in which there is a contingency between the response and the presentation of the reinforcer

19 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Behavioral Approach-Key Principle Associative Learning –A mental link is formed between two events and is evident from observable behavior.

20 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Overview Operant conditioning Educational applications of operant conditioning principles

21 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Conditions that define reinforcement, punishment, and extinction

22 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved In Class Assignment Team Work Use role-playing in a teaching-learning situation, to explain and demonstrate: Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Punishment Type I and Type II Generalization and Discrimination Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery Be careful to ensure that your skit and explanation help us to understand the concept

23 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Operant conditioning concepts Positive reinforcement –Strengthening (increasing) a behavior by presenting a positive stimulus immediately after the behavior has occurred Negative reinforcement –Strengthening (increasing) a behavior by removing a negative stimulus immediately after the behavior has occurred

24 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Operant conditioning concepts Presentation punishment (Type I) –Weakening (decreasing) a behavior by presenting an aversive stimulus immediately after the behavior has occurred Removal punishment (Type II, time-out) –Weakening (decreasing) a behavior by removing a positive stimulus immediately after the behavior has occurred

25 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Operant conditioning concepts Extinction –When a previously reinforced behavior decreases in frequency and eventually ceases altogether because reinforcement is withheld Spontaneous recovery –When an extinguished behavior reappears without having been reinforced

26 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Operant conditioning concepts Generalization –When an individual learns to make a particular response to a particular stimulus and then makes the same or a similar response in a slightly different situation Discrimination –When an individual learns to notice the unique aspects of seemingly similar situations and thus different ways of responding

27 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Operant conditioning concepts Shaping –Reducing complex behaviors into several more simple behaviors –Reinforcing successive approximations to the complex behavior

28 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Schedules of reinforcement Fixed interval schedule –Reinforcement occurs after a specific amount of time Variable interval schedule –Reinforcement occurs after a random amount of time

29 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Schedules of reinforcement Fixed ratio schedule –Reinforcement occurs after a specific number of responses Variable ratio schedule –Reinforcement occurs after a random number of responses

30 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Major Types of CBI Programs (Grabe & Grabe, 2004) Teach new information and skills and provide an opportunity to apply what was learned in a meaningful context that would otherwise be unavailable because of cost, physical danger, and time constraints Probems-Solving Programs: Simulations and Games Teach new information (e.g., facts, definitions, concepts) and skills Tutorial Practice knowledge and skills learned earlier to produce fast and accurate responses Drill and Practice PurposeType of Program


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