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© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 1: Bread and Pastry: A Historical Perspective and Current Opportunities
CHAPTER 1 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Introduction Humans have relied on grain for nourishment for thousands of years Agricultural advancements have distanced us from our agrarian roots Bread and pastry has evolved over thousands of years to what we know today
CHAPTER 1 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Neolithic Period 10,000 BCE – 4000 BCE Marked the transition from hunter/gatherer to agrarian based communities Oat, spelt & rye, millet and wheat used for simple porridges and eventually flat breads Basic cooking utensils, ovens established
CHAPTER 1 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Classic Antiquity (Egypt and Greece) 5,500 BCE - 300 BCE The Egyptians and Greeks became the first cultures to advance the science of bread In Egypt, as early as 4000 BCE, farmers grew spelt, wheat, and barley Quality of bread was related to class status Bread was part of everyday life, as well as special occasions (religious, funerals, etc)
CHAPTER 1 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Classic Antiquity (Egypt and Greece) Leavened breads were produced from about 1500 BCE onward Two theories of origin: connection to fermentation from ale/brewing, or old dough/porridge Processes varied by region: Greeks vs. Italians; Gauls vs. Iberians
CHAPTER 1 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Classic Antiquity (Egypt and Greece) Early Pastries Greeks and Egyptians used milk, honey, eggs, nuts and spices to make pastries as early as 3000 BCE Pastries were made largely for celebrations Many of the preparations were commonly known, thus not many were written
CHAPTER 1 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Classic Antiquity (Egypt and Greece) Bread and Culture in Antiquity Bread was the benchmark of living in a “civilized” society The presence of bread allowed other pursuits such as philosophy, the arts, construction, agriculture Bread helped to establish social order
CHAPTER 1 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. The Middle Ages 5 th – 15 th century BCE Marked by a decline in agrarian life, shortages in grain, more urbanization and disease Baking undergoes transformation by 15 th century in technology as well as organization
CHAPTER 1 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. The Middle Ages The profession of “baker” developed during 1100’s: the fornarii and pistores The first guild in France was established: the Tamaliers By the 1350’s rules of trade and standards were established for bread and pastry
CHAPTER 1 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. The Renaissance into Industrial Revolution A new guild is formed: the Pâtissiers The 16 th and 17 th centuries saw strain on grain supplies coupled with dramatic urban growth Government intervention attempted to stabilize distribution, but became the culprit
CHAPTER 1 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. The Renaissance into Industrial Revolution Baking and pastry evolved quickly during the 16 th century Increased access to sugar sped developments Puff pastry and Pâte á choux were common bases
CHAPTER 1 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. The Renaissance into Industrial Revolution In the 17 th 18 th centuries access to “exotic” goods increased: sugar, coffee, chocolate, nuts, spices Decorative display work was born with the use of pastillage: pièce montée Marie-Antoinette’s marriage to Louis XVI imported trends from Vienna to France
CHAPTER 1 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. The Renaissance into Industrial Revolution Marie-Antonio Carême became major influence in the world of food Developed many pastry bases still used today as well as striking buffet presentations and decorative work
CHAPTER 1 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Baking in America Gastronomic Growth Exploration of “new world” brought traditions of sustenance to Americas Continued nutritional reliance on grain, especially maize Many pies and simple quick breads were made as well as yeasted breads
CHAPTER 1 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Baking in America Gastronomic Growth Chemical leavening systems and commercial yeast became mainstream in 1800’s Technology of milling improved, as did ovens By the 20 th century, mechanized commercial bakeries became well established
CHAPTER 1 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Baking in America Transition Back to Artisan Foods –Industry was highly mechanized after WW2 –Baguette introduced during 1970’s introduced “crusty” bread- of mediocre quality –Raymond Calvel trains bakers on finer points of mixing and fermentation
CHAPTER 1 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Baking in America Transition Back to Artisan Foods –American bakers push limits of flavor and fermentation using Calvel inspired teachings as a guide –Quality bread becomes part of many peoples diet –Flour industry reacts by producing flour for “Artisan” baking: lower protein, higher ash, organic, etc.
CHAPTER 1 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Baking: A Well Rounded, Complex History Grain has played a role in nutrition for thousands of years Grain helped to establish communities, more so than the hunter/gatherer The baking industry evolved with the demand, especially during the 1800’s Current trends focus on whole grain, and more “artisan” processes
CHAPTER 1 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Commercial Baking and Pastry Making Today Training to be Baker or Pastry Chef –Traditionally: the craft was kept within the family –In the 1800’s the education models were established as demand increased –Contemporarily: school or on the job training
CHAPTER 1 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Commercial Baking and Pastry Making Today Going to School –Theory and hands on approach to education –The ability to work with a wide range of instructors ingredients and equipment –Establishes a good foundation for further learning
CHAPTER 1 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Commercial Baking and Pastry Making Today Learning on the Job –Great for learning production based skills –Possible slower rate of learning about ingredients, ingredient functions and formula processes –Working under several chefs will further the benefit of learning on the job
CHAPTER 1 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Commercial Baking and Pastry Making Today Continuing Education Opportunities in Baking and Pastry Production, management, R&D, teaching, business ownership
CHAPTER 1 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Conclusion Baking and pastry has a rich history which is still being written In the past 200 years the industry has evolved very quickly due to demand and technological innovations Opportunities for bakers and pastry chefs are seemingly endless, largely depending on their skills and goals
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