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Issues in the Education of English Language Learners Education 388 Lecture 1 January 10, 2007 Kenji Hakuta, Professor.

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Presentation on theme: "Issues in the Education of English Language Learners Education 388 Lecture 1 January 10, 2007 Kenji Hakuta, Professor."— Presentation transcript:

1 Issues in the Education of English Language Learners Education 388 Lecture 1 January 10, 2007 Kenji Hakuta, Professor

2 is the from with consist identify analyze imply diagonal salinity verb monarchy box walk place flower

3 is the from with consist identify analyze imply diagonal salinity verb monarchy box walk place flower Function words Common content words Academic words Disciplinary words

4 UC Merced Convocation 2005

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11 Source: Annette Holmes, UCOP Tidal Wave II

12 2004 Inaugural Students Freshmen:706 Juniors:131 Senior 1 Graduate Students 38 Total876

13 Undergraduate Characteristics 79% qualify for financial aid 30% from the Central Valley 47% first in family to go to college SAT Score: 1140 GPA: 3.6

14 Undergraduate Characteristics Ethnicity African-American: 6% Asian/Pacific Islander: 37% Hispanic/Latino: 25% Native American: 1% White 25%

15 Academic Preparation (2004 Freshmen) Writing 1:432 (61%) Writing 10:200 (28%) No writing: 74 (10%) Math 5:346 (71%) Math (29%)

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17 The Beginning First Grade, 1994

18 UC Freshmen (2005) N=26,885

19 Community College Matriculations (2005)

20 The Beginning First Grade, 1994

21 The Pipeline toward a 4-year degree

22 Required "A-G" Courses a l History/Social Science – 2 years required Two years of history/social science, including one year of world history, cultures and geography; and one year of U.S. history or one-half year of U.S. history and one-half year of civics or American government. b l English – 4 years required Four years of college-preparatory English that include frequent and regular writing, and reading of classic and modern literature. No more than one year of ESL-type courses can be used to meet this requirement. c l Mathematics – 3 years required, 4 years recommended Three years of college-preparatory mathematics that include the topics covered in elementary and advanced algebra and two- and three-dimensional geometry. Approved integrated math courses may be used to fulfill part or all of this requirement, as may math courses taken in the seventh and eighth grades that your high school accepts as equivalent to its own math courses. d l Laboratory Science – 2 years required, 3 years recommended Two years of laboratory science providing fundamental knowledge in two of these three foundational subjects: biology, chemistry and physics. Advanced laboratory science classes that have biology, chemistry or physics as prerequisites and offer substantial additional material may be used to fulfill this requirement. The final two years of an approved three-year integrated science program may be used to fulfill this requirement. e l Language Other than English – 2 years required, 3 years recommended Two years of the same language other than English. Courses should emphasize speaking and understanding, and include instruction in grammar, vocabulary, reading, composition and culture. Courses in languages other than English taken in the seventh and eighth grades may be used to fulfill part of this requirement if your high school accepts them as equivalent to its own courses. f l Visual and Performing Arts (VPA) – 1 year required A single yearlong approved arts course from a single VPA discipline: dance, drama/theater, music or visual art. g l College Preparatory Electives – 1 year required One year (two semesters), in addition to those required in "a-f" above, chosen from the following areas: visual and performing arts (non-introductory level courses), history, social science, English, advanced mathematics, laboratory science and language other than English (a third year in the language used for the "e" requirement or two years of another language).

23 is the from with consist identify analyze imply diagonal salinity verb monarchy box walk place flower Function words Common content words Academic words Disciplinary words

24 CREDIT: United Press International. "The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King addresses gathering of followers after their aborted march yesterday in Selma, Ala." New York World-Telegram & Sun Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. History and Society

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29 “These immigrants are beaten men from beaten races, representing the worst failures in the struggle for existence…. Europe is allowing its slums and its most stagnant reservoirs of degraded peasantry to be drained off upon our soil.” -- Francis A. Walker, President of M.I.T.

30 “There can be no doubt that the child reared in a bilingual environment is handicapped in his language growth. One can debate the issue as to whether speech facility in two languages is worth the consequent retardation in the language of the realm.” -George Thompson (1952)

31 Werner Leopold

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33 English Learners / Limited English Proficient Students

34 English Language Learner is… A student who is from a home language background other than English;

35 English Language Learner is… A student who is from a home language background other than English; Whose proficiency in English is undeveloped for reasons other than disabilities; and

36 English Language Learner is… A student who is from a home language background other than English; Whose proficiency in English is undeveloped for reasons other than disabilities; and Whose English literacy skills (academic English) are low even if they may have conversational skills.

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44 K-12 Education Profile of California English Language Learners (2006)

45 Estimated cumulative redesignation rates (2005), unadjusted for recent arrivals

46 California English Language Arts Standards Test (2006) Proficient or Advanced

47 is the from with consist identify analyze imply diagonal salinity verb monarchy box walk place flower Function words Common content words Academic words Disciplinary words

48 ELL Policy Background Federal Civil Rights Act (1964) Title VII of ESEA (1968) Lau v. Nichols (1974) Castañeda v. Pickard (1981) Title VII “cap attack” (1985) NCLB (2002) California AB 2284 (1972) AB 1329 – Chacon- Moscone (1976) Proposition 63 (1986) AB 1329 Sunset (1987) Alpert-Firestone revival attempt (1996) Proposition 227 (1998) ELA/ELD Standards (1999 onward)

49 ELL Policy Background Federal Civil Rights Act (1964) Title VII of ESEA (1968) Lau v. Nichols (1974) Castañeda v. Pickard (1981) Title VII “cap attack” (1985) NCLB (2002) California AB 2284 (1972) AB 1329 – Chacon- Moscone (1976) Proposition 63 (1986) AB 1329 Sunset (1987) Alpert-Firestone revival attempt (1996) Proposition 227 (1998) ELA/ELD Standards (1999 onward) Foot in the door

50 ELL Policy Background Federal Civil Rights Act (1964) Title VII of ESEA (1968) Lau v. Nichols (1974) Castañeda v. Pickard (1981) Title VII “cap attack” (1985) NCLB (2002) California AB 2284 (1972) AB 1329 – Chacon- Moscone (1976) Proposition 63 (1986) AB 1329 Sunset (1987) Alpert-Firestone revival attempt (1996) Proposition 227 (1998) ELA/ELD Standards (1999 onward) What to do

51 ELL Policy Background Federal Civil Rights Act (1964) Title VII of ESEA (1968) Lau v. Nichols (1974) Castañeda v. Pickard (1981) Title VII “cap attack” (1985) NCLB (2002) California AB 2284 (1972) AB 1329 – Chacon- Moscone (1976) Proposition 63 (1986) AB 1329 Sunset (1987) Alpert-Firestone revival attempt (1996) Proposition 227 (1998) ELA/ELD Standards (1999 onward) Equal accountability

52 ELL Policy Background Federal Civil Rights Act (1964) Title VII of ESEA (1968) Lau v. Nichols (1974) Castañeda v. Pickard (1981) Title VII “cap attack” (1985) NCLB (2002) California AB 2284 (1972) AB 1329 – Chacon- Moscone (1976) Proposition 63 (1986) AB 1329 Sunset (1987) Alpert-Firestone revival attempt (1996) Proposition 227 (1998) ELA/ELD Standards (1999 onward) Foot in the door

53 Source: Historical Photograph Collection of San Francisco Public Library's San Francisco History Center Lau v. Nichols Civil Rights Act of 1964

54 Source: Historical Photograph Collection of San Francisco Public Library's San Francisco History Center Lau v. Nichols

55 There is no equality of treatment merely by providing students with the same facilities, textbooks, teachers and curriculum; for students who do not understand English are effectively foreclosed from any meaningful education. U. S. Supreme Court Lau v. Nichols 1974 Lau v. Nichols

56 Basic English skills are at the very core of what these public schools teach. Imposition of a requirement that, before a child can effectively participate in the educational program, he must already have acquired those basic skills is to make a mockery of public education. We know that those who do not understand English are certain to find their classroom experiences wholly incomprehensible and in no way meaningful.

57 No specific remedy is urged upon us. Teaching English to students of Chinese ancestry who do not speak the language is one choice. Giving instructions to this group in Chinese is another. There may be others. Petitioners ask only that the Board of Education be directed to apply its expertise to the problem and rectify the situation.

58 Lau Remedies (1975) “Because an ESL program does not consider the affective or cognitive development of students [in the elementary and intermediate grades], an ESL program is not appropriate.”

59 is the from with consist identify analyze imply diagonal salinity verb monarchy box walk place flower Function words Common content words Academic words Disciplinary words

60 Castaneda v. Pickard (1981) Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals (1) Whether the school system is pursuing a program informed by an educational theory recognized as sound by some experts in the field, or, at least, deemed a legitimate experimental strategy. (2) Whether the programs and practices actually used by the school system are reasonably calculated to implement effectively the educational theory adopted by the school. (3) Whether the school's program succeeds, after a legitimate trial, to produce results indicating that the language barriers confronting students are actually being overcome. 648 F.2d 989; 1981 U.S.

61 Castaneda v. Pickard (1981) Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals (1) Whether the school system is pursuing a program informed by an educational theory recognized as sound by some experts in the field, or, at least, deemed a legitimate experimental strategy. (2) Whether the programs and practices actually used by the school system are reasonably calculated to implement effectively the educational theory adopted by the school. (3) Whether the school's program succeeds, after a legitimate trial, to produce results indicating that the language barriers confronting students are actually being overcome. 648 F.2d 989; 1981 U.S.

62 Castaneda v. Pickard (1981) Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals (1) Whether the school system is pursuing a program informed by an educational theory recognized as sound by some experts in the field, or, at least, deemed a legitimate experimental strategy. (2) Whether the programs and practices actually used by the school system are reasonably calculated to implement effectively the educational theory adopted by the school. (3) Whether the school's program succeeds, after a legitimate trial, to produce results indicating that the language barriers confronting students are actually being overcome. 648 F.2d 989; 1981 U.S.

63 Sound theory ImplementationResults examine evaluate reform revise

64 ELL Policy Background Federal Civil Rights Act (1964) Title VII of ESEA (1968) Lau v. Nichols (1974) Castañeda v. Pickard (1981) Title VII “cap attack” (1985) NCLB (2002) California AB 2284 (1972) AB 1329 – Chacon- Moscone (1976) Proposition 63 (1986) AB 1329 Sunset (1987) Alpert-Firestone revival attempt (1996) Proposition 227 (1998) ELA/ELD Standards (1999 onward) What to do

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66 Figure 2

67 ELL Policy Background Federal Civil Rights Act (1964) Title VII of ESEA (1968) Lau v. Nichols (1974) Castañeda v. Pickard (1981) Title VII “cap attack” (1985) NCLB (2002) California AB 2284 (1972) AB 1329 – Chacon- Moscone (1976) Proposition 63 (1986) AB 1329 Sunset (1987) Alpert-Firestone revival attempt (1996) Proposition 227 (1998) ELA/ELD Standards (1999 onward) Equal accountability

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70 The Bilingual Debate

71 Bilingual 1.Values: two is better than one. 2.English does not need to compromise immigrant languages. 3.English learning takes time; kids can’t spend all their time learning English, they won’t learn math or other subjects. 4.Bilingual education is practical and cost-effective; English- Only only addresses short- term gains in English. 5.Politicians need to take leadership on linguistic diversity. English-Only 1.Values: immigrants need strong message 2.Native language impedes effective English learning. 3.Get English learning over with quickly; other subjects can be learned later. 4.English-Only is practical, and bilingual teachers are hard to find; implementation of bilingual education is difficult. 5.The people support English- only; politicians need to follow.

72 The Bilingual Debate Bilingual 1.Values: two is better than one. 2.English does not need to compromise immigrant languages. 3.English learning takes time; kids can’t spend all their time learning English, they won’t learn math or other subjects. 4.Bilingual education is practical and cost-effective; English- Only only addresses short- term gains in English. 5.Politicians need to take leadership on linguistic diversity. English-Only 1.Values: immigrants need strong message 2.Native language impedes effective English learning. 3.Get English learning over with quickly; other subjects can be learned later. 4.English-Only is practical, and bilingual teachers are hard to find; implementation of bilingual education is difficult. 5.The people support English- only; politicians need to follow.

73 The Bilingual Debate Bilingual 1.Values: two is better than one. 2.English does not need to compromise immigrant languages. 3.English learning takes time; kids can’t spend all their time learning English, they won’t learn math or other subjects. 4.Bilingual education is practical and cost-effective; English- Only only addresses short- term gains in English. 5.Politicians need to take leadership on linguistic diversity. English-Only 1.Values: immigrants need strong message 2.Native language impedes effective English learning. 3.Get English learning over with quickly; other subjects can be learned later. 4.English-Only is practical, and bilingual teachers are hard to find; implementation of bilingual education is difficult. 5.The people support English- only; politicians need to follow.

74 The Bilingual Debate Bilingual 1.Values: two is better than one. 2.English does not need to compromise immigrant languages. 3.English learning takes time; kids can’t spend all their time learning English, they won’t learn math or other subjects. 4.Bilingual education is practical and cost-effective; English- Only only addresses short- term gains in English. 5.Politicians need to take leadership on linguistic diversity. English-Only 1.Values: immigrants need strong message 2.Native language impedes effective English learning. 3.Get English learning over with quickly; other subjects can be learned later. 4.English-Only is practical, and bilingual teachers are hard to find; implementation of bilingual education is difficult. 5.The people support English- only; politicians need to follow.

75 The Bilingual Debate Bilingual 1.Values: two is better than one. 2.English does not need to compromise immigrant languages. 3.English learning takes time; kids can’t spend all their time learning English, they won’t learn math or other subjects. 4.Bilingual education is practical and cost-effective; English- Only only addresses short- term gains in English. 5.Politicians need to take leadership on linguistic diversity. English-Only 1.Values: immigrants need strong message 2.Native language impedes effective English learning. 3.Get English learning over with quickly; other subjects can be learned later. 4.English-Only is practical, and bilingual teachers are hard to find; implementation of bilingual education is difficult. 5.The people support English- only; politicians need to follow.

76 The Pipeline toward a 4-year degree

77 is the from with consist identify analyze imply diagonal salinity verb monarchy box walk place flower Function words Common content words Academic words Disciplinary words


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