Casara METAR u Station actual weather report u Taken at airports (FSS/ATC or Auto) u Standard reports hourly, top of the hour u Special reports for significant changes
Casara METAR’s Four letter identification of aerodrome u CYYT - St. John’s u CYFC - Fredericton u CYQB - Ville de Québec u CYYZ - Toronto
Casara METAR’s u CYYZ - Toronto u CYWG - Winnipeg u CYED - Edmonton u CYVR - Vancouver
Casara METAR’s u Date/Time Group in six figures Day/Hour u Time is in UTC, universal time coordinated or commonly called Zulu
Casara METAR’s Wind u the nearest 10 degrees. u Speed to the nearest knot. u Gusts are noted only if they are five knots or more above the mean.
Casara METAR METAR CYWG 182300Z 26004KT 10SM -SHRA OVC038 07/02 A3002 RMK SC8 SLP169= Winnipeg Airport at 2300 UTC wind is 260 at 4 kts METAR CYYT 190000Z 36020KT 12SM BKN038 05/04 A3003 RMK SC7 SLP170= St John’s Airport at 0000 UTC wind is 360 at 20 kts METAR CYED 190100Z 00000KT 15SM SCT038 BKN080 02/02 A3002 RMK SC3AC2 SLP168 Edmonton Airport at 0100 UTC wind is calm Note the location, the time and the wind in italics
Casara Decoding METARs Type Station Date/Time Wind METAR CYND 182300Z 26004KT Vis Weather Sky Cond. Temp Altimeter 10SM -SHRA OVC038 07/02 A3002 Remarks RMK SC8 SLP169
Casara TAF’s Terminal Area Forecasts (TAF) give: u Station identification. u Time of issue ( day and time ). u Valid time ( usually 12 - 24 hours ). u Valid time may change due to uncertainty of the weather.
Casara TAF’s u WIND - same as in METAR’s. (TRUE) u VRB - if wind less than 3kts. u WS012/17050KT - low level wind shear by giving the wind direction and speed at height AGL (above ground level). u WS012/17050KT u Wind Shear: wind at 1200 feet AGL is 170T at 50 kts.
Casara TAF's TAFs also give changes in conditions and winds u TEMPO 1801 - temporary between 18 & 01Z u PROB30 2022 - probability 30% - 40% between 20 & 22Z u FM0130Z - from 0130Z onward u BECMG 0608 - becoming between 06 & 08Z
Casara Decoding TAFs Type Station Issued Valid Wind Vis Sky TAF CYND 181958Z 182002 21008KT P6SM BKN040 Temporary condition Wind Vis. Weather Sky TEMPO 2024 35020KT P6SM -SHRA BKN030 From Time Wind Vis. Sky FM0000Z 16008KT P6SM SCT020 BKN030 TEMPO 0002 P6SM -SHRA BKN020 RMK NXT FCST WILL BE ISSUED AT 191145Z=
Casara FDs and GFDs u FDs: Forecast upper winds at various altitudes over major reporting sites. u GFDs: Graphical depiction of the winds for a specific altitude over a large area. u All winds are True. u Based on twice daily observations. u Valid for the periods indicated.
Casara FDs and GFDs u Temperatures are indicated for levels above 3000’ (Temperature below 3000’ is too variable). u Six numbers: wind direction / speed and temperature. u Eg:2533-10 means wind is 250T at 33Kts, temperature at this altitude is –10C.
Casara Example FD OTTAWA. ONT STN YOW - for use 3000600090001200018000 FDCN01 CWAO FCST BASED ON 190000 DATA VALID 190600 05-091911 2225- 03 2430- 08 2538- 14 2668- 23 FDCN02 CWAO FCST BASED ON 190000 DATA VALID 191200 09-182041 2438 +00 2438 -04 2547 -09 2470- 21 FDCN03 CWAO FCST BASED ON 190000 DATA VALID 200000 18-052735 2931- 02 2830- 08 2742- 13 2754- 26
Casara Example GFD (Graphic Forecast upper winds)
Casara NOTAMS u A notice containing information concerning the establishment, condition or change in any aeronautical facility, service, procedure or hazard. u Distributed on the AFTN (Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunications Network.
Casara NOTAMS NOTAM decode: CG CYZZNYOW ( priority & address ) 141736 CYNDYFYX ( originator time and address ) 05007 NOTAM CYOW OTTAWA / (number) (new NOTAM) (originator) (name of aerodrome or facility) MACDONALD CARTIER INTNL CYOW (name of aerodrome or facility) (identifier) ILS 07 U/S TIL 0501191200 (Type of facility) (condition) (until approximately)
Casara PIREPS u A pilot weather report pertaining to current weather conditions encountered in flight. u They are codified by FIR and FSS allowing easy retrieval by flight crews.
Casara PIREPS UACN10 CYXU 032133 ( Msg Type “urgent”, office & time) YZ (FIR) UA/OV YXU 090010 / TM 2120 / FL080 / (United airlines / over London VOR radial 090/10 nm / at Time 2120 / altitude 8,000 ft) TP PA31 / SK 020BKNO40 / TA-12 / (type is Piper Navajo / smoke at 2000ft topped at 4000ft / temp -12 / WV 030045 (wind is 030 deg true at 45 kts)
Casara SIGMETS u Short term warning of certain potentially hazardous weather phenomena. u Issued for active thunderstorms, hail, severe turbulence or icing, marked wind shear and a number of other threats.
Casara SIGMETS Decode: WSCN33 CWTO 171805 Issued by Toronto Forecast Centre for Graphic area 33 at 171805 UTC SIGMET A5 VALID 171805/172205CWTO SIGMET A5 (superceded A4) is valid from 171805 UTC to 172205 UTC WTN 30 NM OF LN / 4622N/07925W NORTHBAY/ 4458N/07918W/MUSKOKA /4302N/08109W/LONDON Weather radar observed thunderstorms within 30 nm of a line from North Bay to Muskoka to London TS MAX TOPS 3000 OBSD ON RADAR. LN MOVG EWD AT 20 KTS. LTL CHG IN INTSTY. Maximum tops of the line is 30,000 ft. The line is moving eastward at 20 kts. Little change in intensity is expected during the period
Casara Nav Canada WEB Site u The Aviation Weather WEB site can be accessed at www.flightplanning.navcanada.ca It provides: u AIRMETs, SIGMETs, METARs, TAFs, Upper Winds and NOTAMs as well as the whole catalogue of graphical products