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Collaborative arrangements and climate change policies in Danish municipalities – a governance perspective Presentation CIDEA Closing Conference University.

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Presentation on theme: "Collaborative arrangements and climate change policies in Danish municipalities – a governance perspective Presentation CIDEA Closing Conference University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Collaborative arrangements and climate change policies in Danish municipalities – a governance perspective Presentation CIDEA Closing Conference University of Copenhagen 20 October 2014 Jens Hoff Department of Political Science University of Copenhagen Denmark Institut for Statskundskab

2 Agenda: 1. Co-creation of climate change mitigation 2 The practice: types of citizen participation 3.How do we evaluate the new collaborative arrangements? - CO 2 -reductions? - democratic effects? - governability? Institut for Statskundskab

3 Fundamental research question: How is it possible to engage and motivate citizens to do an effort to reduce their carbon footprint? Institut for Statskundskab

4 Focus of research: ‘Collaborative arrangements’ concerning climate change mitigation (Healey, 2006 (1997)) ‘Co-creation’ of local climate change policies (Joiner & Josephs 2007) ‘Citizen driven innovation’ in climate change policies (Bason 2010) Institut for Statskundskab

5 The field of possible collaborative arrangements concerning climate change mitigation: Initiation of intervention: Government agents, local authority Focus of intervention: Individual Community Person Family Schools/institutions Housing cooperatives Villages Civil society, citizen driven Institut for Statskundskab

6 The field of possible collaborative arrangements concerning climate change mitigation: Initiation of intervention: Government agents, local authority Klimabevidst Citizen visits School campaign Computer games Transport game Green day care ‘Climate families’ MyClimatePlan ‘Climate ambassadors* Person Family Schools/institutions Housing cooperatives Villages Surveys in 3 municipalities AB Søpassagen Climate village Studsgaard Civil society, citizen driven Institut for Statskundskab

7 The field of possible collaborative arrangements concerning climate change mitigation: Initiation of intervention: Government agents, local authority Klimabevidst ‘Climate families’ MyClimatePlan ‘Climate ambassadors* Person Family Schools/institutions Housing cooperatives Villages Climate village Studsgaard Civil society, citizen driven Institut for Statskundskab

8 These websites are developed to help Danish citizens and companies, who want to reduce their carbon footprint, but who lack knowledge about the existence of different possibilities, what effect different actions have, and how to get started. Institut for Statskundskab

9 Both versions of are build up around 12 categories, each representing a different area of action concerning climate change mitigation (lighting, transport, heating, etc.). All guides are written in everyday language and demand no prior knowledge of the field. Institut for Statskundskab

10 ‘Climate families’: Background: Ballerup, a typical suburban municipality just outside Copenhagen, wants to reduce its CO2-emissions with 25% from 2006-2015. Five percent of this reduction is to be achieved by citizens. This means that citizens have to reduce their CO2 emissions by 26% in the period. Twenty (representative?) families were selected. They were to constitute ‘role models’ and be a showcase of more ‘CO2-sensible’ ways of living. The families had to engage in two types of activities: 1) a carbon accounting regime (6 months), 2) use of a toolbox of green devices (shower timer, bicycle gear, etc.) Institut for Statskundskab

11 Climate families – the work The families were gathered in a project group, which refined the concept, defined the areas of intervention and discussed all relevant aspects of the project. In the first 6 months the families were to register their consumption of electricity and all other CO2-relevant activities in every detail (see scheme). Half of the families were very active in communicating the results of the project to the rest of the municipality through expositions, fairs, giving talks etc. The project is widely regarded as a success. Institut for Statskundskab Carbon accounting regime

12 MyClimatePlan: Background: In 2009 the municipality of Middelfart offered any group of min. 10 citizens living in the same neighbourhood the posssibility to receive a free energy check of their home. At the check an energy advisor from the local energy company turned up, together with a representative from the municipality and two builders. Afterwards an energy report was sent to each household, and the builders sent an offer covering the points mentioned in the report. Household were offered a 15% reduction by the builders, on the conditions that some other households in the group would also retrofit. Institut for Statskundskab

13 MyClimatePlan changes to ‘ESCO-light’ Story continued: The project was slow to pick up, and was replaced by ESCO-light in 2011. A main problem in MCP was the cost of energy consultation. Therefore the municipality decided, in collaboration with the energy companies, to train builders in energy counseling. After the training the builders could deliver the necessary counselling to customers, and if they decided to have the work done, the builder could help the customer to sell the energy savings to the energy company. All win: customers gets free and qualified energy conselling, and a discount on the work done, builders enhance their knowledge about energy renovation, energy companies outsource the burden of generating energy savings, the municipality gets CO2-reductions and more revenue because more jobs in the building industry are created. Institut for Statskundskab

14 ‘Climate ambassadors’ Background: As a result of a project set up in collaboration between the social housing complex, AAB Skovparken and the municipality of Kolding 15 unemployed women, mainly with an other ethnic background than Danish volunteered to work as ‘neighbourhood mothers’ The women followed a 12 week education with sessions on how to save on water and energy. The education gave them competences and self- confidence, and half of them are now working as climate ambassadors, who can be booked for free counselling by the tenants in the housing complex. Institut for Statskundskab

15 ‘Climate village’ Studsgård Background: Studsgård is a small village with 250 families 10km outside of Herning. In 2008 the village started a collaboration with the municipality of Herning in order to become a ‘climate village’. The village association (‘Borgerforeningen’) agreed on a CO2- reduction of 25% in 2012 (baseline 2007) for the village as such. The municipality of Herning is supporting the project with a ‘green coordinator’, who is helping to start up different green initiatives. Institut for Statskundskab

16 ‘Climate village’ Studsgård- the activities: Period:Activity:Ton CO 2 reduced from fra 2009 to 31.12. 2012 2009 and onwardCommon climate friendly dinners4,1 ton CO 2 2012 and onward11 stk. 6 kW sun cell plants (private) 20,3 ton CO 2 /år 20105 oil-fired boilers changed to district heating 23,4 ton CO 2 /år 20105 ha farmland changed to mixed forest 67 ton CO 2 /år 2011 and onwardSecond -hand shop4,5 ton CO 2 2011 and onwardCardboard container 4,7 ton CO 2 2009 and onwardMetal container5,5 ton CO 2 Total CO 2 reduction since 2009 220 ton CO 2 A range of different activities has been undertaken: Common ‘climate friendly’ dinners Placement of waste containers on the city square (cardbord, metal) Energy counselling Opening of a second hand shop Planting of trees Establishment of a vindmill guild And more Institut for Statskundskab.

17 Are these projects succesful – and by what measures? What are the goals of the projects and to what extent are they realized? CO2-emissions? To increase knowledge about climate change? To engage and motivate citizens do do a personal effort? To strengthen social cohesion in communisties To create jobs and local revenue To improve local democracy? What are the agendas of the involved stakeholders? Institut for Statskundskab

18 The development of citizen participation in environmental regulation/climate change mitigation Period:1960’s-1980’s1980’s-1992 1992-2009 2009- Role of public authorities Regulator Innovator Mediator Facilitator Dominant discourse on policy solutions “Social engineering” “Common responsibility” “Global Responsibility” Citizen responsibility is key Policy instrumentsLaws, permitsPolicy network creation, co- production, self- regulation, interactive policy making, environmental taxes, tradeable permits Global treaties, Local Agenda21, EU Model Plan for Public Participation, Four Directives concerning citizen participation “Nudging” (artefacts and techniques to affect behaviour). Ad hoc arrangements to cope with citizen initiatives and projects Type of experts usedEngineers Lawyers Engineers Lawyers Social scientists Stakeholders Engineers Lawyers Social scientists Stakeholders NGO’s ‘Citizen experts’ Engineers Lawyers Social scientists Psychologists PR-consultants Stakeholders NGO’s ‘Citizen experts’ Lay people Role of citizensObjects of steering/protesters Co-producers, stakeholders ’Cosmopolitans’ (objects/participants in global action) ‘Future makers’ (‘do it here and now’) Institut for Statskundskab

19 A steering perspective on the development Is this a Foucaldian story? – are the increasingly sophisticated techniques of governance used to turn basically disengaged or uninformed citizens into ‘green bodies’ subject to a ‘low carbon diet’? = a strengthening of the power of public authorities, making a more effective policy implementation possible? Reality is more complicated than this: Example: ‘Climate families’ It was only possible to engage the 20 families in the project because they were involved very early, and given a huge say in the development of the project, which meant that they eventually assumed responsibility for the project. As public authorities enter into the private homes of families, so do the families enter the inner working of the public authority. This is precarious balance where public authorities are obliged to ‘do more with less control'- or ‘ release control to gain governability’ The public ‘loss of control’ opens a space for citizen-directed initiatives, which works in directions not anticipated by public authorities, or challenging their preferred policies in the area. Institut for Statskundskab

20 A democratic perspective Two perspectives on citizen participation within democratic theory: 1)A pragmatic tradition (citizen participation as a policy) 2) A normative tradition (citizen participation as a ‘school in democracy’) Institut for Statskundskab

21 A democratic perspective In the pragmatic tradition one can distinguish between substantive and instrumental arguments for citizen participation: Substantive arguments: Local knowledge contributes with new insights. Citizen participation reduces the uncertainty connected with scientific knowledge. Instrumental arguments: If citizens are involved they are more likely to understand and accept a given decision (conflict-reducing effect). Citizen participation will increase confidence and learning. This will give a policy longevity and lead to better implementation. Citizen will take on ownership when they become involved Institut for Statskundskab

22 A democratic perspective In the normative tradition the purpose of citizen participation is as much the process itself, and the participants, as it is the result of the process. Citizen participation works as a ‘school in democracy’ cultivating the civic potential of the participants. (Pateman 1970, Barber 1984). Citizens are empowered through participation (Arnstein 1969). Citizen participation creates a space for deliberation about public matters (Dryzek 2002, Held 2006). Institut for Statskundskab

23 A democratic evaluation of the projects: ‘information campaigns’ versus citizen driven community projects‘Climate village’ Studsgård Local knowledge input - + Reduce uncertainty of scientific knowledge - + Conflict-reducing effect not relevant + Learning + + Ownership - + Cultivation of civic virtues ? + Empowerment + + Space for deliberation - + Institut for Statskundskab

24 More intangible benefits of citizen driven community projects: They support and strengthen the community They create a feeling of a common identity The community becomes more attractive to outsiders Improved relations between community and public authorities If anchored in communities policies will have a longer life Institut for Statskundskab

25 Conclusions: ”If we wait for governments, it’ll be to late; if we act as individuals, it’ll be to little, but if we act as communities, maybe it’ll be enough”. Ben Brangwyn, Transition Network trustee (cited in Irving 2009) While this conclusion is doubtful, the CIDEA research project has at least demonstrated that both in a steering perspective as well as a democratic perspective citizen initiated community based projects have more benefits for all stakeholders than projects initiated by public authorities and directed towards individuals. (we have to find ways to move initiatives from upper left to lower right square in our figure). However, projects can also fail if the precarious balances between on the one hand control and governability, and on the other hand efficiency and democracy are not found and respected. Institut for Statskundskab

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