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Chinese Americans Chinese immigration was met with mixed sentiments from 1848 onward  Chinese exclusion act of 1882 - 1943  Gradual immigration from.

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Presentation on theme: "Chinese Americans Chinese immigration was met with mixed sentiments from 1848 onward  Chinese exclusion act of 1882 - 1943  Gradual immigration from."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chinese Americans Chinese immigration was met with mixed sentiments from 1848 onward  Chinese exclusion act of  Gradual immigration from  Increase in immigration came with the passage of the 1965 Immigration Act Push and pull factors

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3 Occupational Profile of Chinese Americans Early on discriminatory laws were passed making it difficult for Chinese to enter certain occupations Early on gravitated toward service occupations or low paying jobs that whites found undesirable Chinatown and the tourist industry

4 Occupational Profile of Chinese Americans Chinatown and the tourist industry Jobs  New immigrants find it difficult finding jobs outside of Chinatown  Lack of English is another reason for new immigrants seeking work in Chinatown

5 Chinatowns Today The economic paradox of Chinatowns The impression of glitter and wealth among hidden economic deprivation and poverty in Chinatown Organizational life Clan or tsu organization and functions (Surname Association)  Membership based on clan and family ties

6 Organization Benevolent associations or hui kuan (organization based on kinship ties)  Assist in the adjustment to a new country  Membership is based on district of origin Hui kuan associations are part of a larger organization, Chinese Six Companies, (Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association) Tongs or secret societies formed on the basis of common interests

7 Conclusions about Social Organizations Evolved from Chinese traditions and customs All three types have performed similar functions providing assistance and representing interests to dominant group Inter-conflict between the associations Decline in significance Downplay their problems within the Chinese community with the dominant group

8 Social Problems The tourist industry in Chinatown as double edged sword Jobs but at substandard pay  Poverty  Health  Suicide  Poor housing  Crime  Poor working conditions  Other

9 Family and Religious Life In the People’s Republic of China organized religion barely exists  Buddhism  Christianity  Other faiths Variation of acculturation on Chinese family structure Less acculturated the greater the emphasis on extended family and patriarchal authority Effect of immigration on family structure

10 Japanese Americans Initial Japanese immigrants came around 1885 (Push and pull factors) Came from a very stratified society Most came from the lower class in Japan Initially many found employment in forestry, agriculture and then migrated to cities along the West Coast and established small businesses

11 Generational Identity Issei - first generation immigrants born in Japan Nissei - second generation American born children of the Issei  (Kibei) Sansei - third generation Yonsei - fourth generation

12 Early Discrimination Laws were passed prohibiting Issei from becoming citizens California Alien Land Act of 1913 Economic impact on agricultural land owned by Japanese Americans Adjustments to the act led many to transfer ownership to their American born children Many left agriculture and migrated to cities and established small businesses catering to both the Japanese and dominant group

13 Wartime Evacuation Executive order 9066, signed by Roosevelt on February 13, 1942 Economic cost to the evacuees was in excess of $400,000,000 or in current dollars $3.7 billion Psychological impact The way out and the loyalty test

14 Ambiguity of the test questions Japanese Americans demonstrated their loyalty to the United States by participating in the war effort Racism and internment Japanese migration from the camps after the war Wartime Evacuation

15 Economic Picture Upward mobility after WWII Japanese American educational attainment is higher than whites Occupationally have been upwardly mobile but still experience the glass ceiling and wall Higher median family income than whites

16 Family and Religious Life Acculturation and change in family structure Conjugal nuclear family structure Neolocal pattern of residence Outgroup marriage is increasing and is approximately 50% among the Yonsei Rising divorce rate

17 Dual religious customs in Japan  Shinto  Buddhism United States the emphasis is on belonging to a single religion Impact is changing religious customs over time among Japanese-Americans Family and Religious Life

18 Remnants of Prejudice and Discrimination The decline in overt prejudice  Subtle forms still exist  Job discrimination Assimilation

19 Figure 13-2 Intergroup Relations Continuum


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