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Islam in Africa. Food for thought… eo-is-islam-a-peaceful-religion-bill-maher- weighs- in/?utm_source=twitterfeed&utm_medium.

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Presentation on theme: "Islam in Africa. Food for thought… eo-is-islam-a-peaceful-religion-bill-maher- weighs- in/?utm_source=twitterfeed&utm_medium."— Presentation transcript:

1 Islam in Africa

2 Food for thought… eo-is-islam-a-peaceful-religion-bill-maher- weighs- in/?utm_source=twitterfeed&utm_medium =twitter&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+rss%2 Fcnn_ac360blog+%28Blog%3A+AC360% 29 eo-is-islam-a-peaceful-religion-bill-maher- weighs- in/?utm_source=twitterfeed&utm_medium =twitter&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+rss%2 Fcnn_ac360blog+%28Blog%3A+AC360% 29

3 Inroads to Africa North Africa to the Western Sahel Egypt through the Nile Valley Indian Ocean trade to the East coast of Africa

4 Ghana – A World of Wealth Shadowing beginnings: Arab traveler in 1067 write about a Muslim community in Ghana In 1010 the king of Gao converts to Islam, as does the court. But the population remains animist Trading communities in towns and cities Gold and slaves from the south, salt from the east – sold to the north Ghana thrives till mid 13 th century

5 Mali and the Malinke Mande speaking First king relies heavily on traditional religion and magic Islamic rituals of Friday prayer and Eid become very prominent Tensions between Islam / tradition – court and people (mansas depend on local base; dress and groveling before king) Ibn Battuta: mixed reviews (prayer good, gender relations bad) Trade: gold, slaves and salt… Mansa Musa’s famous pilgrimage in 1324

6 Songhay Songhay king Sonni Ali established realm with base at Timbuktu in the 1400’s Timbuktu –Depot for Sahara trade to Niger River trade –Sanhaja & Tuareg Berbers, Arab merchants and Songinke –Becomes major scholarly center with around 160 madrasas Scholarly links to Morocco, Marakkesh to the north, Egypt and Hejaz Empire and Timbukti fall into disrepair after Sa’dian Moroccan conquest in 1591

7 The Muridiyya Shaykh Amadou Bamba (d. 1927): exiled several times by the French but blesses WWI participationBamba Branch of the Qadiriyya order based in Touba in Senegal Currently headed by the last surviving son of Amadou Bamba

8 Nile Valley to the Sudan Early on! 615 first Hijra to Ethiopia Late arrival: only in the 17 th century does Islam become a major cultural force in the lower Nile Valley Unlike the Western Sahel, both Arabic and Islam become predominant. Muslims become influential through trade: ivory, ostrich feathers, slaves

9 The Mahdi Movement Muhammad al-Mahdi (d. 1885) declares himself the Muslim Mahdi in 1881 –Confounds Sunni ulama and defeats government forces Call for social justice and Islamic justice at the end of the 1300’s Response to Anglo-Egyptian domination of the Sudan after 1820Egyptian Defeats Turkish garrisons and eventually takes Khartoum in 1885 Succeeded by ‘caliphs’, eventually defeated by British at Omdurman 1898

10 East Africa Islam came with trade to the Horn of Africa and the East coast “Sahel” in 1200’s onward (cloth from India; ivory, gold, slaves, spices, rice from Africa Jihad? –Ahmad Gran in 1531 launches a jihad from from the Somali coast against Ethiopia, defeated by Portuguese –Anti colonial struggles; jihad of Abdallah Hasan in Somaila Indian Ocean world: –Omani influence increases in 1800’s, with capital at Zanzibar in 1832 under BuSaidis –Immigration from India

11 Conversion to Islam Holy men “fakihs” as agents in West africa; amulets, miracles, teaching Q Proof through miracles Sufism –In West Africa, Qadiriya dominant till mid 1800s, when the Tijaniyya overtakes it –More recently in East Africa the Alawiyya order from Yemen enters, popular focus on the mawlid and group liturgies Colonialism?! COlonialismIt’s colonial period when large scale conversions happen!: pax colonia, travel and more madrasa


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