7COCAINE TRAFFICKING IN WEST AFRICA THREAT ASSESSMENT:COCAINE TRAFFICKING IN WEST AFRICARoute: from South America to EuropeSource: South America (Colombia and Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of ))Vector to West Africa: Sea, airVector within West Africa: Land, airVolume: 20 tonsValue at destination: US$ 1 billionGroups involved: Colombian, Nigerian, other West African, EuropeanResidence of traffickers: Colombia, Spain, other European countriesEstimated trend: DecliningPotential effects in region: Rising cocaine use, economic destabilization, corruption, violenceLikelihood of effects being realised: UnknownPotential effects outside region: Rising cocaine use in EuropeLikelihood of effects being realised: High
9Some decline Stable Some increase Large increase Data not available AFRICA: HEROIN CONSUMPTION, 2008TunisiaMoroccoAlgeriaEgyptLibyan Arab JamahiriyaMauritaniaMaliNigerEritreaChadSudanSenegalGinea-BissauBurkina FasoDjiboutiGineaTogoNigeriaEthiopiaSierra-LeoneCote d’IvoireGhanaCentral African RepublicLiberiaCameroonUgandaSomaliaCongoDRCKenyaGabonRwandaSome declineStableSome increaseLarge increaseData not availableBurundiTanzaniaHEROIN USE RISING IN AFRICAMILLION USING OPIATESHIGH LEVELS REPORTED IN MAURITIUS AND EGYPTRISING IN KENYA, NIGERIA, TANZANIA AND ZAMBIAAngolaZambiaMalawiMozambiqueMadagascarZimbabweNamibiaBotswanaSwazilandSouth AfricaLesotho
13TRENDSMarket for illicit arms is estimated globally at US$ million per year, which is about 20 per cent of the (licit and measurable) arms trade.Africa remains the arms smugglers' most profitable marketSmall arms, unlike drugs or counterfeits, are a durable product (AK-47 can last indefinitely, it just needs ammunition)Thus, arms trafficking tends to be episodic, rather than a permanent flow, with a predictable pattern: from countries with large stockpiles to a region descending, or pushed, into crisis.
14HOW ILLEGAL ARMS TRAFFICKING IS CONDUCTED? Complex transport routes are exploited, linking the continents (for example the regions of East, Central and West Africa have been identified as transit or diversion points for arms cargoes from Eastern Europe (Ukraine, Bulgaria, Romania, Russia), the Middle East (Lebanon, Israel) and Asia (China) with a destination of Latin America and the Caribbean)Corruption in the source country (known as "point of departure diversion"), enables traffickers to use fake end-user certificates for legal exports.Corruption at the "official" destination enables a legal shipment to be diverted to a different location ("post-delivery onward diversion"): the tanks, weapons and ammunition on a Ukrainian ship hijacked by Somali pirates (in September 2008) were intended for South Sudan, not Kenya, as the papers said.At the true destination, in countries for example in the Sahel, Central, East andWest Africa, weapons are bartered for drugs and natural resources (oil, precious stones, metals and timber). As a result, arms trafficking and organized crime fuel conflicts and vice versa.
15LINK BETWEEN ARMS AND DRUG TRAFFICKING Both represent transnational organized crimeBoth illegal arms and drugs are profitable criminal marketcommodities (exchangeable)Both divert from countries of strong control to weaker ones(Baloon effect)Both rely on weak border control, rule of law and corruptionBoth exploit same trafficking routesBoth pose serious threat to human security and stability in the regions
16WAY FORWARDThere is a need to better understand criminal markets in order to be disable them through structural changes, which will make it difficult for organized crime to do what they do;Strengthen border control and cooperation among countries;Enhance rule of law and criminal justice system;Strengthen the capacity of law enforcement response to the threats posed by arms and drug trafficking
18Transnational Organized Crime Convention entered into force in September 2003The Convention applies to all serious crime with a transnational and organized crime aspectIt applies to four basic offences - (participation in an organized criminal group, money laundering, corruption and obstruction of justice)- and to the offences defined under the Protocols (trafficking in human beings, smuggling of migrants, trafficking in firearms).It offers a particularly effective mechanism for international cooperation in criminal matters, by providing a broad and flexible legal basis for cooperation on extradition, mutual legal assistance and international cooperation
19FIREARMS PROTOCOL (United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Ammunition) entered into force in July 2005Parties to the Protocol are required:Adopt legislation to prevent guns from falling into the wrong hands;Criminalize the removal of the markings on guns;Keep the records necessary to trace them;Prevent the re-activation of disabled guns;Promote cooperative regimes to monitor gun flows;Prevent weapons theft; and build law enforcement capacity across borders.
20FIREARMS PROTOCOL HELPS TO: Close loopholes in national legislationTighten up regulations of air/sea transport of weaponsDevelop regional databases on seizures Promote inter-agency cooperation between customs, civil aviation, port and export licensing authoritiesProfile suspicious shipmentsShare information with countries to verify compliance with international agreementsFollow the money trail of arms and drugs deals to seize the proceeds of crime
21UNODC PRESENCE IN AFRICA Regional Office for North Africa and Middle EastBased in Cairo, EgyptRegional Office for West Africa (covering Central Africa as well)Based in Dakar, SenegalRegional Office for South Africa (covering Central Africa aswell)Based in Pretoria, South AfricaRegional Office for Eastern AfricaBased in Nairobi, Kenya
22UNODC REGIONAL PROGRAMMES IN AFRICA Regional Programmes are being developed for each region in Africa, which address issues of organized crime, drugs and terrorism.
23REGIONAL PROGRAMME FOR EASTERN AFRICA (2009-2012) Sub-programmes:1. Countering illicit trafficking, organized crime and terrorism2. Fighting corruption and promoting justice and integrity3. Improving health and human development
24Thank you for your attention! Ms. Ainura Bekkoenova, Associate ExpertUNODC Regional Office for Eastern AfricaNairobi, KenyaTel: