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Earth Radiation Budget Studies over the tropical monsoon region using satellite data P. C. Joshi Meteorology and Oceanography Group Space Applications.

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Presentation on theme: "Earth Radiation Budget Studies over the tropical monsoon region using satellite data P. C. Joshi Meteorology and Oceanography Group Space Applications."— Presentation transcript:

1 Earth Radiation Budget Studies over the tropical monsoon region using satellite data P. C. Joshi Meteorology and Oceanography Group Space Applications Centre (ISRO)

2 Radiation Balance of the Earth

3 Radiation Budget Satellites are designed to measure the radiation budget of the Earth from space. They use broadband channels to measure emitted longwave and reflected shortwave fluxes from the Earth-atmosphere system. Major ERB Missions Earth Radiation Budget Experiment [US] ScaRa-1& 2 [France, Russia & Germany] CERES (TRMM, Aqua, Terra) – [Japan/US] Geostationary ERB (European Union) ScaRaB/MT (India, France) Earth Radiation Budget Satellites

4 Instrument & Satellite Altitude (km) Resolution (km) Inclination (Deg) Period ERBE-ERBS (PT-72day) Nov 84- Feb90 ERBE-NOAA Feb85-Jan87 ERBE-NOAA Oct86-May89 ScaRaB/ Meteor (PT - 209Day ) Feb94-Mar95 ScaRab/ Resurs Aug98-Apr99 CERES/TRMM (PT- 46 Day) Jan98-Aug98 CERES/Terra Mar2000 onward CERES/Aqua Jul2002 onward ERB Missions

5 Instruments Shortwave  m Longwave  m Total waveband  m ERBE Scanner Shortwave  m Window Channel  m Total waveband  m CERES/TRMM

6 Visible (VIS)  m Solar (SW)  m Total (TW)  m IR Window (IR)  m ScaRaB Scanner  Two Narrow channels are added to test the cloud/Clear-sky detection  MT – Altitude 820 km, Inclination 20 , Resolution (nadir) ~45 (40?) km

7 ScaRaB Data Processing Data Processing of ScaRaB is similar to ERBE processing  Determination of the scene type (Cloud cover estimate using maximum likelihood technique)  Spectral corrections applied to deduce SW radiance from the filtered SW radiance (required due to the imperfect flatness of spectral response)  Apply scene type-dependent angular correction models to deduce SW and LW fluxes of the pixel as a function of the measured radiances  These fluxes are averaged over a geographical area of 2.5  2.5  latitude and longitudes.  Diurnal models are then applied in order to compute regional monthly mean values of the mean and clear-sky fluxes. --Duvel et al, 2001, BAMS

8 Understandings from the ERB satellites  Before satellite era, key climate variables like Albedo, net radiation are computed from model calculations.  Satellites revealed that the Planet is darker than theoretical values.  On global annual mean basis, absorbed solar radiation is in balance with the outgoing longwave radiation  Balance between solar and longwave radiation also exists on hemispherical scale.  Quantitative estimates about the atmospheric greenhouse effect. ---Ramanathan, 1987

9  Accurate measurement of the solar constant.  Meridional transport of energy by the atmosphere and oceans  Regional radiative forcing (deserts, monsoon, etc)  Net radiative effects of the clouds on climate  Influence of cloud radiative forcing on the general circulation. ---Ramanathan, 1987 Understandings from the ERB satellites

10 YEARLY AVERAGE NET RADIATION (ERBS) (Difference between Absorbed SW and Emitted LW) Wm -2 Positive = Warming Negative = Cooling

11 The zonal distribution of net radiation is shown for July 1985 and January 1986 (ERBE Data) Positive = Warming Negative = Cooling

12 Five year ( ) average Net Cloud Radiative Forcing in JJAS and April (ERBS) Wm -2

13 10 June 1994 Comparison of OLR from ScaRaB and INSAT ScaRaB broadband data provided a chance to validate the OLR derived from INSAT narrowband.

14 Cloud Radiative Forcing over the Asian Monson Region  ERB satellites provided opportunity to study the radiative forcing of the Clouds.  Clouds either cool or warm the planet depending on how much area they cover, how thick they are and how high they are.  Averaged over the Globe, Cooling by the clouds is about -50 Wm -2 and warming is about +30 Wm -2. So net effect of clouds is cooling (-20 Wm -2 )  But on an average deep convective clouds of the tropics neither cool or warm (Kiehl and Ramanathan, 1990)

15  Rajeevan and Srinivasan (2000) showed that during the summer monsoon season (June to September) near cancellation of SCRF and LCRF is not valid in the Asian monsoon region  Our study suggested that TEJ (Prominent only over Asia) efficiently redistributes the liquid/ice particles brought up by deep convection and increase the high cloud amount (Sathiyamoorthy et al, 2004)  Increased clouds block the incoming SW radiation and thereby cool the region. Cloud Radiative Forcing over the Asian Monson Region

16 Scatter plot between Shortwave and Longwave Cloud Radiative Forcing Imbalance Balance Asian Monsoon Region West Pacific Region

17 High, Mid and Low Cloud amount over Asia and West Pacific Warm Pool Jet is responsible for the large high cloud amounts

18 INSAT imagery and cloud top temperature suggest that the deep convective clouds are spread at the upper levels Low level clouds in the Arabian Sea are undisturbed Cloud Top TemperatureINSAT Vis Imagery

19 Mean Wind at the Upper Troposphere (200 hPa) JJAS Strong Winds in the form of Tropical Easterly Jet found only over Asia increase the high cloud amount by spreading the vertically growing monsoon clouds.

20 Cirrostratus Cloud amount in July from ISCCP-D2 ( ) ISCCP data suggest that the spreading of vertically growing cloud by the jet increase Cirrostratus clouds.

21 Variation of high cloud amount with variations in TEJ Velocity (m/s) This scatter plot confirms that the high cloud amount increase with increase in the speed of TEJ

22 SCRF Vs Wind LCRF Vs Wind NCRF Vs Wind Association between Jet speed and Cloud Radiative Forcing For a 10 m/s increase in the speed of jet SCRF increases by 30Wm -2 LCRF increases by 12 Wm -2 NCRF increases by18 Wm -2

23 Challenges  Satellites estimates of the Net radiation provide a non- zero value (~+5 Wm -2 ). Due to instrumental problems?  Long-term trend if any in radiation budget quantities.  Earth radiation balance during major ENSO, Major Volcanic events, severe monsoons.  Poor temporal coverage of sun-synchronous ERB satellites over Tropics.  Large data gaps in estimating clear-sky fluxes over the permanently covered regions including Asian monsoon region.  Do clouds decrease or increase Global Warming?

24 Sensitivity studies indicate that relatively small changes in global cloudiness can have a large impact on our climate system. 50% increase in carbon dioxide may warm the Earth much less than a 50% increase in the amount of high cirrus clouds. -CERES Document

25 Data Gap over the Asian Monsoon region ERBS June 1988

26  Poor Temporal Coverage over the Tropics in earlier ERB missions (except CERES/TRMM)  Emitted longwave and reflected shortwave underwent large changes during the observational period of CERES/TRMM due to the strongest El Nino of the century  So more reliable estimates over the tropics is necessary

27 Comparison of Outgoing Longwave radiation (W/m2) derived from INSAT-3A and NOAA, for 15 Oct. 2004

28 Operational Uses 1.Atmospheric Model Diagnosis 2.Initialization 3.Assimilation

29 THANKS


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