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1 Conceptual Workshow How to use The Contingency- Diagramming Checklist Version 1.0 (Original paper based): Lori Johnson and Janet Emmendorfer Version.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Conceptual Workshow How to use The Contingency- Diagramming Checklist Version 1.0 (Original paper based): Lori Johnson and Janet Emmendorfer Version."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Conceptual Workshow How to use The Contingency- Diagramming Checklist Version 1.0 (Original paper based): Lori Johnson and Janet Emmendorfer Version 2.0 (Computer-based): Jason Otto Version 2.1: Jason Otto, Moira McGlynn and Mitch Fryling Version 2.2: Eduardo Osorio, Conny Raaymakers, Morgan Reynolds, and Greg Partlo 57 Questions between two parts. Approximately 1 hour 30 minutes to complete the two parts. Click the forward action button to advance.

2 2 Conceptual Workshow How to use The Contingency- Diagramming Checklist Do you hear music? You should, so check your volume or, if you’re at the University lab, you’ll need to use headphones.

3 3 Behaver Test Specific-Behavior Test Action Test Dead-man Test Receiver Test Compare & Contrast This is the table of contents. If this is the first time doing this workshow, then click on the continue button. But if this is review then you may choose where to go by left-clicking a test. Questions 2-5 Questions 19-23 Questions 15-18 Questions 11-14 Questions 6-10 Mini-lecture Continue

4 4 As you enter the world of behavior analysis, As you enter the world of behavior analysis, you’ll see that not all examples you’ll see that not all examples of our interactions with the world and people of our interactions with the world and people are quite as simple as they may look. are quite as simple as they may look.

5 5 To help you along the way, To help you along the way, we’ve designed a job aid we’ve designed a job aid (The Contingency- Diagramming Checklist) (The Contingency- Diagramming Checklist) of all the concepts and general rules you need to keep in mind of all the concepts and general rules you need to keep in mind while analyzing and creating behavioral contingencies. while analyzing and creating behavioral contingencies.

6 6

7 7 You can come up with really interesting analyses of human and animal behavior You could impress your teacher and hopefully even make your buddies in class laugh. Or they’ll think hard about your example’s heavy-duty intellectuality. But before you’re done with each example, you’ll make sure that it passes all 10 tests. We call the job aid with the 10 tests the Pink Sheet. And it saves many lost contingencies that need saving. Sometimes you’ll be able to view the pink sheet by clicking a button like this, but it’s better to have the paper version out too. Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet LET’S BEGIN! Click the pink sheet button to advance

8 8

9 9 Behaver Test: Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing?

10 10 We have the problem, “How can we get Bobby Brat to study?” We have the problem, “How can we get Bobby Brat to study?” As all good Behavior Analysts, we find what can be a reinforcer for Bobby. As all good Behavior Analysts, we find what can be a reinforcer for Bobby.

11 11 For most people, attention is a powerful reinforcer. And attention is a powerful reinforcer for Bobby, too. And attention is a powerful reinforcer for Bobby, too.

12 12 Before Behavior The teacher gives Bobby attention Behavior The teacher gives Bobby attention After Bobby receives attention Bobby receives no attention We can give Bobby attention contingent on his studying. We can give Bobby attention contingent on his studying. Let’s try to analyze Bobby’s behavior with the contingency diagram

13 13 Wait! This isn’t Bobby Before Behavior The teacher gives Bobby attention Behavior The teacher gives Bobby attention After Bobby receives attention Bobby receives no attention the person whose behavior we’re analyzing. the person whose behavior we’re analyzing.

14 14 Before Behavior The teacher gives Bobby attention Behavior The teacher gives Bobby attention After So we redo the example to make sure we analyze Bobby’s behavior. So we redo the example to make sure we analyze Bobby’s behavior. Bobby receives attention Bobby receives no attention Bobby studies

15 15 Before Behavior After Immediately before his behavior, he has no attention (the teacher isn’t saying anything to him). Bobby studies Bobby begins a worksheet. Immediately after his studying, the teacher gives him attention. Bobby receives attention Bobby receives no attention

16 16 So how did we follow the Pink Sheet? A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1 Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1 Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. Before Behavior After Bobby is the Behaver Bobby’s Bobby studies Bobby receives attention Bobby receives no attention

17 17 A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1 Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1 Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. Before Behavior After Let’s take another look at the contingency on Bobby’s behavior. Bobby studies Bobby is the Behaver Bobby’s Bobby receives attention Bobby receives no attention

18 18 A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1 Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1 Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. Before Behavior After Bobby studies Bobby begins studying. Bobby is the Behaver Bobby’s

19 19 The teacher sees this and gives him some attention. A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1 Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1 Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. Before Behavior After Bobby studies Bobby is the Behaver Bobby’s Bobby receives attention And you can bet that attention is a reinforcer for Bobby’s studying.

20 20 A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1 Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1 Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. Before Behavior After Bobby studies Bobby is the Behaver Bobby’s Bobby receives attention Bobby receives no attention If the behavior caused the teacher to give him attention, then he must not have had it before. If the behavior caused the teacher to give him attention, then he must not have had it before.

21 21 A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1 Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1 Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. Before Behavior After Bobby studies Bobby is the Behaver Bobby’s Bobby receives attention Bobby receives no attention Be sure to distinguish between BEHAVER and BEHAVIOR. Be sure to distinguish between BEHAVER and BEHAVIOR. The BEHAVER is the person who is responding and BEHAVIOR is what he is doing. The BEHAVER is the person who is responding and BEHAVIOR is what he is doing.

22 22 Bobby Brat is at his desk when he sees a perfect opportunity to shoot a spit ball at Susie in front of him. He shoots spit balls because her reaction is mucho attention for him. What’s the contingency on Bobby’s behavior? He shoots spit balls because her reaction is mucho attention for him. What’s the contingency on Bobby’s behavior?

23 23 A.YesYes B.NoNo Does this contingency diagram pass the behaver test? Does this contingency diagram pass the behaver test? Before Behavior After Susie yells Bobby receives attention Bobby receives no attention Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet Click me if you want to see the story again

24 24 Contingency-Diagramming Checklist A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1. Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1. Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. Before Behavior After D. What is the condition before the response? 10. Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition? (Often the relationship is one of opposites) If not, change one or both of the conditions. Use this checklist for every contingency diagram you do and you’ll save yourself some headaches and impress your TA during transparency time. Simply place the answer to each of the 10 questions for the corresponding blank in the contingency diagram above it. Turn the checklist over to determine which type of contingency you have. In learning these criteria for a test, you need only know each name and sentence that’s bold. D. What is the condition before the response? 10. Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition? (Often the relationship is one of opposites) If not, change one or both of the conditions. Use this checklist for every contingency diagram you do and you’ll save yourself some headaches and impress your TA during transparency time. Simply place the answer to each of the 10 questions for the corresponding blank in the contingency diagram above it. Turn the checklist over to determine which type of contingency you have. In learning these criteria for a test, you need only know each name and sentence that’s bold. B. What is the behavior being analyzed or diagrammed? 2. Deadman Test Can a dead man do it? If he can, then you haven’t properly specified the behavior. So roll over the dead man. 3. Action Test Does the behavior involve an action? (Hint: Learning, receiving, being, hearing, seeing, and feeling are not behavior). If not, then change the behavior. 4. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not, then reword the behavior. 5. Reinforceable Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are, then the behavior is not a response-unit. Rewrite the behavior. B. What is the behavior being analyzed or diagrammed? 2. Deadman Test Can a dead man do it? If he can, then you haven’t properly specified the behavior. So roll over the dead man. 3. Action Test Does the behavior involve an action? (Hint: Learning, receiving, being, hearing, seeing, and feeling are not behavior). If not, then change the behavior. 4. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not, then reword the behavior. 5. Reinforceable Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are, then the behavior is not a response-unit. Rewrite the behavior. C. What is the outcome that follows the response? 6. Stimulus Test Is the before & after a stimulus, event or condition and not a behavior of the behaver? If it’s not a stimulus then change your condition. (Hint: If the before or after is another behavior of the behaver, you probably don’t have a correct condition. Exceptions: self-reinforcement, seeing, hearing, or the opportunity for activity. 7. Causality Test Is the outcome caused by the response? If not, change the outcome. 8. 60” Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds? If so, find an immediate outcome. 9. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not, rework the example. Hint: Make sure the diagram passes the behaver test first C. What is the outcome that follows the response? 6. Stimulus Test Is the before & after a stimulus, event or condition and not a behavior of the behaver? If it’s not a stimulus then change your condition. (Hint: If the before or after is another behavior of the behaver, you probably don’t have a correct condition. Exceptions: self-reinforcement, seeing, hearing, or the opportunity for activity. 7. Causality Test Is the outcome caused by the response? If not, change the outcome. 8. 60” Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds? If so, find an immediate outcome. 9. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not, rework the example. Hint: Make sure the diagram passes the behaver test first Back to the Question

25 25 Before Behavior After Bobby receives attention After Bobby receives attention Susie yells A.Yes B.NoNo Bobby receives no attention Does this contingency diagram pass the behaver test? Does this contingency diagram pass the behaver test? Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet Incorrect, you should check the pink sheet. Click me if you want to see the story again

26 26 A.YesYes B.Correct, we’re interested in Bobby’s behavior. Before Behavior After Bobby receives attention After Bobby receives attention Bobby receives no attention Susie yells Does this contingency diagram pass the behaver test? Does this contingency diagram pass the behaver test?

27 27 A.Bobby shoots a spit ballBobby shoots a spit ball B.Susie gets hit by a spit ballSusie gets hit by a spit ball So how would you fix it? So how would you fix it? Before Behavior After ? Bobby receives attention Bobby receives no attention Click me if you want to see the story again

28 28 A.Bobby shoots a spit ballBobby shoots a spit ball B.Susie gets hit by a spit ball So how would you fix it? Before Behavior After ? Bobby receives attention Bobby receives no attention Incorrect, you should have Bobby in the Behavior box. Click me if you want to see the story again

29 29 A.Bobby shoots a spit ball B.Susie gets hit by a spit ballSusie gets hit by a spit ball So how would you fix it? Before Behavior After Bobby shoots a spit ball Bobby receives attention Bobby receives no attention Correct, Bobby is the person whose behavior we are analyzing, so his name should be in the behavior box

30 30 A.YesYes B.NoNo We want to analyze Susie’s behavior. Is there something wrong with this contingency diagram? Before Susie has no attention Before Susie has no attention Behavior Bobby smiles at Susie Behavior Bobby smiles at Susie After Susie has attention After Susie has attention Susie says, “You’re a brat Bobby!” Then Bobby gives her attention with a smile. Click me if you want to see the story again

31 31 A.YesYes B.No We want to analyze Susie’s behavior. Is there something wrong with this contingency diagram? Before Susie has no attention Before Susie has no attention Behavior Bobby smiles at Susie Behavior Bobby smiles at Susie After Susie has attention After Susie has attention Susie says, “You’re a brat Bobby!” Then Bobby gives her attention with a smile. There is something wrong. Read the Behaver test on the Pink Sheet.

32 32 A.Yes B.NoNo We want to analyze Susie’s behavior. Is there something wrong with this contingency diagram? Before Susie has no attention Before Susie has no attention Behavior Bobby smiles at Susie Behavior Bobby smiles at Susie After Susie has attention After Susie has attention Susie says, “You’re a brat Bobby!” Then Bobby gives her attention with a smile. That’s right. This diagram is incorrect.

33 33 A.Bobby’sBobby’s B.Susie’sSusie’s We want to analyze Susie’s behavior. Whose behavior should be in the Behavior box? Before Susie has no attention Before Susie has no attention Behavior Bobby smiles at Susie Behavior Bobby smiles at Susie After Susie has attention After Susie has attention Susie says, “You’re a brat Bobby!” Then Bobby gives her attention with a smile.

34 34 A.Bobby’s B.Susie’sSusie’s We want to analyze Susie’s behavior. Whose behavior should be in the Behavior box? Before Susie has no attention Before Susie has no attention Behavior Bobby smiles at Susie Behavior Bobby smiles at Susie After Susie has attention After Susie has attention Susie says, “You’re a brat Bobby!” Then Bobby gives her attention with a smile. For now, we are just analyzing Susie’s behavior.

35 35 A.Bobby’sBobby’s B.Susie’s We want to analyze Susie’s behavior. Whose behavior should be in the Behavior box? Before Susie has no attention Before Susie has no attention Behavior Bobby smiles at Susie Behavior Bobby smiles at Susie After Susie has attention After Susie has attention Susie says, “You’re a brat Bobby!” Then Bobby gives her attention with a smile. Cool.

36 36 How do we correctly diagram Susie’s contingency? Have you thought of your answer? Before Susie has no attention Before Susie has no attention Behavior Bobby smiles at Susie Behavior Bobby smiles at Susie After Susie has attention After Susie has attention Susie says, “You’re a brat Bobby!” Then Bobby gives her attention with a smile.

37 37 Before Susie has no attention Before Susie has no attention Behavior After Susie has attention After Susie has attention Susie says, “You’re a brat Bobby!” Here’s the correct contingency:

38 38 It’s important to make sure that the behavior of the behaver is in the behavior box ! It’s important to make sure that the behavior of the behaver is in the behavior box ! You’re on your way to becoming an expert behavior analyst! GOOD JOB!

39 39 Contingency-Diagramming Checklist A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1. Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1. Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. Before Behavior After D. What is the condition before the response? 10. Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition? (Often the relationship is one of opposites) If not, change one or both of the conditions. Use this checklist for every contingency diagram you do and you’ll save yourself some headaches and impress your TA during transparency time. Simply place the answer to each of the 10 questions for the corresponding blank in the contingency diagram above it. Turn the checklist over to determine which type of contingency you have. In learning these criteria for a test, you need only know each name and sentence that’s bold. D. What is the condition before the response? 10. Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition? (Often the relationship is one of opposites) If not, change one or both of the conditions. Use this checklist for every contingency diagram you do and you’ll save yourself some headaches and impress your TA during transparency time. Simply place the answer to each of the 10 questions for the corresponding blank in the contingency diagram above it. Turn the checklist over to determine which type of contingency you have. In learning these criteria for a test, you need only know each name and sentence that’s bold. B. What is the behavior being analyzed or diagrammed? 2. Deadman Test Can a dead man do it? If he can, then you haven’t properly specified the behavior. So roll over the dead man. 3. Action Test Does the behavior involve an action? (Hint: Learning, receiving, being, hearing, seeing, and feeling are not behavior). If not, then change the behavior. 4. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not, then reword the behavior. 5. Reinforceable Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are, then the behavior is not a response-unit. Rewrite the behavior. B. What is the behavior being analyzed or diagrammed? 2. Deadman Test Can a dead man do it? If he can, then you haven’t properly specified the behavior. So roll over the dead man. 3. Action Test Does the behavior involve an action? (Hint: Learning, receiving, being, hearing, seeing, and feeling are not behavior). If not, then change the behavior. 4. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not, then reword the behavior. 5. Reinforceable Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are, then the behavior is not a response-unit. Rewrite the behavior. C. What is the outcome that follows the response? 6. Stimulus Test Is the before & after a stimulus, event or condition and not a behavior of the behaver? If it’s not a stimulus then change your condition. (Hint: If the before or after is another behavior of the behaver, you probably don’t have a correct condition. Exceptions: self-reinforcement, seeing, hearing, or the opportunity for activity. 7. Causality Test Is the outcome caused by the response? If not, change the outcome. 8. 60” Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds? If so, find an immediate outcome. 9. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not, rework the example. Hint: Make sure the diagram passes the behaver test first C. What is the outcome that follows the response? 6. Stimulus Test Is the before & after a stimulus, event or condition and not a behavior of the behaver? If it’s not a stimulus then change your condition. (Hint: If the before or after is another behavior of the behaver, you probably don’t have a correct condition. Exceptions: self-reinforcement, seeing, hearing, or the opportunity for activity. 7. Causality Test Is the outcome caused by the response? If not, change the outcome. 8. 60” Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds? If so, find an immediate outcome. 9. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not, rework the example. Hint: Make sure the diagram passes the behaver test first Back to the Question

40 40 Receiver Test: Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (the after condition)?

41 41 Let’s take a further look at Bobby’s shooting spit balls at Susie. Let’s take a further look at Bobby’s shooting spit balls at Susie.

42 42 A.BobbyBobby B.SusieSusie Who receives the outcome (in the form of Susie yelling?) Before Behavior After Bobby shoots a spit ball Bobby receives attention Bobby receives no attention

43 43 A.BobbyBobby B.Susie Who receives the outcome (in the form of Susie’s yelling)? Before Behavior After Bobby shoots a spit ball Bobby receives attention Bobby receives no attention No, Bobby receives the attention in the form of Susie’s yelling

44 44 A.Bobby B.SusieSusie Who receives the outcome (in the form of Susie’s yelling)? Before Behavior After Bobby shoots a spit ball Bobby receives attention Bobby receives no attention Yes, Bobby receives the attention in the form of Susie’s yelling. This contingency passes the receiver test because Bobby the behaver receives the outcome.

45 45 Bobby is studying continuously at his desk. The teacher looks up and sees Bobby studying and walks over to see how he’s doing (and give him the reinforcer of attention).

46 46 Before Teacher doesn’t see Bobby study Before Teacher doesn’t see Bobby study Behavior Bobby studies Behavior Bobby studies After Teacher sees Bobby study After Teacher sees Bobby study A.YesYes B.NoNo Is the after condition correct? Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet The after condition for Bobby’s behavior should be something he receives. The after condition for Bobby’s behavior should be something he receives.

47 47 10. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not then rework the example. Click me to go back to the Question

48 48 Before Teacher doesn’t see Bobby study Before Teacher doesn’t see Bobby study Behavior Bobby studies Behavior Bobby studies After Teacher sees Bobby study After Teacher sees Bobby study A.Yes B.NoNo Is the after condition correct? The after condition for Bobby’s behavior should be something he receives. The after condition for Bobby’s behavior should be something he receives. No, the teacher’s seeing Bobby wasn’t the outcome Bobby received.

49 49 Before Teacher doesn’t see Bobby study Before Teacher doesn’t see Bobby study Behavior Bobby studies Behavior Bobby studies After Teacher sees Bobby study After Teacher sees Bobby study A.YesYes B.No Is the after condition correct? The after condition for Bobby’s behavior should be something he receives. The after condition for Bobby’s behavior should be something he receives. Correct, the teacher’s seeing Bobby wasn’t the outcome Bobby received.

50 50 Before Teacher doesn’t see Bobby study Before Teacher doesn’t see Bobby study Behavior Bobby studies Behavior Bobby studies After Teacher sees Bobby study After Teacher sees Bobby study So, the before condition So, the before condition and the after condition need to be analyzed again. and the after condition need to be analyzed again.

51 51 Before Teacher doesn’t see Bobby study Before Teacher doesn’t see Bobby study Behavior Bobby studies Behavior Bobby studies After Teacher sees Bobby study After Teacher sees Bobby study A.The teacher gives Bobby attentionThe teacher gives Bobby attention B.The teacher sees Bobby studyThe teacher sees Bobby study C.The teacher is happyThe teacher is happy D.The teacher likes BobbyThe teacher likes Bobby Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet What is the correct after condition? What is the correct after condition?

52 52 10. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not then rework the example. Click me to go back to the Question

53 53 Before Teacher doesn’t see Bobby study Before Teacher doesn’t see Bobby study Behavior Bobby studies Behavior Bobby studies After Teacher sees Bobby study After Teacher sees Bobby study A.The teacher gives Bobby attentionThe teacher gives Bobby attention B.The teacher sees Bobby study C.The teacher is happyThe teacher is happy D.The teacher likes BobbyThe teacher likes Bobby What is the correct after condition? What is the correct after condition? No, Bobby isn’t receiving anything with the description Teacher sees Bobby study. Click me to see the Pink Sheet

54 54 Before Teacher doesn’t see Bobby study Before Teacher doesn’t see Bobby study Behavior Bobby studies Behavior Bobby studies After Teacher sees Bobby study After Teacher sees Bobby study A.The teacher gives Bobby attentionThe teacher gives Bobby attention B.The teacher sees Bobby studyThe teacher sees Bobby study C.The teacher is happy D.The teacher likes BobbyThe teacher likes Bobby Click me to see the Pink Sheet What is the correct after condition? What is the correct after condition? No, Bobby isn’t receiving anything with the description Teacher is happy.

55 55 Before Teacher doesn’t see Bobby study Before Teacher doesn’t see Bobby study Behavior Bobby studies Behavior Bobby studies After Teacher sees Bobby study After Teacher sees Bobby study A.The teacher gives Bobby attentionThe teacher gives Bobby attention B.The teacher sees Bobby studyThe teacher sees Bobby study C.The teacher is happyThe teacher is happy D.The teacher likes Bobby Click me to see the Pink Sheet What is the correct after condition? What is the correct after condition? No, Bobby isn’t receiving anything with the description Teacher likes Bobby.

56 56 Before Teacher doesn’t see Bobby study Before Teacher doesn’t see Bobby study Behavior Bobby studies Behavior Bobby studies A.The teacher gives Bobby attention B.The teacher sees Bobby studyThe teacher sees Bobby study C.The teacher is happyThe teacher is happy D.The teacher likes BobbyThe teacher likes Bobby After Teacher sees Bobby study After Teacher sees Bobby study What is the correct after condition? What is the correct after condition? Yes, the teacher gives Bobby attention.

57 57 Before Emily does not feel nice kiss from Bobby Before Emily does not feel nice kiss from Bobby Behavior Bobby kisses Emily Behavior Bobby kisses Emily After Emily feels nice kiss from Bobby After Emily feels nice kiss from Bobby Now, let’s analyze why Emily kisses Bobby. We figure the reinforcer for Emily’s behavior of kissing is the nice feeling when Bobby kisses back. Analyze Emily’s behavior. A.YesYes B.NoNo Is this contingency correct?

58 58 Before Emily does not feel nice kiss from Bobby Before Emily does not feel nice kiss from Bobby Behavior Bobby kisses Emily Behavior Bobby kisses Emily After Emily feels nice kiss from Bobby After Emily feels nice kiss from Bobby Now, let’s analyze why Emily kisses Bobby. We figure the reinforcer for Emily’s behavior of kissing is the nice feeling when Bobby kisses back. Analyze Emily’s behavior. A.Yes B.NoNo Is this contingency correct? Whose behavior should be in the behavior box (whose behavior are we analyzing)?

59 59 Before Emily does not feel nice kiss from Bobby Before Emily does not feel nice kiss from Bobby Behavior Bobby kisses Emily Behavior Bobby kisses Emily After Emily feels nice kiss from Bobby After Emily feels nice kiss from Bobby Now, let’s analyze why Emily kisses Bobby. We figure the reinforcer for Emily’s behavior of kissing is the nice feeling when Bobby kisses back. Analyze Emily’s behavior. A.YesYes B.No Is this contingency correct? Yes, this one fails the behaver test because Emily’s behavior isn’t in the behavior box

60 60 Before Bobby does not feel nice kiss from Emily Before Bobby does not feel nice kiss from Emily Behavior Emily kisses Bobby Behavior Emily kisses Bobby After Bobby feels nice kiss from Emily After Bobby feels nice kiss from Emily Now, let’s analyze why Emily kisses Bobby. We figure the reinforcer for Emily’s behavior of kissing is the nice feeling when Bobby kisses back. Analyze Emily’s behavior. A.YesYes B.NoNo Now we’ve switched all the boxes. Is it correct?

61 61 Before Bobby does not feel nice kiss from Emily Before Bobby does not feel nice kiss from Emily Behavior Emily kisses Bobby Behavior Emily kisses Bobby After Bobby feels nice kiss from Emily After Bobby feels nice kiss from Emily Now, let’s analyze why Emily kisses Bobby. We figure the reinforcer for Emily’s behavior of kissing is the nice feeling when Bobby kisses back. Analyze Emily’s behavior. A.Yes B.NoNo Now we’ve switched all the boxes. Is it correct? But Emily (the behaver) should receive the outcome.

62 62 Before Bobby does not feel nice kiss from Emily Before Bobby does not feel nice kiss from Emily Behavior Emily kisses Bobby Behavior Emily kisses Bobby After Bobby feels nice kiss from Emily After Bobby feels nice kiss from Emily We are trying to analyze why Emily kisses Bobby. We figure the reinforcer for Emily’s behavior of kissing is the nice feeling when Bobby kisses back. Analyze Emily’s behavior. A.YesYes B.No Now we’ve switched all the boxes. Is it correct? Yes, this one fails the receiver test because Emily, the behaver, should receive the outcome

63 63 Before Emily does not feel nice kiss from Bobby Before Emily does not feel nice kiss from Bobby Behavior Emily kisses Bobby Behavior Emily kisses Bobby After Emily feels nice kiss from Bobby After Emily feels nice kiss from Bobby So here’s the correct contingency for Emily’s Behavior:

64 64 Dead-Man Test Can a dead man do it? If he can then you haven’t properly specified the behavior (so roll over the dead man)

65 65 Dead-Man Test The trap of talking about non- behavior is also easy to fall into at first, The trap of talking about non- behavior is also easy to fall into at first, but after a little practice, you’ll know how to word your examples so the subject is doing something. but after a little practice, you’ll know how to word your examples so the subject is doing something.

66 66 Some examples of non behaviors (behaviors that fail the dead man test) include: Some examples of non behaviors (behaviors that fail the dead man test) include: Wears clothing/glasses Wears clothing/glasses Doesn’t answer Doesn’t answer Doesn’t do homework Doesn’t do homework Any sentence that begins with “doesn’t ____” will probably fail the test Any sentence that begins with “doesn’t ____” will probably fail the test Sits Sits Some examples of behaviors that don’t fail the test include: Some examples of behaviors that don’t fail the test include: Puts on clothing/glassesPuts on clothing/glasses AnswersAnswers ScreamsScreams TalksTalks Does homeworkDoes homework

67 67 Does this behavior pass the dead man test? Click me to see the Pink Sheet A.YesYes B.NoNo Behavior Bobby does not listen Behavior Bobby does not listen

68 68 Does this behavior pass the dead man test? Click me to see the Pink Sheet A.Yes B.NoNo Behavior Bobby does not listen Behavior Bobby does not listen Can a dead man not listen? So, if a dead man can do it, it doesn’t pass the test.

69 69 Does this behavior pass the dead man test? Click me to see the Pink Sheet A.YesYes B.No Behavior Bobby does not listen Behavior Bobby does not listen Right on! A dead man is excellent at not listening, therefore it fails the dead man test.

70 70 How about this one? Does this behavior pass the dead man test? Click me to see the Pink Sheet A.YesYes B.NoNo Behavior Bobby answers a question Behavior Bobby answers a question

71 71 How about this one? Does this behavior pass the dead man test? Click me to see the Pink Sheet A.Yes B.NoNo Behavior Bobby answers a question Behavior Bobby answers a question Right on! A dead man can’t “answer a question” so it passes the test

72 72 How about this one? Does this behavior pass the dead man test? Click me to see the Pink Sheet A.YesYes B.No Behavior Bobby answers a question Behavior Bobby answers a question Can a dead man answer a question? If a dead man can not do it, then it passes the test.

73 73 Click the behavior that passes the Dead-Man Test Before Bob receives no approval Before Bob receives no approval Behavior B. Bob studies quietlyBob studies quietly Behavior B. Bob studies quietlyBob studies quietly After Bob receives approval After Bob receives approval Before Bob receives no approval Before Bob receives no approval Behavior A. Bob doesn’t interruptBob doesn’t interrupt Behavior A. Bob doesn’t interruptBob doesn’t interrupt After Bob receives approval After Bob receives approval

74 74 Click the behavior that passes the Dead-Man Test Before Bob receives no approval Before Bob receives no approval Behavior B. Bob studies quietlyBob studies quietly Behavior B. Bob studies quietlyBob studies quietly After Bob receives approval After Bob receives approval Before Bob receives no approval Before Bob receives no approval Behavior A. Bob doesn’t interrupt Behavior A. Bob doesn’t interrupt After Bob receives approval After Bob receives approval No, a dead man “doesn’t interrupt”

75 75 Click the behavior that passes the Dead-Man Test Before Bob receives no approval Before Bob receives no approval Behavior B. Bob studies quietly Behavior B. Bob studies quietly After Bob receives approval After Bob receives approval Before Bob receives no approval Before Bob receives no approval Behavior A. Bob doesn’t interruptBob doesn’t interrupt Behavior A. Bob doesn’t interruptBob doesn’t interrupt After Bob receives approval After Bob receives approval Right! A dead man can’t study quietly. So it passes the test

76 76 A.YesYes B.NoNo Before Johnny has no attention from his teacher Before Johnny has no attention from his teacher Behavior Johnny has a black eye Behavior Johnny has a black eye After Johnny has attention from his teacher After Johnny has attention from his teacher Does this pass the dead-man test?

77 77 A.Yes B.NoNo Before Johnny has no attention from his teacher Before Johnny has no attention from his teacher Behavior Johnny has a black eye Behavior Johnny has a black eye After Johnny has attention from his teacher After Johnny has attention from his teacher Does this pass the dead-man test? Careful! Having a black eye is not behavior. It’s a stretch to think a dead man could have a black eye, but the point is it’s not behavior

78 78 A.YesYes B.No Before Johnny has no attention from his teacher Before Johnny has no attention from his teacher Behavior Johnny has a black eye Behavior Johnny has a black eye After Johnny has attention from his teacher After Johnny has attention from his teacher Does this pass the dead-man test? That’s right. Having a black eye is non behavior. It’s a stretch, but a dead man could have a black eye

79 79 Check your scantron, you should have 1-14 filled in now.

80 80 Specific- Behavior Test: Is it perfectly clear what action is involved in the behavior?

81 81 Some examples that pass the test include: Answers a question Reads a chapter Raises his hand Screams Yells cries Some examples that fail the test include: Acts out Is disruptive Is lazy Is shy Is upset

82 82 Specific-Behavior Test Remember to be perfectly clear in your examples. Before Bob receives praise Before Bob receives praise Behavior Bob is lazy Behavior Bob is lazy After Bob receives no praise After Bob receives no praise Would everyone reading your example come to the same understanding of what this behavior consists of? Probably not…

83 83 Specific-Behavior Test Before Bob receives praise Before Bob receives praise Behavior Bob is lazy Behavior Bob is lazy After Bob receives no praise After Bob receives no praise Bob sleeps at his desk We’ll make the behavior perfectly clear. If we changed “is lazy” to “sleeps at his desk”, we would get better agreement about what Bobby is doing

84 84 “Sleeps at his desk” is perfectly clear because this statement specifies an actual, specific instance of behavior Before Bob receives praise Before Bob receives praise Behavior Bob is lazy Behavior Bob is lazy After Bob receives no praise After Bob receives no praise Bob sleeps at his desk And, Bobby wouldn’t agree that he was lazy, but he might agree that he was asleep at his desk!

85 85 When analyzing contingencies, try to envision exactly what the person is doing and write that in the behavior box. It is very easy to use vague, potentially confusing descriptions of behavior.

86 86 5. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not then reword the behavior. Back to the Question

87 87 Click on the behavior that passes the Specific Behavior Test Before Bob does not understand question 5 Before Bob does not understand question 5 Behavior A. The teacher helps BobbyThe teacher helps Bobby Behavior A. The teacher helps BobbyThe teacher helps Bobby After Bob understands question 5 After Bob understands question 5 Before Bob does not understand question 5 Before Bob does not understand question 5 Behavior B. The teacher tells Bobby to carry the fourThe teacher tells Bobby to carry the four Behavior B. The teacher tells Bobby to carry the fourThe teacher tells Bobby to carry the four After Bob understands question 5 After Bob understands question 5 Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet

88 88 Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet Before Bob does not understand question 5 Before Bob does not understand question 5 Behavior A. The teacher helps Bobby Behavior A. The teacher helps Bobby After Bob understands question 5 After Bob understands question 5 Before Bob does not understand question 5 Before Bob does not understand question 5 Behavior B. The teacher tells Bobby to carry the fourThe teacher tells Bobby to carry the four Behavior B. The teacher tells Bobby to carry the fourThe teacher tells Bobby to carry the four After Bob understands question 5 After Bob understands question 5 No, this isn’t specific enough, is she telling him to add, subtract, multiply?

89 89 Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet Before Bob does not understand question 5 Before Bob does not understand question 5 Behavior A. The teacher helps Bobby. The teacher helps Bobby Behavior A. The teacher helps Bobby. The teacher helps Bobby After Bob understands question 5 After Bob understands question 5 Before Bob does not understand question 5 Before Bob does not understand question 5 Behavior B. The teacher tells Bobby to carry the four Behavior B. The teacher tells Bobby to carry the four After Bob understands question 5 After Bob understands question 5 Right on!

90 90 Here’s another example. Jennifer’s roommate, Sue, loves to borrow her clothes but often leaves them in a pile on the floor. This really bothers Jennifer. Then one day, Jen yells at her, telling Sue she couldn’t borrow her clothes.

91 91 Sue quickly said she was sorry and picked up the clothes, and Jennifer immediately reinstated her borrowing privileges. Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Behavior ? Behavior ? After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes

92 92 Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Behavior After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes A.Correct behaviorCorrect behavior B.Fails behaver testFails behaver test C.Fails receiver testFails receiver test D.Fails dead-man testFails dead-man test Jen yells at Sue Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet Analyze Sue’s behavior to form a correct reinforcement contingency. Does “Jen yells at Sue” fail a Pink Sheet test? Analyze Sue’s behavior to form a correct reinforcement contingency. Does “Jen yells at Sue” fail a Pink Sheet test? Click me to read story again Click me to read story again

93 93 Contingency-Diagramming Checklist A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1. Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1. Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. Before Behavior After D. What is the condition before the response? 10. Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition? (Often the relationship is one of opposites) If not, change one or both of the conditions. Use this checklist for every contingency diagram you do and you’ll save yourself some headaches and impress your TA during transparency time. Simply place the answer to each of the 10 questions for the corresponding blank in the contingency diagram above it. Turn the checklist over to determine which type of contingency you have. In learning these criteria for a test, you need only know each name and sentence that’s bold. D. What is the condition before the response? 10. Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition? (Often the relationship is one of opposites) If not, change one or both of the conditions. Use this checklist for every contingency diagram you do and you’ll save yourself some headaches and impress your TA during transparency time. Simply place the answer to each of the 10 questions for the corresponding blank in the contingency diagram above it. Turn the checklist over to determine which type of contingency you have. In learning these criteria for a test, you need only know each name and sentence that’s bold. B. What is the behavior being analyzed or diagrammed? 2. Deadman Test Can a dead man do it? If he can, then you haven’t properly specified the behavior. So roll over the dead man. 3. Action Test Does the behavior involve an action? (Hint: Learning, receiving, being, hearing, seeing, and feeling are not behavior). If not, then change the behavior. 4. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not, then reword the behavior. 5. Reinforceable Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are, then the behavior is not a response-unit. Rewrite the behavior. B. What is the behavior being analyzed or diagrammed? 2. Deadman Test Can a dead man do it? If he can, then you haven’t properly specified the behavior. So roll over the dead man. 3. Action Test Does the behavior involve an action? (Hint: Learning, receiving, being, hearing, seeing, and feeling are not behavior). If not, then change the behavior. 4. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not, then reword the behavior. 5. Reinforceable Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are, then the behavior is not a response-unit. Rewrite the behavior. C. What is the outcome that follows the response? 6. Stimulus Test Is the before & after a stimulus, event or condition and not a behavior of the behaver? If it’s not a stimulus then change your condition. (Hint: If the before or after is another behavior of the behaver, you probably don’t have a correct condition. Exceptions: self-reinforcement, seeing, hearing, or the opportunity for activity. 7. Causality Test Is the outcome caused by the response? If not, change the outcome. 8. 60” Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds? If so, find an immediate outcome. 9. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not, rework the example. Hint: Make sure the diagram passes the behaver test first C. What is the outcome that follows the response? 6. Stimulus Test Is the before & after a stimulus, event or condition and not a behavior of the behaver? If it’s not a stimulus then change your condition. (Hint: If the before or after is another behavior of the behaver, you probably don’t have a correct condition. Exceptions: self-reinforcement, seeing, hearing, or the opportunity for activity. 7. Causality Test Is the outcome caused by the response? If not, change the outcome. 8. 60” Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds? If so, find an immediate outcome. 9. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not, rework the example. Hint: Make sure the diagram passes the behaver test first Click me to go back to the Question

94 94 Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Behavior Jen yells at Sue Behavior Jen yells at Sue After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes A.Correct behavior B.Fails behaver testFails behaver test C.Fails receiver testFails receiver test D.Fails dead-man testFails dead-man test No, remember we’re analyzing Sue’s behavior not Jen’s Analyze Sue’s behavior to form a correct reinforcement contingency. Does “Jen yells at Sue” fail a Pink Sheet test? Analyze Sue’s behavior to form a correct reinforcement contingency. Does “Jen yells at Sue” fail a Pink Sheet test?

95 95 A.Correct behaviorCorrect behavior B.Fails behaver test C.Fails receiver testFails receiver test D.Fails dead-man testFails dead-man test Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Behavior Jen yells at Sue Behavior Jen yells at Sue After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes Yes, we should analyze Sue’s behavior. Analyze Sue’s behavior to form a correct reinforcement contingency. Does “Jen yells at Sue” fail a Pink Sheet test? Analyze Sue’s behavior to form a correct reinforcement contingency. Does “Jen yells at Sue” fail a Pink Sheet test?

96 96 A.Correct behaviorCorrect behavior B.Fails behaver testFails behaver test C.Fails receiver test D.Fails dead-man testFails dead-man test Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Behavior Jen yells at Sue Behavior Jen yells at Sue After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes No, it passes the receiver test because we are analyzing Sue’s behavior, so she should be the one to receive the outcome. Analyze Sue’s behavior to form a correct reinforcement contingency. Does “Jen yells at Sue” fail a Pink Sheet test? Analyze Sue’s behavior to form a correct reinforcement contingency. Does “Jen yells at Sue” fail a Pink Sheet test?

97 97 A.Correct behaviorCorrect behavior B.Fails behaver testFails behaver test C.Fails receiver testFails receiver test D.Fails dead-man test Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Behavior Jen yells at Sue Behavior Jen yells at Sue After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes No, it passes the dead man test because a dead man can’t yell. Analyze Sue’s behavior to form a correct reinforcement contingency. Does “Jen yells at Sue” fail a Pink Sheet test? Analyze Sue’s behavior to form a correct reinforcement contingency. Does “Jen yells at Sue” fail a Pink Sheet test?

98 98 Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Behavior Sue is remorseful Behavior Sue is remorseful After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes A.Correct behaviorCorrect behavior B.Fails specific-behavior testFails specific-behavior test C.Fails dead-man testFails dead-man test D.Fails receiver testFails receiver test Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet How about now? Does this contingency fail any tests? How about now? Does this contingency fail any tests?

99 99 Contingency-Diagramming Checklist A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1. Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1. Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. Before Behavior After D. What is the condition before the response? 10. Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition? (Often the relationship is one of opposites) If not, change one or both of the conditions. Use this checklist for every contingency diagram you do and you’ll save yourself some headaches and impress your TA during transparency time. Simply place the answer to each of the 10 questions for the corresponding blank in the contingency diagram above it. Turn the checklist over to determine which type of contingency you have. In learning these criteria for a test, you need only know each name and sentence that’s bold. D. What is the condition before the response? 10. Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition? (Often the relationship is one of opposites) If not, change one or both of the conditions. Use this checklist for every contingency diagram you do and you’ll save yourself some headaches and impress your TA during transparency time. Simply place the answer to each of the 10 questions for the corresponding blank in the contingency diagram above it. Turn the checklist over to determine which type of contingency you have. In learning these criteria for a test, you need only know each name and sentence that’s bold. B. What is the behavior being analyzed or diagrammed? 2. Deadman Test Can a dead man do it? If he can, then you haven’t properly specified the behavior. So roll over the dead man. 3. Action Test Does the behavior involve an action? (Hint: Learning, receiving, being, hearing, seeing, and feeling are not behavior). If not, then change the behavior. 4. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not, then reword the behavior. 5. Reinforceable Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are, then the behavior is not a response-unit. Rewrite the behavior. B. What is the behavior being analyzed or diagrammed? 2. Deadman Test Can a dead man do it? If he can, then you haven’t properly specified the behavior. So roll over the dead man. 3. Action Test Does the behavior involve an action? (Hint: Learning, receiving, being, hearing, seeing, and feeling are not behavior). If not, then change the behavior. 4. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not, then reword the behavior. 5. Reinforceable Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are, then the behavior is not a response-unit. Rewrite the behavior. C. What is the outcome that follows the response? 6. Stimulus Test Is the before & after a stimulus, event or condition and not a behavior of the behaver? If it’s not a stimulus then change your condition. (Hint: If the before or after is another behavior of the behaver, you probably don’t have a correct condition. Exceptions: self-reinforcement, seeing, hearing, or the opportunity for activity. 7. Causality Test Is the outcome caused by the response? If not, change the outcome. 8. 60” Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds? If so, find an immediate outcome. 9. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not, rework the example. Hint: Make sure the diagram passes the behaver test first C. What is the outcome that follows the response? 6. Stimulus Test Is the before & after a stimulus, event or condition and not a behavior of the behaver? If it’s not a stimulus then change your condition. (Hint: If the before or after is another behavior of the behaver, you probably don’t have a correct condition. Exceptions: self-reinforcement, seeing, hearing, or the opportunity for activity. 7. Causality Test Is the outcome caused by the response? If not, change the outcome. 8. 60” Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds? If so, find an immediate outcome. 9. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not, rework the example. Hint: Make sure the diagram passes the behaver test first Back to the Question

100 100 Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Behavior Sue is remorseful Behavior Sue is remorseful A.Correct behavior B.Fails specific-behavior testFails specific-behavior test C.Fails dead-man testFails dead-man test D.Fails receiver testFails receiver test After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes No, probably too vague for two independent observers to agree on the actual response. There are several ways someone can be remorseful. How about now? Does this contingency fail any tests? How about now? Does this contingency fail any tests?

101 101 Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes A.Correct behaviorCorrect behavior B.Fails specific-behavior test C.Fails dead-man testFails dead-man test D.Fails receiver testFails receiver test Behavior Sue is remorseful Behavior Sue is remorseful After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes Yes, remorseful fails the specific behavior test because it isn’t clear what Sue actually does or says. How about now? Does this contingency fail any tests? How about now? Does this contingency fail any tests?

102 102 Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes A.Correct behaviorCorrect behavior B.Fails specific-behavior testFails specific-behavior test C.Fails dead-man test D.Fails receiver testFails receiver test Behavior Sue is remorseful Behavior Sue is remorseful After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes No, it passes the dead man test because a dead man can’t be remorseful. How about now? Does this contingency fail any tests? How about now? Does this contingency fail any tests?

103 103 Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Behavior Sue is remorseful Behavior Sue is remorseful After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes A.Correct behaviorCorrect behavior B.Fails specific-behavior testFails specific-behavior test C.Fails dead-man testFails dead-man test D.Fails receiver test No, it passes the receiver test because we are analyzing Sue's behavior, and she is the receiver of the outcome. How about now? Does this contingency fail any tests? How about now? Does this contingency fail any tests?

104 104 Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Behavior Sue says she’s sorry Behavior Sue says she’s sorry After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes A.Correct behaviorCorrect behavior B.Fails receiver testFails receiver test C.Fails dead-man testFails dead-man test D.Fails behaver testFails behaver test How about this one? Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet

105 105 A.Correct behaviorCorrect behavior B.Fails receiver test C.Fails dead-man testFails dead-man test D.Fails behaver testFails behaver test Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Behavior Sue says she’s sorry Behavior Sue says she’s sorry After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes No, it passes the test because we are analyzing Sue’s behavior, and she is the receiver of the outcome How about this one?

106 106 A.Correct behaviorCorrect behavior B.Fails receiver testFails receiver test C.Fails dead-man test D.Fails behaver testFails behaver test Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Behavior Sue says she’s sorry Behavior Sue says she’s sorry After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes No, it passes the dead man test because dead men can’t apologize. How about this one?

107 107 A.Correct behaviorCorrect behavior B.Fails receiver testFails receiver test C.Fails dead-man testFails dead-man test D.Fails behaver test Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Behavior Sue says she’s sorry Behavior Sue says she’s sorry After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes No, it passes the behaver test because we are analyzing Sue’s behavior How about this one?

108 108 A.Correct behavior B.Fails receiver testFails receiver test C.Fails dead-man testFails dead-man test D.Fails behaver testFails behaver test Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Behavior Sue says she’s sorry Behavior Sue says she’s sorry After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes Yes, this is the correct behavior: it passes the receiver test because Sue receives the outcome, and it passes the dead-man test, because a dead-man can’t apologize, and we are analyzing Sue’s behavior, so it passes the behaver test! How about this one?

109 109 Behaver Test Specific-Behavior Test Action Test Dead-man Test Receiver Test Compare & Contrast This is the table of contents. If this is the first time doing this workshow, then you should just click on the continue button. But if this is review then you may choose where to go by left-clicking a test. Mini-lecture Continue

110 110 Action Test: Does the behavior involve an action?

111 111 Behaviors that fail the test include: Seeing Hearing Receiving feeling Behaviors that pass the test include: Looking Listening Working Studying

112 112 In keeping with the dead-man test, we want to make sure the behavior we are analyzing is something the person does, not something that is done to the person— like was seen, is heard, is given, is appreciated, etc..

113 113 It is also worth noting that whenever a behavior fails the dead-man test, it will also fail the action test. Dead men aren’t active. However, the reverse of that may not always apply; if a behavior fails the action test, it might still pass the dead-man test.

114 114 Bob is taught a lot fails the action test but because a dead man cannot be taught, it passes the dead-man test. Before Bob knows next to nothing Before Bob knows next to nothing Behavior Bob is taught a lot Behavior Bob is taught a lot After Bob knows mucho After Bob knows mucho Here’s an example that shows the difference between the action test and the dead-man test. How about this response? Does it involve an action? Can a dead man do it?

115 115 Before Bob knows next to nothing Before Bob knows next to nothing Behavior Bob is taught a lot Behavior Bob is taught a lot After Bob knows mucho After Bob knows mucho It may sound tricky, but we’re just pointing out a time-saver for you to use in your arsenal of behavior-analytic weapons. Bob reviews his flashcards Reviews is better, as it passes the action test too.

116 116 So you may have a verb in the behavior box, and you may think it’s fine. Which of these descriptions involving a verb does not describe an action? So you may have a verb in the behavior box, and you may think it’s fine. Which of these descriptions involving a verb does not describe an action? Think carefully about this one. Some of these can be tricky. For instance, looking involves an action and seeing doesn’t. Some of these can be tricky. For instance, looking involves an action and seeing doesn’t. A.He is talkingHe is talking B.She was lookingShe was looking C.She feels goodShe feels good D.He says, “hi”He says, “hi” Reminder: An action is not a state of being.

117 117 A.He is talking B.She was lookingShe was looking C.She feels goodShe feels good D.He says, “hi”He says, “hi” Talking is an action. So you may have a verb in the behavior box, and you may think it’s fine. Which of these descriptions involving a verb does not describe an action? So you may have a verb in the behavior box, and you may think it’s fine. Which of these descriptions involving a verb does not describe an action?

118 118 A.He is talkingHe is talking B.She was looking C.She feels goodShe feels good D.He says, “hi”He says, “hi” Looking involves an action—though seeing doesn’t. So you may have a verb in the behavior box, and you may think it’s fine. Which of these descriptions involving a verb does not describe an action? So you may have a verb in the behavior box, and you may think it’s fine. Which of these descriptions involving a verb does not describe an action?

119 119 A.He is talkingHe is talking B.She was lookingShe was looking C.She feels goodShe feels good D.He says, “hi” Says involves an action. So you may have a verb in the behavior box, and you may think it’s fine. Which of these descriptions involving a verb does not describe an action? So you may have a verb in the behavior box, and you may think it’s fine. Which of these descriptions involving a verb does not describe an action?

120 120 A.He is talkingHe is talking B.She was lookingShe was looking C.She feels good D.He says, “hi”He says, “hi” Right! Feels does not involve an action. So you may have a verb in the behavior box, and you may think it’s fine. Which of these descriptions involving a verb does not describe an action? So you may have a verb in the behavior box, and you may think it’s fine. Which of these descriptions involving a verb does not describe an action?

121 121 Let’s try one more example. Let’s try one more example.

122 122 Tommy and his mother are driving down Stadium, Tommy and his mother are driving down Stadium, and Tommy sees the donut shop. and Tommy sees the donut shop.

123 123 He starts screeching, “Donuts, Mommy! Donuts!” and doesn’t stop screaming until he has a donut in his hand. and doesn’t stop screaming until he has a donut in his hand.

124 124 Before Tommy screeches Before Tommy screeches A.Correct contingencyCorrect contingency B.Fails behaver testFails behaver test C.Fails action testFails action test D.Fails dead-man testFails dead-man test Behavior Mom drives into the lot Behavior Mom drives into the lot After Tommy receives a donut After Tommy receives a donut Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet Analyze Tommy’s screeching

125 125 Contingency-Diagramming Checklist A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1. Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1. Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. Before Behavior After D. What is the condition before the response? 10. Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition? (Often the relationship is one of opposites) If not, change one or both of the conditions. Use this checklist for every contingency diagram you do and you’ll save yourself some headaches and impress your TA during transparency time. Simply place the answer to each of the 10 questions for the corresponding blank in the contingency diagram above it. Turn the checklist over to determine which type of contingency you have. In learning these criteria for a test, you need only know each name and sentence that’s bold. D. What is the condition before the response? 10. Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition? (Often the relationship is one of opposites) If not, change one or both of the conditions. Use this checklist for every contingency diagram you do and you’ll save yourself some headaches and impress your TA during transparency time. Simply place the answer to each of the 10 questions for the corresponding blank in the contingency diagram above it. Turn the checklist over to determine which type of contingency you have. In learning these criteria for a test, you need only know each name and sentence that’s bold. B. What is the behavior being analyzed or diagrammed? 2. Deadman Test Can a dead man do it? If he can, then you haven’t properly specified the behavior. So roll over the dead man. 3. Action Test Does the behavior involve an action? (Hint: Learning, receiving, being, hearing, seeing, and feeling are not behavior). If not, then change the behavior. 4. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not, then reword the behavior. 5. Reinforceable Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are, then the behavior is not a response-unit. Rewrite the behavior. B. What is the behavior being analyzed or diagrammed? 2. Deadman Test Can a dead man do it? If he can, then you haven’t properly specified the behavior. So roll over the dead man. 3. Action Test Does the behavior involve an action? (Hint: Learning, receiving, being, hearing, seeing, and feeling are not behavior). If not, then change the behavior. 4. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not, then reword the behavior. 5. Reinforceable Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are, then the behavior is not a response-unit. Rewrite the behavior. C. What is the outcome that follows the response? 6. Stimulus Test Is the before & after a stimulus, event or condition and not a behavior of the behaver? If it’s not a stimulus then change your condition. (Hint: If the before or after is another behavior of the behaver, you probably don’t have a correct condition. Exceptions: self-reinforcement, seeing, hearing, or the opportunity for activity. 7. Causality Test Is the outcome caused by the response? If not, change the outcome. 8. 60” Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds? If so, find an immediate outcome. 9. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not, rework the example. Hint: Make sure the diagram passes the behaver test first C. What is the outcome that follows the response? 6. Stimulus Test Is the before & after a stimulus, event or condition and not a behavior of the behaver? If it’s not a stimulus then change your condition. (Hint: If the before or after is another behavior of the behaver, you probably don’t have a correct condition. Exceptions: self-reinforcement, seeing, hearing, or the opportunity for activity. 7. Causality Test Is the outcome caused by the response? If not, change the outcome. 8. 60” Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds? If so, find an immediate outcome. 9. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not, rework the example. Hint: Make sure the diagram passes the behaver test first Click me to go back to the Question

126 126 Before Tommy screeches Before Tommy screeches A.Correct contingency B.Fails behaver testFails behaver test C.Fails action testFails action test D.Fails dead-man testFails dead-man test Behavior Mom drives into the lot Behavior Mom drives into the lot After Tommy receives a donut After Tommy receives a donut Analyze Tommy’s screeching No, whose behavior are we analyzing?

127 127 Before Tommy screeches Before Tommy screeches A.Correct contingencyCorrect contingency B.Fails behaver test C.Fails action testFails action test D.Fails dead-man testFails dead-man test Behavior Mom drives into the lot Behavior Mom drives into the lot After Tommy receives a donut After Tommy receives a donut Analyze Tommy’s screeching That’s right! We are analyzing Tommy’s behavior, so he should be in the behavior box.

128 128 Before Tommy screeches Before Tommy screeches A.Correct contingencyCorrect contingency B.Fails behaver testFails behaver test C.Fails action test D.Fails dead-man testFails dead-man test Behavior Mom drives into the lot Behavior Mom drives into the lot After Tommy receives a donut After Tommy receives a donut Analyze Tommy’s screeching No. Drives into the lot involves an action

129 129 Before Tommy screeches Before Tommy screeches A.Correct contingencyCorrect contingency B.Fails behaver testFails behaver test C.Fails action testFails action test D.Fails dead-man test Behavior Mom drives into the lot Behavior Mom drives into the lot After Tommy receives a donut After Tommy receives a donut Analyze Tommy’s screeching No. It passes the dead man test because dead men can’t drive.

130 130 Before Tommy has no donuts Before Tommy has no donuts A.Correct contingencyCorrect contingency B.Fails action testFails action test C.Fails behaver testFails behaver test D.Fails receiver testFails receiver test Behavior Tommy is driven into the lot Behavior Tommy is driven into the lot After Tommy has donuts After Tommy has donuts Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet How about this contingency?

131 131 Contingency-Diagramming Checklist A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1. Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1. Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. Before Behavior After D. What is the condition before the response? 10. Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition? (Often the relationship is one of opposites) If not, change one or both of the conditions. Use this checklist for every contingency diagram you do and you’ll save yourself some headaches and impress your TA during transparency time. Simply place the answer to each of the 10 questions for the corresponding blank in the contingency diagram above it. Turn the checklist over to determine which type of contingency you have. In learning these criteria for a test, you need only know each name and sentence that’s bold. D. What is the condition before the response? 10. Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition? (Often the relationship is one of opposites) If not, change one or both of the conditions. Use this checklist for every contingency diagram you do and you’ll save yourself some headaches and impress your TA during transparency time. Simply place the answer to each of the 10 questions for the corresponding blank in the contingency diagram above it. Turn the checklist over to determine which type of contingency you have. In learning these criteria for a test, you need only know each name and sentence that’s bold. B. What is the behavior being analyzed or diagrammed? 2. Deadman Test Can a dead man do it? If he can, then you haven’t properly specified the behavior. So roll over the dead man. 3. Action Test Does the behavior involve an action? (Hint: Learning, receiving, being, hearing, seeing, and feeling are not behavior). If not, then change the behavior. 4. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not, then reword the behavior. 5. Reinforceable Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are, then the behavior is not a response-unit. Rewrite the behavior. B. What is the behavior being analyzed or diagrammed? 2. Deadman Test Can a dead man do it? If he can, then you haven’t properly specified the behavior. So roll over the dead man. 3. Action Test Does the behavior involve an action? (Hint: Learning, receiving, being, hearing, seeing, and feeling are not behavior). If not, then change the behavior. 4. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not, then reword the behavior. 5. Reinforceable Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are, then the behavior is not a response-unit. Rewrite the behavior. C. What is the outcome that follows the response? 6. Stimulus Test Is the before & after a stimulus, event or condition and not a behavior of the behaver? If it’s not a stimulus then change your condition. (Hint: If the before or after is another behavior of the behaver, you probably don’t have a correct condition. Exceptions: self-reinforcement, seeing, hearing, or the opportunity for activity. 7. Causality Test Is the outcome caused by the response? If not, change the outcome. 8. 60” Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds? If so, find an immediate outcome. 9. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not, rework the example. Hint: Make sure the diagram passes the behaver test first C. What is the outcome that follows the response? 6. Stimulus Test Is the before & after a stimulus, event or condition and not a behavior of the behaver? If it’s not a stimulus then change your condition. (Hint: If the before or after is another behavior of the behaver, you probably don’t have a correct condition. Exceptions: self-reinforcement, seeing, hearing, or the opportunity for activity. 7. Causality Test Is the outcome caused by the response? If not, change the outcome. 8. 60” Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds? If so, find an immediate outcome. 9. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not, rework the example. Hint: Make sure the diagram passes the behaver test first Back to the Question

132 132 Before Tommy has no donuts Before Tommy has no donuts Behavior Tommy is driven into the lot Behavior Tommy is driven into the lot After Tommy has donuts After Tommy has donuts A.Correct contingency B.Fails action testFails action test C.Fails behaver testFails behaver test D.Fails receiver testFails receiver test No, what is Tommy doing? How about this contingency?

133 133 Before Tommy has no donuts Before Tommy has no donuts Behavior Tommy is driven into the lot Behavior Tommy is driven into the lot After Tommy has donuts After Tommy has donuts A.Correct contingencyCorrect contingency B.Fails action test C.Fails behaver testFails behaver test D.Fails receiver testFails receiver test Right! Tommy is not performing an action, rather it’s being done to him. This passes the receiver test because Tommy receives the donuts, and he’s the person who’s behavior we are analyzing, so it passes the behaver test too. Passive voice, like is driven is a red flag for failing the action test. Use active voice, like Tommy looks, eats… How about this contingency?

134 134 Before Tommy has no donuts Before Tommy has no donuts Behavior Tommy is driven into the lot Behavior Tommy is driven into the lot After Tommy has donuts After Tommy has donuts A.Correct contingencyCorrect contingency B.Fails action testFails action test C.Fails behaver test D.Fails receiver testFails receiver test No, Tommy is the behaver. How about this contingency?

135 135 Before Tommy has no donuts Before Tommy has no donuts Behavior Tommy is driven into the lot Behavior Tommy is driven into the lot After Tommy has donuts After Tommy has donuts A.Correct contingencyCorrect contingency B.Fails action testFails action test C.Fails behaver testFails behaver test D.Fails receiver test No, Tommy, the behaver, receives the donuts. How about this contingency?

136 136 Before Tommy has no donuts Before Tommy has no donuts A.Correct contingencyCorrect contingency B.Fails receiver testFails receiver test C.Fails dead-man testFails dead-man test D.Fails specific-behavior testFails specific-behavior test Behavior Tommy screeches Behavior Tommy screeches After Tommy has donuts After Tommy has donuts Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet

137 137 Contingency-Diagramming Checklist A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1. Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1. Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. Before Behavior After D. What is the condition before the response? 10. Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition? (Often the relationship is one of opposites) If not, change one or both of the conditions. Use this checklist for every contingency diagram you do and you’ll save yourself some headaches and impress your TA during transparency time. Simply place the answer to each of the 10 questions for the corresponding blank in the contingency diagram above it. Turn the checklist over to determine which type of contingency you have. In learning these criteria for a test, you need only know each name and sentence that’s bold. D. What is the condition before the response? 10. Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition? (Often the relationship is one of opposites) If not, change one or both of the conditions. Use this checklist for every contingency diagram you do and you’ll save yourself some headaches and impress your TA during transparency time. Simply place the answer to each of the 10 questions for the corresponding blank in the contingency diagram above it. Turn the checklist over to determine which type of contingency you have. In learning these criteria for a test, you need only know each name and sentence that’s bold. B. What is the behavior being analyzed or diagrammed? 2. Deadman Test Can a dead man do it? If he can, then you haven’t properly specified the behavior. So roll over the dead man. 3. Action Test Does the behavior involve an action? (Hint: Learning, receiving, being, hearing, seeing, and feeling are not behavior). If not, then change the behavior. 4. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not, then reword the behavior. 5. Reinforceable Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are, then the behavior is not a response-unit. Rewrite the behavior. B. What is the behavior being analyzed or diagrammed? 2. Deadman Test Can a dead man do it? If he can, then you haven’t properly specified the behavior. So roll over the dead man. 3. Action Test Does the behavior involve an action? (Hint: Learning, receiving, being, hearing, seeing, and feeling are not behavior). If not, then change the behavior. 4. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not, then reword the behavior. 5. Reinforceable Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are, then the behavior is not a response-unit. Rewrite the behavior. C. What is the outcome that follows the response? 6. Stimulus Test Is the before & after a stimulus, event or condition and not a behavior of the behaver? If it’s not a stimulus then change your condition. (Hint: If the before or after is another behavior of the behaver, you probably don’t have a correct condition. Exceptions: self-reinforcement, seeing, hearing, or the opportunity for activity. 7. Causality Test Is the outcome caused by the response? If not, change the outcome. 8. 60” Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds? If so, find an immediate outcome. 9. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not, rework the example. Hint: Make sure the diagram passes the behaver test first C. What is the outcome that follows the response? 6. Stimulus Test Is the before & after a stimulus, event or condition and not a behavior of the behaver? If it’s not a stimulus then change your condition. (Hint: If the before or after is another behavior of the behaver, you probably don’t have a correct condition. Exceptions: self-reinforcement, seeing, hearing, or the opportunity for activity. 7. Causality Test Is the outcome caused by the response? If not, change the outcome. 8. 60” Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds? If so, find an immediate outcome. 9. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not, rework the example. Hint: Make sure the diagram passes the behaver test first Back to the Question

138 138 Before Tommy has no donuts Before Tommy has no donuts Behavior Tommy screeches Behavior Tommy screeches After Tommy has donuts After Tommy has donuts A.Correct contingencyCorrect contingency B.Fails receiver test C.Fails dead-man testFails dead-man test D.Fails specific-behavior testFails specific-behavior test No, Tommy, the behaver, receives the donuts.

139 139 Before Tommy has no donuts Before Tommy has no donuts Behavior Tommy screeches Behavior Tommy screeches After Tommy has donuts After Tommy has donuts A.Correct contingencyCorrect contingency B.Fails receiver testFails receiver test C.Fails dead-man test D.Fails specific-behavior testFails specific-behavior test No, a dead man cannot screech so it passes the dead man test.

140 140 Before Tommy has no donuts Before Tommy has no donuts Behavior Tommy screeches Behavior Tommy screeches After Tommy has donuts After Tommy has donuts A.Correct contingencyCorrect contingency B.Fails receiver testFails receiver test C.Fails dead-man testFails dead-man test D.Fails specific-behavior test No, “screeches” is specific enough for two independent observers to agree

141 141 Before Tommy has no donuts Before Tommy has no donuts Behavior Tommy screeches Behavior Tommy screeches After Tommy has donuts After Tommy has donuts A.Correct contingency B.Fails receiver testFails receiver test C.Fails dead-man testFails dead-man test D.Fails specific-behavior testFails specific-behavior test Yes, this contingency passes all the criteria on the Pink Sheet: a dead man can’t screech, Tommy the behaver receives the donuts, and screeches is specific enough for independent observers to agree.

142 142 A.Spot gets a biscuitSpot gets a biscuit B.Spot receives a biscuitSpot receives a biscuit C.Spot runs into the kitchenSpot runs into the kitchen D.Spot hears the bag crinkleSpot hears the bag crinkle Before Spot has no dog biscuit Before Spot has no dog biscuit Behavior ? Behavior ? After Spot has dog biscuit After Spot has dog biscuit Whenever Spot hears the bag of biscuits crinkle in the kitchen, he runs in and immediately receives one. Analyze Spot’s behavior.

143 143 Before Spot has no dog biscuit Before Spot has no dog biscuit Behavior ? Behavior ? After Spot has dog biscuit After Spot has dog biscuit Whenever Spot hears the bag of biscuits crinkle in the kitchen, he runs in and immediately receives one. Analyze Spot’s behavior. A.Spot gets a biscuit B.Spot receives a biscuitSpot receives a biscuit C.Spot runs into the kitchenSpot runs into the kitchen D.Spot hears the bag crinkleSpot hears the bag crinkle “Gets” is passive, so it fails the action test, but also probably fails the specific behavior test.

144 144 Before Spot has no dog biscuit Before Spot has no dog biscuit Behavior ? Behavior ? After Spot has dog biscuit After Spot has dog biscuit Whenever Spot hears the bag of biscuits crinkle in the kitchen, he runs in and immediately receives one. Analyze Spot’s behavior. A.Spot gets a biscuitSpot gets a biscuit B.Spot receives a biscuit C.Spot runs into the kitchenSpot runs into the kitchen D.Spot hears the bag crinkleSpot hears the bag crinkle “Receives” is passive, so it fails the action test, but also probably fails the specific behavior test.

145 145 Before Spot has no dog biscuit Before Spot has no dog biscuit Behavior ? Behavior ? After Spot has dog biscuit After Spot has dog biscuit Whenever Spot hears the bag of biscuits crinkle in the kitchen, he runs in and immediately receives one. Analyze Spot’s behavior. A.Spot gets a biscuitSpot gets a biscuit B.Spot receives a biscuitSpot receives a biscuit C.Spot runs into the kitchenSpot runs into the kitchen D.Spot hears the bag crinkle “Hears” is one of those passive behaviors specified on the Pink Sheet. It’s not active.

146 146 Before Spot has no dog biscuit Before Spot has no dog biscuit Behavior ? Behavior ? After Spot has dog biscuit After Spot has dog biscuit Whenever Spot hears the bag of biscuits crinkle in the kitchen, he runs in and immediately receives one. Analyze Spot’s behavior. A.Spot gets a biscuitSpot gets a biscuit B.Spot receives a biscuitSpot receives a biscuit C.Spot runs into the kitchen D.Spot hears the bag crinkleSpot hears the bag crinkle Cool. “Runs” is active and specific. These other answers don’t involve action or aren’t specific.

147 147 Compare and Contrast: Specific Behavior Vs. Action test

148 148 Personal attributes or characteristics are mistaken for behavior. For example, “Tom is lazy,” “Tom is dishonest,” or “Tom is intelligent.”

149 149 The problem is that “lazy,” “dishonest,” and “intelligent” are too vague; they’re not specific enough, so they fail the specific- behavior test. Also, they may fail the action test in that the verb is isn’t an action verb. (As our man, Bill Clinton, put it, “It depends on what your definition of is is.”)

150 150 Now, you can get around the action problem by restating our examples like this: “Tom acts lazy, dishonestly, and intelligently.” And “acts” is an action verb. But this workaround still doesn’t pass the specific-behavior test.

151 151 You’re still going to get a lot of disagreement about what “lazy” means. Does it mean the person doesn’t pick up her clothes and put them away, when she gets ready for bed; or does it mean she hasn’t had a job for the last two years?

152 152 Adjectives and adverbs are often risky; They’re often too vague to get reliable agreement among independent observers.

153 153 The specific- behavior test is an effort to get rid of vagueness. Statements that fail this test are often in the form of attempts to specify personal attributes or characteristics.

154 154 Behaver Test Specific-Behavior Test Action Test Dead-man Test Receiver Test Compare & Contrast You are now ready to move on to Part II. Click on the arrow to move on to the 2 nd part of this show, or if you would like to review, click on one of the tests. Mini-lecture

155 155 Action Items OwnerDue DateDescription Otto8/29/2002Deadman revisions--add discrimination training without equivalent pairs Otto8/31/2002Put estimates for time to complete workshows at the beginning of the workshows Otto8/31/2002Remove JPEG transition slides--they're crashing some computers Otto8/31/2002Add menus at the end of each section Reynolds/Raaymakers 11/2004Deleted questions/reduced work show length


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