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1 FIRE SAFETY AWARENESS 2 Introduction Each year nearly 1000 people die in fires in the UK Over 10,000 injuries occur due to fire Fire also results in.

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Presentation on theme: "1 FIRE SAFETY AWARENESS 2 Introduction Each year nearly 1000 people die in fires in the UK Over 10,000 injuries occur due to fire Fire also results in."— Presentation transcript:



3 2 Introduction Each year nearly 1000 people die in fires in the UK Over 10,000 injuries occur due to fire Fire also results in serious economic losses. The most obvious of these is direct damage to property, which in 1991 resulted in claims from insurance companies that exceeded the staggering figure of £1000 million. This figure takes no account of uninsured damage to property nor, more importantly, consequential profit losses suffered by industry and commerce.

4 3 Causes of fires Arson discarded cigarettes and matches faulty plant & equipment flammable liquids & materials storage & use hot processes heating appliances combustible wastes Arson accounted for 41% of the 43,600 fires that occurred in non domestic premises in 1999 [source: Home Office]

5 4 The Law The primary legislation is provided by the Fire Precautions Act 1971 but from December 1999, the Fire Precautions (Workplace) Regulations 1997 also apply to the majority of industrial premises. Those premises with additional risks and covered by the Fire Precautions (Special Premises) Regulations 1976 are also subject to the requirements of the 1997 Regulations. The main change from December 1999 was to introduce a duty on the employer to ensure that an assessment of fire risk is carried out and to then ensure that adequate detection, protection and fire-fighting provisions are made.

6 5 Fire Legislation The Health and Safety at Work, etc Act 1974 Section 2 of this Act places employers under a general duty to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the health, safety and welfare at work of all their employees. Although fire safety is not specifically mentioned, it would be reasonable to assume that this is included.


8 7 Health & Safety at Work Act 1974 Section 7 – Duties of Employee Cooperate with employer regarding H&S (i.e. PPE)Cooperate with employer regarding H&S (i.e. PPE) Take care of all people regarding H&STake care of all people regarding H&S

9 8 Health & Safety at Work Act 1974 Section 8 – Duties of Everyone No interference with equipment (i.e. Misuse)No interference with equipment (i.e. Misuse)

10 9 Employees' Duties Also, s.24 of the Fire Precautions Act 1971 provides that where an offence by any person, such as an employer, is due to the act or default of some other person, such as an employee, that other person shall be guilty of an offence.

11 10 Regulations The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 and the Fire Precautions (Workplace) Regulations 1997 and 1999 set out how employers must manage and set up arrangements for health and safety in their workplace. They introduced an explicit requirement for a risk assessment for all work processes. And require you to:

12 11 Regulations Carry out a fire risk assessment of your workplace (you must consider all employees and all other people who may be affected). Identify the significant findings of the risk assessment and the details of anyone who might be especially at risk in case of fire. Provide and maintain such fire precautions as are necessary to safeguard those who use the workplace. Provide information, instruction and training to employees.

13 12 New Legislation Regulatory Reform Order (Fire Safety) 2005 Expected to come into force April 2006 Over 70 sets of existing Fire Safety Legislation merged into a single regime Removes requirement for business to obtain a Fire Certificate from local Fire & Rescue Authority Reform introduces a single comprehensive Fire Safety Regime based on fire risk assessment Responsibility for ensuring Fire Safety rests with the person responsible for the premises

14 13 New Legislation Regulatory Reform Order (Fire Safety) 2005 Enforcement authority will check that measures put in place by the responsible person are adequate Responsible person will undertake the risk assessment Government have stated that this legislation will place no additional burden as the duties are set out in existing legislation

15 14 Additional Duties of the Employer Appoint Fire Marshals Consult employees or their representatives on the appointment of Fire Marshals Consult and Co-operate with other employers who may share the workplace Make provision for contacting the emergency services

16 15 FIRE PREVENTION Most fires result from a very small number of causes More specifically, 50% of all fires are the result of either arson, careless use or disposal of cigarettes and matches (including children playing with matches), or electrical sources of ignition (including electrical appliances and wiring) Arson is the most common single cause of fire in non-domestic premises

17 16 ELECTRICAL FAULTS Fires may be started by any of the following: (a)overloading of cables (b)short circuit of conductors (c)leakage of current to earth (d)loose connections (e)arcs and sparks (f)overheating.

18 17 SMOKERS' MATERIALS AND MATCHES Smoking should be prohibited in any areas where discarded smokers' materials are likely to act as a source of ignition, where a fire could develop unnoticed, and where even a small fire could result in a significant loss.

19 18 HEATING Sensible use of heating appliances could do much to prevent fires. A clear space should be kept around all sources of heat, so that combustible materials cannot be ignited and there is free circulation of air for cooling purposes. Adequate guards may be required to ensure this.


21 20 1. SOURCES OF IGNITION IN THE WORKPLACE a)Is smoking permitted? b)Does work activity involve processes such as incineration, welding, soldering, flame cutting or frictional heat? c) Is there oil or gas burning equipment? d) Are there ducts or flues? e) Are there portable heaters? f) Does cooking occur in the workplace? g) Is there any lighting equipment such as halogen lamps?

22 21 1. SOURCES OF IGNITION IN THE WORKPLACE h) Are there light bulbs and fittings near flammable materials? i) Is any electrical equipment or faulty, damaged or misused? j) Is there any portable electrical equipment which is untested or out of date (including privately owned appliances)? k) Does electrical equipment have “wander” or extension leads? l) Are there multi-point adapters in use in electrical sockets? m) Is arson a potential problem? n) Other source of heat

23 22 2. SOURCES OF FUEL a)Are there flammable liquids such as petrol, paint or adhesives? b)Are there other flammable chemicals? c)Are there excessive amounts of packaging materials stored? d)Are quantities of combustible waste allowed to accumulate in the workplace? e)Are excessive amounts of combustible materials displayed/stored in the workplace? f)Are substantial areas of walls or ceilings covered with flammable linings? g)Other hazardous combustible materials e.g. furniture or fabrics:

24 23 3. SOURCES OF OXYGEN a)Are there any ventilation or air conditioning systems in use? b)Are there any chemicals (oxidizing materials) which can provide fire with additional oxygen? c)Are there any oxygen supplies used for example for welding or medical supplies? d)Other sources

25 24 4. PERSONS AT RISK a)Directly employed staff? b)Other staff? c)Staff with special needs? d)Visitors? e)Contractors? f)Other building occupants (e.g. where there are shared premises)? g)People with disabilities? h)Other persons

26 25 5. PROCEDURES, TRAINING AND RECORDING a)Are fire procedures and policies satisfactory? b)Is the training adequate? c)Is fire drill performance satisfactory? d)Are fire drills held at least once per year? e)Is the record keeping of drills, training and testing of alarms, lighting and extinguishers adequate?

27 26 6. FIRE DETECTION AND FIRE WARNING a)Is the means of alarm raising satisfactory? b)Can the alarm be heard and understood throughout the entire premises? c)Can the detection system discover a fire quickly enough in all areas such that the alarm is raised in sufficient time for all occupants to evacuate safely? d)Can all occupants react quickly to an alarm?

28 27 7. MEANS OF FIGHTING FIRE a.Are there sufficient supplies of appropriate types of fire extinguishers? b.Can extinguishers be easily located? c.Has adequate training been given to those likely to use extinguishers?

29 28 8. MEANS OF ESCAPE a)Are the number, locations and sizes of fire exits adequate (e.g. wide enough for wheelchairs)? b)Are escape routes free from obstructions? c)Are escape routes clearly signed? d)Are escape routes adequately lit? e)Are fire exit doors easy to open? f)How are exit doors secured? g)Is the assembly point adequately signed and illuminated? h)Are there any other hazards concerning evacuation?

30 29 9. MISCELLANEOUS a)How is fire detected? b)How is the alarm raised? c)How is the Fire Service summoned? d)Is fire safety equipment adequately maintained? e)Have COSHH assessments been completed for all items having significant fire risk? f)Are there any outstanding items from Fire Prevention Officer’s HSE reports? g)Have all risks been removed or reduced to an acceptable level?

31 30 Prevention Prevention is based on eliminating or minimising one of the components of the “Fire Triangle”.Prevention is based on eliminating or minimising one of the components of the “Fire Triangle”.

32 31

33 32

34 33 Fire Extinguishers It should be remembered that portable fire extinguishers are classified as first aid fire fighting and as such they are designed for easy operation in an emergency. However, it is important to realise that because they are portable they have only a limited duration of discharge. Therefore, the siting of these extinguishers, together with an appreciation of their individual characteristics, is fundamental to their success.

35 34 Classification of Fires - BS EN 2 Types of Fires Different extinguishers are used for tackling different types of fire. A = Paper, wood & textiles fires. B = Flammable liquid fires. C = Flammable gas fires. D = Specialist metal fires. All can involve Electrical type fires.

36 35 Types of Extinguisher Water (Class A fires) Water is the most widely used extinguishing agent and portable extinguishers provide a limited quantity of water which can be expelled under pressure and its direction controlled by a nozzle.

37 36 Foam (Class B fires) Foam is an agent suitable for dealing with flammable liquid fires. Foam is produced when a solution of foam liquid and water is expelled under pressure through a foam making branch pipe at which point air is entrained, converting the solution into a foam.

38 37 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) (Class B, C and electrical fires) Designed specifically to deal with Class B, C and electrical fire risks, these extinguishers deliver a powerful concentration of carbon dioxide gas under great pressure which not only smothers fire very rapidly but is also non-toxic and harmless to the most delicate mechanism and material. It is important to switch off the electrical supply before tackling an electrical fire.

39 38 Dry Powder (Class B, C and electrical fires) This type of extinguisher is highly effective against flammable gases, open or running fires involving flammable liquids such as oils, spirits, alcohol’s, solvents and waxes and electrical risks. The powder is contained in the metal body of the extinguisher from which it is expelled either by a sealed gas cartridge or by air or nitrogen stored under pressure in the body of the extinguisher in contact with the powder.

40 39 Colour Coding of Portable Fire Extinguishers Prior to 1 January 1998 fire extinguishers were colour coded to indicate their contents as shown below: Red Water Black Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Blue Dry Powder Cream Foam Since 1 January 1998 all new manufactured Fire Extinguishers have been coloured red, with only 5% of the container surface allowed to be used for colour coding. However, the new standard is not retrospective so existing extinguishers do not have to be replaced.

41 40 FIRE EXTINGUISHERS Siting of extinguishers Extinguishers should be sited in conspicuous locations on escape routes, such as at storey exits and in corridors, and should be wall mounted on brackets. No person should need to travel further than 30m to reach the nearest extinguisher. It may also be advisable to provide additional extinguishers of a suitable type in close proximity to particular hazards.

42 41 Extinction of fires Remove one element or more of fire triangle, by: –starving it of fuel; –smothering it to exclude oxygen; –cooling it to reduce temperature. Fire-fighting revolves around these principles


44 43 Fighting the Fire Sweep side to side Aim low at the base of flames Squeeze the handle Pull the pin P A S S

45 44 P.A.S.S. Method P ull the pin This will allow you to squeeze the handle in order to discharge the extinguisher

46 45 P.A.S.S. Method A im at the base of the fire Aiming at the middle will do no good. The agent will pass through the flames.

47 46 P.A.S.S. Method S queeze the handle This will release the pressurized extinguishing agent

48 47 P.A.S.S. Method S weep side to side Cover the entire area that is on fire. Continue until fire is extinguished. Keep an eye on the area for re-lighting.

49 48 Inappropriate use of extinguishers The fire is large and has grown beyond its original confined space Your escape path is threatened You are not sure if you have the correct type of fire extinguisher

50 49

51 50 Personal hazards Smoke and noxious fumes Smoke and fumes cause unconsciousness Death may result

52 51 Remember to RACE during a RR escue – rescue persons in immediate danger. AA lert – yell out ”Fire” Sound fire alarm, dial emergency phone number. CC ontain – Close all doors and windows. EE xtinguish/Evacuate – Extinguish small fires, evacuate visitors.

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