Presentation on theme: "By: Mr. Michael R. Kahoe Del Valle High School 3. Settling in the Northern Colonies 1619 - 1700."— Presentation transcript:
By: Mr. Michael R. Kahoe Del Valle High School 3. Settling in the Northern Colonies 1619 - 1700
Protestant Reformation 1517 – Martin Luther nails his 95 Theses stating: – Bible alone was word of God (not church & pope) – People saved by faith in Christ alone (not faith & good works)
John Calvin Preached “predestination” – God has already determined who is going to heaven or hell 1536 – Outlined his beliefs in Institutes of the Christian Religion
Calvinism All humans are weak & wicked Only predestined could go to heaven Should seek “conversion” – signs that they were one of the predestined – Those who proved to be predestined would then lead “sanctified lives” Worked hard to prove their worthiness – “Protestant Work Ethic”
Puritans Puritans wanted to totally reform the Church of England – Only “visible saints” should be allowed in church Separatists were Puritans who wanted break away from the Church – Pilgrims
The Separatists Leave Home First fled to Holland (Netherlands) – Feared their children were becoming too influenced by the Dutch Made a deal with Virginia Company to settle in America
Voyage of the Mayflower 102 set sail on the Mayflower – Less than half were Pilgrims Voyage was long and hard – 65 days – Only 1 person died – 1 was born 1620 – Landed off course & settled in Plymouth, Mass.
Mayflower Compact Signed by the Pilgrims before disembarking Was a set of rules for all to obey – Influenced later constitutions – First instance of self rule in the North
Captain Myles Standish Became a leader of the Pilgrims Indian fighter & negotiator Dubbed “Captain Shrimp”
First Thanksgiving Winter of 1620-21 was harsh – 58 of the 102 died Next year brought a bountiful harvest – Help from Squanto, a Wampanoag Indian – 1621, treaty signed with Chief Massasoit
William Bradford Bradford was an excellent leader – Self-taught scholar – Spoke 5 languages – Elected Governor 30 times – Tried to preserve Separatist beliefs Plymouth traded in fur, fish, & lumber 1691 – merges with Mass. Bay Colony
Massachusetts Bay Colony 1629 – Puritans (not separatists) obtained a royal charter from the King – Was their constitution 1,000 people on 11 ships Led by John Winthrop for next 19 years – Attorney – Manor lord – Had a “calling” Fur trading, fishing & ship building “We shall be as a city on a hill.”
Building the Bay Colony In provincial affairs Franchise – right to vote – given to all “freemen” – Adult males of the Congregational Church (2/5 of males) Not a democracy Winthrop distrusted the masses In towns – only male property holders could meet & vote – Majority rule
Building the Bay Colony – cont. Religious leaders had much of the power – John Cotton – prominent member of the church Went to Cambridge Fled England for criticizing church Defended gov. right to enforce church doctrine Prayed 6 hrs a day Congregations could hire and fire ministers at will
“Day of Doom” They cry, they roar for anguish sore, and gnaw their tongues for horrour. But get away without delay, Christ pitties not your cry: Depart to Hell, there may you yell, and roar Eternally.
Anne Hutchinson Was a strong-willed woman who said: – There was no proof of salvation – Truly saved need not follow any laws – known as antinomianism 1638 Brought to trial – Banished from Mass.
Roger Williams Williams was an idealist – Wanted to make a clean break from the Church of England – Argued for separation of church & state – Banished in 1635 – Formed Rhode Island
Rhode Island People who went to Rhode Island were the unwanted Were against special privilege Secured a charter in 1644 Accepting of most religions
Connecticut The fertile valley of the Conn. River attracted many 1635, Hartford founded – Rev. Thomas Hooker leads many Puritans from Boston 1638, New Haven founded as a seaport – Wanted closer relationship between church & gov. – Later merged with Conn.
The Fundamental Orders Drafted by settlers of Conn. River Colony in 1639 – Basically a modern constitution Created a democratic gov. controlled by the “substantial citizens”
Pequot War As settlers moved west tensions with the Indians rose War broke out in 1639
Pequot War – English set fire to a Pequot village on the Mystic River 300 slaughtered 40 yrs of peace ensued Unlike Spanish, few conversions attempted by English
King Philip’s War 1675, Chief Massasoit’s son, Metacom (or King Philip), united the Indian tribes – Attacked English villages throughout New England 52 towns hit, 12 destroyed Hundreds of colonists killed – Metacom eventually captured, drawn & quartered War slowed westward settlement
New England Confederation 1643 the New England Confederation formed – 4 Puritan colonies – Big step toward unity – Allowed to be autonomous When Charles II was restored to throne, he tried to exert his control – Ignored by New England Why do they always ignore me!?!
Dominion of New England 1686 – the crown created the Dominion of New England – Provide defense – Enforce Navigation Acts Forbade trade with countries other than Britain – Smuggling became common
Sir Edmund Andros Sir Edmund Andros was head of the Dominion – Headquartered in Boston – Member of hated Church of England – Colonist hated his soldiers Tried to take control – Broke up town meetings – Restricted courts & press – Revoked land titles – Taxed people
Glorious Revolution 1688-1689 the people of England dethroned the unpopular Catholic King James II William & Mary take the throne
The Dutch Late 16 th century the Dutch gained independence from Spain – England helped – Several Dutch-Anglo wars Dutch East India Company formed – Very powerful, strong army – 190 ships
Dutch West India Company 1609 – Henry Hudson explored Delaware River & New York Bay – Claimed for Netherlands West India Company – Raided Spanish ships – Caribbean – Brazil – W. Africa
New Amsterdam 1625 – Dutch buy Manhattan Island from Indians for mere trinkets New Amsterdam becomes a company town Patroonships – large areas of land given to those who settled at least 50 people on them
Friction w/ English & Swedish Had to build a wall on lower Manhattan New England hostile to growth of Dutch colony – Connecticut ejected Dutch settlers – Wanted to go to war – Vetoed by Mass. 1638 – Swedes trespass on Delaware
1655, Dutch sent one-legged Peter Stuyvesant to besiege the main Swedish fort – He won, ending Swedish colonial rule The Indians called him “Father Wooden Leg”
Dutch Influence 1664, British troops kick out Dutch – Charles II gives the area to his brother, the Duke of York Dutch Legacy – People retained the autocratic spirit – Harlem, Brooklyn, and Hell Gate – Architecture – Easter eggs, Santa Claus, waffles, sauerkraut, bowling, sleighing, skating, & golf
The Quakers The Religious Society of Friends – ”Quaked” under deep religious fervor – “thee”s and “thou”s – Didn’t swear oaths Puritans swore to prove they weren’t Catholic – Considered stubborn and unreasonable – Simple, devoted, democratic people – Against war, violence & slavery
William Penn Penn was a well-born Englishman & Quaker 1681, secured an immense grant of fertile land from the king – Named in honor of his father – Heavily advertised Unliked for his friendship with James II
Pennsylvania Philadelphia carefully planned – became biggest city Treated Indians well & bought land from them Freedom of religion to everyone except for Jews and Catholics Large variety of inhabitants – No restrictions
The Middle Colonies Landholdings were generally intermediate in size – Had fertile soil – Most exported lots of grain Fur was trapped in the interior Gentle rivers More ethnically mixed than other colonies Economic and social democracy