Presentation on theme: "COMPOSITION 9 Parts of Speech: Adverbs Adverbs Modify Verbs Follow along on Text pages 390-391. An adverb is a word that modifies a verb by giving."— Presentation transcript:
COMPOSITION 9 Parts of Speech: Adverbs
Adverbs Modify Verbs Follow along on Text pages An adverb is a word that modifies a verb by giving you more information about it, specifically by telling where, when, in what way, or to what extent an action took place. Examples: Outside, tomorrow, carefully, partially I am going outside. I will see you tomorrow. Please open the book carefully. She partially understands the question. When modifying verbs, adverbs can be anywhere in the sentence. We will work together on Exercise 20 in the textbook.
Adverbs Modifying Adjectives and Adverbs Follow along on Text pages Adverbs can also modify adjectives and other adverbs by giving them more specific meanings. In these cases, the adverbs will always come directly before the adjectives or adverbs that they modify. They will also always answer the question, “To what extent?” Example: I was very happy that you arrived. Example: She is not entirely sure. We will work together on Exercise 21 in the textbook.
Adjectives vs. Adverbs Follow along on Text pages Although many adverbs tend to end in –ly, there are also many adjectives that end in –ly, so it is never safe to assume that any word ending in –ly is an adverb. Example: She has curly hair. Example: You must handle the glassware gently. Always check whether the word being modified is a noun, a pronoun, a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. Only adjectives modify nouns and pronouns by telling which one, what kind, how many, or how much. Only adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, or adverbs by telling when, where, in what way, or to what extent. We will work together on Exercise 23.
Standardized Test Adjective and Adverb Work Follow along on Textbook pages When deciding what modifier fits best in a sentence, you must read the entire sentence and ask what word makes sense given the context. Afterwards, check what word is going to be modified. If the word being modified is a noun or pronoun, you need an adjective. If the word being modified is a verb, adjective, or adverb, you need an adverb. Example: Because the stadium was so noisy, I had to yell very _________ in order for the waiter to hear my order. We will work together on Practice 1 and 2.
Degrees of Comparison Follow along on Text pages Adjectives can be used to compare nouns to each other, while adverbs can make comparisons between verbs. The regular form of a modifier is called its positive form. Example: Old, quickly, good When you wish to compare two nouns or two adverbs, the modifiers take on their comparative forms. Example: Old Older; Quickly More Quickly; Good Better When you wish to distinguish your particular noun or verb as having more of whatever modification you are employing than anything else of its kind, or when you are comparing it to more than one other of its kind, the modifier takes on its superlative form. Example: Old Oldest; Quickly Most Quickly; Good Best We will work together on Exercise 1.
Regular Forms of Degrees of Comparison Follow along on text pages Typically, a modifier with one syllable forms its comparative form by adding –er and its superlative form by adding –est. Example: High Higher Highest Most two-syllable modifiers take –er and –est. Example: Pretty Prettier Prettiest Two-syllable modifiers that would sound awkward if one added –er and –est form their comparatives and superlatives by adding more and most. The same is true for any adverbs that end in –ly. Example: Skillful More Skillful Most Skillful Example: Quickly More Quickly Most Quickly All modifiers with three or more syllables form their comparatives and superlatives using more and most. Example: Terrible More Terrible Most Terrible If one wishes to compare downward, one adds less and least to modifiers. Example: Annoying Less Annoying Least Annoying We will work together on Exercise 2.
Irregular Forms of Degrees of Comparison Follow along on Text pages There are some modifiers that are irregular in the comparative and superlative degrees. These must simply be memorized. There is a list of some of the more common ones on Textbook page 600. Example: badly worse worst We will work together on Exercise 3 in the text.
Correct Comparisons Follow along on Textbook pages Always use the comparative form to compare two people, places, or things. Always use the superlative form to compare more than two people, places, or things. Example: He is smarter than she is. Example: He is the smartest one in the class. Double comparisons occur when you use both more and –er or when you use both most and –est. Example: He is more smarter than she is. Example: He is the most fastest one in the group. They also occur when you add –er or –est to an irregular comparative or superlative word. Avoid all of this. Example: She is betterer than he is. Example: He is the worstest. We will work together on Exercise 11 in the Textbook.
Balanced Comparisons Follow along on Textbook page 606. Your sentences must be constructed so that the things being compared are similar in kind. Example: My computer is larger than Ken. This makes no sense. I should be comparing my computer to another one, not to another person. Fix it! Example: My computer is larger than Ken’s. Example: The barrel of a rifle is longer than a pistol. Again, the error here is comparing the length of a barrel to the length of a pistol. Compare barrel to barrel… Example: The barrel of a rifle is longer than the barrel of a pistol. We will work together on Exercise 13.
Other and Else in Comparisons Follow along on Textbook page 607. When you compare one part of a group with the rest of a group, you must add the word other or the word else in order to avoid comparing the one member to himself. Example: He is a better player than anyone on the team. Since he is also part of the team, this sentence literally indicates that he is better than everyone on the team, including himself. Example: He is a better player than anyone else on the team. Now, the comparison makes sense, since he is better than anyone on the team other than himself. Example: He did better than any student. Example: He did better than any other student. We will work together on Exercise 14.
Standardized Test Modifier Work Follow along on Textbook pages Standardized tests often ask you to pick the correct form of a modifier to complete a sentence. Bear the already covered rules in mind, and this should not pose a problem. We will work together on Practice 1 and Practice 2.
Only a few more parts of speech to go! Get ready for a test, gentlemen.