2 ObjectiveI will be able to apply the concepts of Social Psychology on individual and group assignments and tests
3 Essential QuestionHow, and to what extent, is our behavior influenced by our interactions with others?
4 *Social PsychologyIs concerned with the way individuals’ thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by others First, how do we form impressions of others?
5 Forming ImpressionsWe assign people to ready made categories called schemata (*)What functions to schemata play?Helps us to process and store information about peopleWe have schemata for events (picnics, dates, meetings, etc) and people (doctor, teacher, whimp, etc..)
9 Forming Impressions-Schemas We add more information to our mental files about people over time**Primacy effect-our earlier impressions of people influence us more then our later experiences with them-first impressions are powerful (we may refuse to believe new evidence that a person is good)*primacy effect can be weakened if people are warned to be weary of first impressions
10 Forming ImpressionsFirst impressions can lead to a Self-fulfilling prophecy-when a person’s expectations about another person causes behavior from the second person that confirms the expectation-why does this happen? Behavioral confirmation The process by which people behave in ways that elicit from others specific expected reactions and then use those reactions to confirm their beliefs(I believe you are a disrespectful because of the way you dress; so, every time you walk in my class, I find a reason to yell at you. You begin to respond back in a disrespectful way)
11 Forming ImpressionsRosenthal and Jacobson Study (1968): All children in a California elementary school given a test at the start of the school year Teachers given a list of “bloomers,” children who would have significant intellectual growth in the school year Result: children in the “bloomers” group made greater gains in test scores and were rated as better students then the control group WHY???
12 Forming ImpressionsTeachers expectations of students affect students’ classroom performance-referred to as the Pygmalion Effect “Bloomers” –were given more positive feedback and challenging work, teachers warmer/friendlier towards them
13 Forming ImpressionsSome schemas we have of others may be about their cultural background*Stereotypes- set of characteristics believed to be shared by all members of a particular group (gender, age, occupation, ethnic groups, etc…)
15 What are some of your stereotypes? Forming ImpressionsWhat are some of your stereotypes?
16 Forming ImpressionsStereotypes, like schemas, can become the basis for self-fulfilling prophecies Stereotypes rationalize inequalities I may treat someone according to my stereotypical belief- German people are mean; all _________students are “trouble makers”
17 Interpreting Behavior You are walking to lunch and two students are standing still talking, blocking the hallway Why are they doing this?
18 Interpreting Behavior Internal attribute (depositional) =a personal factor, such as being mean, inconsiderate or lazy External attribute (situational)=a situational factor, such as there was an emergency, they were thinking of ways to help a friend, there was a traffic jam We usually contribute someone’s behavior to one or the other, but not to both at the same time
19 Interpreting Behavior Biases/errors in Attributions: Fundamental attribution error-the tendency to attribute the behavior of others, especially strangers we observe in one situation, to causes within themselves Actor-observer bias-the tendency to explain the behavior of others as the result of internal/dispositional factors while attributing our behavior to external/situational factors East Asians tend to attribute their behaviors and other’s behaviors to external factors
20 Interpreting Behavior Biases/errors in attribution: Defensive attribution-we are motivated to present ourselves well to impress others and to feel good about ourselves Examples 1. self-serving bias-tendency to attribute personal failures to external factors and personal successes to internal factors (you earn an A in my class because I am a good teacher; you earn a D in my class because you are a bad student)
21 Interpreting Behavior Biases/errors in attribution:Defensive attribution 2. Just world hypothesis-bad things happen to bad people, and good things happen to good people-this gives us the comforting illusion that the bad events couldn’t happen to usShe was raped because of the way she dressed-that will not happen to me because I cover myself up
22 Interpersonal Attraction Why are you attracted to someone?
24 Personal Attraction Don’t opposites attract? *No, people who compliment each other do.Shy woman/outgoing manDominant woman/passive manUsually these people have similar values/beliefsThey are not opposites
25 Personal AttractionSocial psychologists say that being attracted to and liking someone is linked to several factorsProximity is the most important factor-see more often, feel more comfortable and safe with familiar people-relates to mere exposure effect (read about on page 678)Physical attractiveness-we associate this with good personality, intelligence, happiness, kindness, healthier, more successful (attractiveness influences both sexes for first impressions when speed dating)Side notes: attractive people get the jobs more often and have more job success; attractiveness not related to personal self-esteem and happiness, possible due to the mere exposure effect-few people view themselves as unattractive; less attractive more likely to view praise as sincerer than more attractive; men across cultures view youthful women as more attractive; women attracted to healthy looking men, esp. men who are mature, dominant and affluent3. Similarity-more similar the stronger the attraction (birds of a feather do stay together)4. Exchange-the reward theory of attraction is based on this-we both give and get an equal amount-give and take is balanced, called equity 5. Intimacy-through two-way self-disclosure/communication
26 AttitudesAttitudes are your beliefs, feelings and behaviors towards something or someoneAttitude is not the same as rudenessDo you like rap music?Do you agree with same sex marriages?What do you think about the student sitting next to you?Your answer will show me your attitudeAttitudes predict behavior for some people more than others . It depends on the strength of your attitude-how strong you feel about something
27 How Attitudes are Formed -Classical or Operant Conditioning (ex. Exposed to pairing negative words with political party) and modeling-Mere Exposure Effect=shaped by repeated exposure (ex. Advertising)-Persuasive messages throughcentral route (what about this potato chip is so much better than the others)-occurs mostly when people are analytical or involved in the issue- or2. peripheral route (other characteristics of the message-such as the deliverer of the message-this is why athletes are used)Central route is more lastingWhat types of messages are effective?-one sided message for uninformed audience-acknowledge then refute opposing arguments for more sophisticated audience
28 AttitudesSelf-monitoring- the tendency for a person to observe the situation for cues about how to react I won’t tell you how much I dislike one of your friends who came out with us-I will override my attitude so we can have a good time (high self monitor) or I will say it in front of everyone and ruin the night* (low self- monitor-shows little regard for social cues)
29 How do you think people are brain washed? Coercive PersuasionHow do you think people are brain washed?
30 Coercive PersuasionBrain Washing=coercive persuasion: tactics that try to force people to change their minds For example getting POWs to denounce their country or joining a cult
31 How does it happen Person is under physical or emotional distress Person’s problems are reduced to one simple explanationLeader offers unconditional love and acceptanceA new identity based on the group is createdPerson is subjected to entrapmentPerson’s access to information is seveley controlled
32 AttitudesWhat happens when your attitudes/beliefs/convictions conflict with your behavior, when you act in a way that is contrary to what you believe?You strongly believe that a person should stay true to one girlfriend. You are a one girl kind of guy.You cheat on your girlfriend a few times with the same girlBecause of this, you feel conflict or tension insideWhat do you do to resolve this?
33 AttitudesHere is where a concept by Leon Festinger (1957)comes in: **Cognitive Dissonance What is the meaning of dissonance? disagreement, conflict, discord, controversy, disharmony, inconsistency Cognitive refers to thought processes
34 AttitudesCognitive Dissonance by Leon Festinger (1957): -Discomfort that results when beliefs and behaviors don’t match (as was the case with the cheating boyfriend). -We can’t live with the conflict-it causes tension- so we are more likely to rationalize/make excuses to get rid of the conflict, than to change the behavior
35 Attitudes-Cognitive Dissonance How you rationalize:I didn’t really cheat three times since we didn’t kiss until the last timeBut, that wasn’t really a kissI went out with this other girl more as a friendShe really needed me to drive her somewhereI was just being the nice guy that I am
36 Cognitive DissonanceWhich of the following would result in cognitive dissonance?Dresses are girly-my boyfriend wears dressesSmoking is bad-I stopped smoking five years agoJose and Kim oppose abortion-for money ($400 for Jose and $3 for Kim) they agree to write an essay for a researcher that agrees with abortionOrange juice is healthy-I drink OJDresses are girly-Miley Cyrus wears dressesCheating on school work is bad-you give me one of your homework answers
37 Prejudice (a negative attitude) Prejudice-a positive or negative belief about a group of people; refers to prejudging a person because he belongs to a specific groupPrejudice beliefs are almost always stereotypesPrejudice is associated with strong emotions such as dislike, hatred or fearThe frustration-aggression theory =discrimination and prejudice result from displaced anger-blaming societies problems, or your own problem, on the group-they are the scapegoat (high crime rate because of them, no jobs because of them)
38 PrejudicePrejudice is linked to an authoritarian personality-(follow rules, abide by tradition, hostile towards those who go against norms, respect authority, preoccupied with power and toughness) Discrimination (negative behavior)-act taken toward one group that is unfair when compared with behavior toward other groups
40 RacismBelief that members of certain racial groups are born inferior Social categorization: we categorize or put others and ourselves into groups-is someone like me or not? It is easy to show negative attitudes towards people who do not belong to our group In-group Out-group (we perceive out-group to be homogenous-ex. All whites, or all Hispanics, are the same) In-group bias=members see themselves as superior to the out-group Cubans verses Dominicans Other Race Effect-recognition for own race faces (emerges during infancy)
41 Reducing Prejudice Muzafer Sherif’s-Robbers Cave Study: 22 Oklahoma City boys, ages 11-12Placed in separate parts of the campEagles and RattlersIntroduced to each other through a set up competitive activitiesBoys became proud of their group and hostile (flags burned, cabins ransacked) toward the other groupHad to work together to restore water
43 *How to Reduce Racial Prejudice Increased personal, one on one, contact changes people’s opinions-not just in the same place at the same timeSuperordinate Goals (Cooperation -working on shared goals) works best to reduce racial prejudiceCompetition is not effective
44 Conformity and Compliance Social influence-the process by which others affect our perceptions, attitudes and actions chameleon effect-unconsciously mimicking others expressions, tones, posture etc. helps us to feel what they feel-why we feel happy around happy people, and sad around sad (called mood linkage)-a part of empathy Our culture (our shared way of life) has a large influence on how we behave -dress, what we eat, how we eat, our personal space, and more We may be influenced by our culture through Instruction (parents tell us how to and not to behave) but more often through Modeling and imitation-a result of this is unquestioning acceptance of cultural truisms
45 Conformity and Compliance cultural truism=beliefs that most members of a society accept as self-evidend /true We are rewarded for doing what other citizens do in the same situations (a little girl/boy) To conform is to yield to social norms, or to a group standard Conformity is needed if society is to function effectively A social norm is a shared idea about how to or not to behave based on society’s expectations What wouldn’t you do in a classroom? Social Scripts-mental tapes, for how to act, provided by our culture (media included, for dating, sex, etc..)
46 ConformityConformity is a response to pressure of norms, usually unstated pressure Solomon Asch did experiments on the effects of group pressure on conformity:
47 Conformity7 confederates-Confederates of the experiment gave the same wrong answersParticipants conformed and gave the wrong answer 1/3 of the timeAsch also found that the likelihood of conformity increased with the group size until four confederates were present-adding more did not matterUnanimity mattered- having an allyConformity, in general, is higher when a task or situation is ambiguous because we don’t have our own opinion so we go with the majority view
48 ConformityPeople from collectivist, agricultural cultures (members rely on each other more for survival) are most likely to conform to group normsIn general, people conform more when their culture encourages respect for social standards
49 ConformityWhy do we laugh at a joke that others laugh at but we don’t understand?
51 ConformityNormative social influence-conforming to the group norms because the price we pay for being different may be severeInformational social influence-accepting other’s opinions about reality or truths; this is positive-changing our minds when we need to
52 ComplianceCompliance is a change in behavior due to a specific request, many times unstatedWhat strategies influences compliance?Foot in the door effect-getting a person to agree to a small request to increase the chances that they will agree to a big requestCan I have $75 for the prom ticket?Can I have a few friends over?With foot in the door, the person may feel obligated to comply to the larger request
53 ComplianceLow ball procedure-getting someone to agree to an attractive proposition before its hidden costs are revealed Car dealers Driving a friend home Door in the face technique-asking for a large request first, knowing it will be turned down, and following it with the smaller, true request Mom, can I have $60? NO Well, can I then have $20. YES
54 ComplianceScarcity effect-people dislike feeling that they can’t have something; people like to have things that others can’t I am more apt to buy an item or enjoy an item that I think is scarce “This is the last one I have” You feel you’re missing a critical opportunity
55 ObedienceObedience is compliance to a direct order, usually from someone in authority-it is compliance with a commandObedience is social influence in its most direct and powerful formHitlerStanley Milgram’s experiment
57 Obedience Why did people go on and obey an authority figure? Believed the experiment would be safe and the experimenter was trustworthy-so they perceived the situation incorrectlyThey saw themselves as agents of other people’s wishes-so they are not responsibleWhen responsibility was shared so that the person was only one of many doing it, obedience was greaterThe victim was depersonalized or at a distance
58 Obedience*People are most likely to obey orders when a great amount of power is vested in the leader Milgram concluded: “ordinary people, simply doing their jobs, and without any particular hostility on their part, can become agents in terrible destructive processes”
60 Obedience and The Power of The Situation Zimbardo’s Prison Study (1972 Stanford U)-Agreed to two week stayEither a guard or a prisonerGiven no instructionsAbusive guards were not reportedHumiliation by guards helped to end studyLasted six daysConclusion: situations and roles are powerful and will influence behavior
61 Social Influence Combines: The power of the situation (aka-social control)AndThe Power of the Individual (personal control)We are not always sheep and can assert freedom when feeling pressuredMinority Influence-power of one or two to sway majority (Rosa Parks, Gandhi) by holing consistently to a position
62 Organizational Behavior –Industrial/Organizational Psychology Hawthorne Experiment (Elton Mayo-1920s)-testing to see if better lighting would increase worker output in the Western Electric Hawthorne Plant in Illinois The findings: productivity increased with better, too much and too little lighting Hawthorne Effect: people will alter their behavior because of researchers’ attention and not necessarily because of any treatment condition
64 Deindividuation-Group Behavior Mob Behavior-why? Violent rallies Loss of personal responsibility in a group, esp. in groups subject to intense pressures and anxiety-people respond not as individuals, but as anonymous part of a larger group Deindividuation-loss of the sense of being an individual, but act as part of the crowd, only partly explains mob behavior. Snowball effect-in a mob, one dominant, persuasive person can convince people to act by convincing a few people, who then convinces others, resulting in an unthinking mob
65 Helping Behaviorprosocial behaviors-behaviors that are carried out with the goal of helping othersaltruism-helping behavior that is not linked to personal gainreciprocal altruism-concept suggests that people perform altruistic behaviors because they feel that others will do the same for themI will save you from drowning now, you will save me from drowning in the future“What goes around, comes around.”
66 What makes you decide to help someone in need What makes you decide to help someone in need? What would cause you not to help someone in need?
67 Norms of Helping Behavior Social exchange theory=aim in helping behavior is to maximize benefits (reduce guilt, increase approval, feel good) and minimize cost (time, discomfort, and anxiety)Reciprocity norm=we should help those who help us (not hurt them); in relationships with others we tend to give as much as we receive (in favors, gifts, invitations, etc..)Social responsibility norm=we learn we should help those who need our help even if we can’t get back, or costs outweigh the benefits
68 Helping Behavior What morally motivated rescuers of Jews during WWII? Intense anti-Nazi attitudesSaw their behaviors as normal, not heroicReligious beliefs were important
69 Bystander EffectA person’s helpfulness in an emergency situation decreases as the number of bystanders increases Darley and Latane study-college students were more likely to help a peer they overheard having a seizure when they thought they were the only ones One reason may be **diffusion of responsibility- Believing that others are intervening/responsible because other are around-they also feel they will not be held accountable for the same reason
70 Helping Behaviors Across Cultures There is no single personality trait that determines who is helpful and who is notPeople from collectivist cultures are more likely to help others when minor assistance is needed and are equally likely to help others in extremely urgent situationsMost consistent finding in all psychology: happy people are helpful people
71 Group Influence on Decisions Do groups make better decision? Sometimes groups arrive at riskier decisions. Groupthink: In a close-knit group, the tendency for all members to think alike and to suppress disagreement for the sake of harmony The problem-critical thinking is not used, risks are not assessed, alternatives are not fully explored
72 GroupthinkExamples: Friends want to go to a wild party; you want to go to a movie Throughout history, groupthink has led to disastrous decisions: Kennedy’s Bay of Pigs 1986 NASA launches the Challenger-isolated themselves from dissenting engineers
73 Group Influence on Decisions Groupthink – WHY:An illusion of invulnerabilityDissenters keep quite rather than make trouble, offend friends, risk being ridiculed-you think that maybe you are wrong and don’t go by your “gut”Pressure on dissenters to conform (may tease or humiliate them)illusion of everyone agreeing-may deny dissenters the chance to speak
75 Influences on Group Decisions Group Polarization-tendency for individuals to become more extreme (either more cautious or more risky) in their attitudes a a result of group discussion The group talks itself into extreme positions; they get so energized and focused that they move faster than intended EXAMPLE: You attend a PETA meeting (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals)
76 Influences on Group Behavior Social loafing-the tendency for people to exert less effort on a task when working in a group than when working alone (more comom with men from individualist cultures) This is worse in larger groups-the person does not feel personally responsible Examples: -school group work -team sports -carwash
77 LeadershipEvery group has a leader-How do they come forward? **Great person theory—leaders are extraordinary people who attain leadership positions because of their great qualities; *they were born leaders and would have lead any nation at any time Psychologists see this theory as naïve One alternative theory is that it is the right person, in the right place, at the right time (Martin Luther King, Jr)
78 Other Stuff-Parenting Styles Authoritarian-impose rules and expect unquestioned obedience (“too hard”)-results: less social skills and self-esteem, poorer decision makersPermissive-parents submit to their children’s desires, make few demands, and use little punishment (“too soft”)-results: more aggressive and immatureAuthoritative-parents are both demanding and responsive, set rules and enforce them but explain reasons for rules, encourage open discussion, esp. with older children, and allow some rule exceptions (“just right”)-result: highest self-esteem, self-reliance, social competenceThere is a correlation. Correlation is not causation.
79 Other “Stuff”-Leadership Style Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. Kurt Lewin (1939) led a group of researchers to identify different styles of leadership:Authoritarian or autocratic- “I want you to…. “Participative or democratic- Let’s work together to solve this.”Delegative or Free Reign- “You two take care of the problem while I go. . .” This is also known as laissez faire (or lais·ser faire), which is the noninterference in the affairs of others.Although good leaders use all three styles, with one of them normally dominant, bad leaders tend to stick with one style.
80 Other “Stuff”-Sandra Bem/Gender Schema -People develop gender schemas of masculine and feminine very early on through social learning and reinforcement. -This is true even for children whose parents are not stressing gender roles. For young children, “Gender looms large.” This is due to our: -Self-socialization of gender roles people cognitively process and categorize new information in their environment based on its maleness or femaleness. “Girls have long hair; boys have short hair. ” This is true because we continue to figure this out on our own. We self-socialize.
81 Social Impairment Social Facilitation- (especially when skilled, and with a friendly audience)
82 Other Stuff (esp. true in conflict situations) Mirror- image perceptions=mutual views held by each side when people/groups have conflictSocial trap=conflicting parties, when pursuing their own self interest, are caught in mutually destructive behavior (think of divorcing couples)Self-fulfilling prophecy=belief that leads to its own fulfillment (I think you are rude, I ignore you, you act rude; I think you are mad at me, I ignore you, you become mad at me)