Presentation on theme: "Toulmin Argument Model Model Three: The Final Model."— Presentation transcript:
Toulmin Argument Model Model Three: The Final Model
About the Toulmin Model Created by a British philosopher, Stephen Toulmin Most people don’t use formal (classical) logic; their reasoning is unstructured and messy Acknowledges that life is not clear cut, so it isn’t airtight. Less about the order than about the elements.
The Claim Debatable and controversial statements or assertions you hope to prove Can be demonstrated using logic or evidence Arguments depend on the conditions set by others—the audience The sky is blue. Whoa! Well actually that’s an illusion caused by…
Claims (continued) Though arguments have a central claim, or thesis, they generally feature several claims throughout. Stitch is a part of Lilo family.
Evidence and Good Reasons The support for the claim. Combine a reason with your claim to form an enthymeme. Enthymeme – an informal syllogism, in which one claim is implicit. Topic sentences? Stitch is a part of Lilo’s family because they care about one another.
BUT WAIT! We skipped a step…
The Warrant This is the logical and persuasive connection between a claim and the reasons/data supporting it The speaker’s often unstated assumptions Warrants can be stated or implied. NOOO!
The Warrant (continued) The warrant is the bridge connecting the reason to the claim. Reason (s) So Claim Since Warrant
Warrant Examples Reason (s) So Claim Since Warrant Stitch and Lilo care about each other. So Stitch is a part of Lilo’s family. Since Family members care about each other.
Warrant Examples Reason (s) So Claim Since Warrant The mushroom is poisonous. So don’t eat it! Since eating poisonous things is dangerous
Warrant Examples Reason (s) So Claim Since Warrant Cheerios can help you lower your cholesterol by 4% in 6 weeks. So you should buy Cheerios. Since lowering your cholesterol improves overall health.
Why Warrants Matter… The audience must agree with the warrant for the argument to be persuasive.
Warrant Examples Reason (s) So Claim Since Warrant I don’t like grades. So grades in college should be abolished. Since what I don’t like should be abolished.
Warrant Examples Reason (s) So Claim Since Warrant Flat taxes treat all taxpayers the same way. So flat taxes are fairer than progressive taxes. Since treating people equally is the American way. People with more income can afford to pay more and benefit more from government. So progressive taxes are fairer than flat taxes. Since people should be taxed according to their ability to pay.
Backing This is the evidence used to support a warrant. Stitch and Lilo care about each other. So Stitch is a part of Lilo’s family. Since Family members care about each other. The term “ohana” means family, and that “no one gets left behind or forgotten.” Thus, according to “ohana,” families are shaped by deliberately forged emotional connections.
Evidence Uses clear examples and concrete details to substantiate the author’s claim. Must be clearly linked (through the warrant) to the claim. Lilo shows she cares about Stitch by offering him unwavering love, even when Stitch fails to return it. Stitch shows he cares about Lilo by attempting to reform and by sacrificing his freedom to save her.
Conditions of Rebuttal Throughout the argument, the speaker acknowledges potential objections to the argument. This can lead to revised claims and reasons (based on weak warrants), concessions, or refutations. Even though they fight and yell, Lilo and Stitch care about each other. Sure, their family is small and broken, but it is still good. Still good. Reading is love.
Qualifiers Words or phrases that place limits on claims. This is a contrast to classical argument and its reliance on deduction. “All humans are mortal…” Makes writing more precise and honest. Your SAT scores are in the 98 th percentile, so it is likely you will get into a good college. some One might argue sometimes Under these conditions perhaps The federal government should ban smoking in public spaces because smoking causes serious diseases in smokers. Don’t eat me!
Ending Toulmin Beneficial because it most accurately reflects how people make arguments. Teaches important concepts: Claims should be clearly stated and qualified carefully Claims should be supported with evidence and good reasons Speakers (and their audiences) should be aware of speakers’ assumptions (and how they agree with audiences’ values) Effective arguments anticipate objections Toulmin can be used to analyze any type of argument.