2The BIG Questions1. Where and why did colonists settle in British North America after the fall of New France?2. How did key people and events shape the new British colonies?3. What were the causes, events and results of the War of 1812?
3Question #1Where and why did colonists settle in British North America after the fall of New France?
4Quebec and Its peopleAfter New France fell to British control in the 1760s, many of the French pioneers who were in the area were afraid of what would become of their culture and ways of life. The Quebec Act (1774) protected many of their ways, so it was possible for a French colony to survive in the area that was renamed as Quebec.
5There were many different groups within Quebec, and each group wanted something different from the British government.GroupPopulationWhat they wantedCanadiens70 000To keep their French and Roman Catholic lifestyleTo continue having coureurs des bois to push fur trade into the interiorEnglish merchants and farmersTo take over the entire fur tradechange way of life in Quebec from French to Englishsettle in the interior by getting free land thereset up farms thereFirst Nations59 000Keep traditional way of life and involvement in fur tradePrevent more settlers moving into interior13 American coloniesExpand into Quebec and the Ohio ValleyExpand control of the fur trade
7The ‘Carrot’ or the ‘Stick’? The British government could have dealt with these groups in two different ways.READ: pgs H in textbookRecord notes about :“Stick Supporters”“Carrot Supporters”ANSWER What do YOU think?, Q1-2 and HAND INUse Pgs H to support this slide- have students read these pages and jot down key names and notes- answer What do YOU think questions on pg H73.
8How the British dealt with the Groups The British chose to use the ‘Carrot’, instead of the ‘Stick’. In 1763, King George III of Britain declared a Royal Proclamation.It related to all of Britain’s colonies in North America.
9Royal Proclamation affected Quebec because: Britain now controlled all France’s territories in regions including New France and AcadiaEnglish civil law would replace French law. The seigneurial system was abolished.The rest of New France would be First Nations territory and all Canadiens living in First Nations territory had to leaveAnyone involved in the fur trade in the First Nations territory had to have a licence from the crown
10The Royal Proclamation worked to coax the French at times and push at others. BUT!!!!!!Do you think this was the best way to make everyone happy?
11The Thirteen ColoniesThe British had 13 colonies that stretched south along the eastern coast, that were filled with many different people with many different ideas. Each of the colonies were quite different from one another because of the resources they had and the type of people that founded them.
12MAP 13 colonies: Maine New Hampshire Massachusetts Rhode Island ConnecticutNew YorkPennsylvaniaNew JerseyVirginiaDelawareMarylandNorth CarolinaSouth CarolinaGeorgiaMAP
13The northern colonies had large forests and winters were severe The middle colonies had rich agricultural lands for grains and vegetablesThe southern colonies were hot and rich crops, like cotton and rice, grew well there.There were differences in religion too, from Protestants, Roman Catholics and Pilgrims
14Although the colonies had all these differences, there was a growing sense that they were becoming strong and independent from Britain as a united force.During the Seven Years’ War, the British began to increase taxes in the coloniesThis leads to protests, like the Boston Tea Party
15The Ohio ValleyThis area was key to North American expansion for the 13 colonies, the Canadiens and the First NationsThe Royal Proclamation cut this area off for the 13 colonies, and would prove crucial in their future.
16The Quebec Act (1774)This replaced the Royal Proclamation, and set out to establish French rightsIt was good for the Canadiens, but upset many of the other groupsINSERT CHART
17The Quebec Act was good for the Quebecois, but the 13 colonies were OUTRAGED In 1776, the 13 colonies stated the AMERICAN DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCERepresentatives from the 13 colonies held a meeting in Philadelphia, called the Continental Congress.On July 4th, 1776 they declared that the United States of America was an independent nation and war was declared against BritainThe American Revolutionary war lasted until 1783
18Which side would Quebec take? The Continental Congress sent appeals to the Quebecois to join the AmericansThe Quebecois did not give immediate support to the Americans, so the Americans invaded!Generals Montgomery and Benedict Arnold led troops against Montreal and Quebec, but were defeated by both the weather and the fightersIt was clear now that Quebec would not support them against the British
19United Empire Loyalists Not everyone in the 13 colonies were against the British.United Empire Loyalists were against the idea of independence, and therefore went against the Patriots, who were for it.
20As the battles between the British and Patriots became fiercer, it became clear that the Patriots were winningThe Loyalists had been persecuted by the Patriots; their homes were burnt and families were publicly humiliatedTo gain more support, the British promised Free-Land in Quebec, Nova Scotia and P.E.I. to Loyalists, for fighting with the BritishAbout Loyalists settled in the area and worked hard to build and support the regions
21The Second Treaty of Paris (1783) By 1783, the Americans had militarily defeated the British.In order to find peace between the two groups, Benjamin Franklin and other representatives negotiated with Britain and on September 3, 1783, a second Treaty of Paris was signedIt outlined:Britain recognized American IndependenceUS got control of the Ohio ValleyAmericans could fish off the coast of Quebec and other British coloniesAll British troops had to leave the United StatesLoyalists could no longer be prosecuted, and their property had to be returned
22SO! How did Britain deal with the Various Groups Quebecois- Quebec ActGave them rights to religion, property and traditional ways of lifeFirst Nations- Small PoxGave them highly infectious disease, which basically destroyed their societies and military strength13 colonies – American RevolutionTried to tax the coloniesColonies revoltedBritish lost control of the United States and now faced military competition in North America
23Back to the BIG QUESTION 1 Where and why did colonists settle in British North America after the fall of New France?
25How did key people and events shape the new British colonies? Big Question #2How did key people and events shape the new British colonies?
26The LoyalistsQuebec was not the only British colony in the area during the late 1700s. There was also Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. These groups made up British North America.The Loyalists came to British North America to escape persecution in the United States.
27The Loyalists were a mixed group, that had little in common, except that they were opposed to American Independence.GroupDetailsMerchants (store owners) and farmers- Abandoned property in the 13 coloniesSmall landowners, former British soldiers, and people hoping for religious toleranceHad little more than their clothing and some small possessionshoped to become richer in BNABlack slaves- Accompanied their Loyalist ownersEscaped black slavesUsed the migration as a way of escaping from their owners and becoming free people
28The Loyalists’ early years in BNA were not always easy. Many sacrificed their entire way of lifeMany faced isolation, away from their family and friendsHOWEVER! They did receive assistance from the Crown for resettlingLiving conditions improved for manyTheir role in keeping BNA loyal to the Crown was highly valuedTo honour them, the Crown declared that they would put U.E., after their name to distinguish them from others
29Where the Loyalists Settled They were concentrated in ‘three’ locationsNova ScotiaNew BrunswickQuebecLake Ontario and Lake Erie Regions
311. Nova ScotiaIn 1776, the first shipload of Loyalists left New York for Nova ScotiaIn all, about Loyalists settled in Nova ScotiaMany belonged to minority groups, mostly religious, and felt they needed protection.They were the: Huguenots(French Protestants) and Quakers(opposed all violence and war)
32IMPORTANT PERSON BOSTON KING (1783) Black Loyalists also fought and received land, but White society in Nova Scotia rejected them, and many ended up creating their own separate communities.Boston King was part of a group that formed Birchtown, a Black community near Shelburne, Nova ScotiaIt would become the largest free Black community in North America
33King ContinuedFree Black Loyalists who lived in Birchtown were paid less than normal rate for the little work they could findUnemployed and poor white Loyalists and soldiers took their frustration out on the Blacks in Shelburne1784: they attacked and rioted through BirchtownKing had escaped slavery in South CarolinaHe was disheartened by the treatment of his people in Nova Scotia, so he and his wife left in 1791
342. New Brunswick New Brunswick was a part of Nova Scotia until 1784 Many of the same people and groups settled there, as Nova Scotia
353. QuebecSome Loyalists from New England migrated to the St. Lawrence region of QuebecMany settled east of Montreal, because everywhere else had already been settledThis area is now known as The Eastern Townships
374.Lake Ontario and Lake Erie Regions Loyalists had a huge impact on this region, as before the 1780s only First Nations lived thereMany of the regiments of British soldiers that had to flee the United States, disbanded in the Niagara and Kingston areasThere were also many important groups of First Nations who had fought with the British, that relocated to the region
38IMPORTANT PERSONJOSEPH BRANT ( Thayendanegea) - He was one of the best known leaders of the Mohawk people - His people were originally from New York, but he believed their future lay in BNA - HOWEVER! His lands had been signed away to the Americans in the Second Treaty of Paris, and his people were betrayed by the British
39Brant con’tThe British Commander in Quebec realized the injustice done to Brant and his people, and so opened up about 2750 square kilometres along the Grand River for their settlementIt was known as THE SIX NATIONS RESERVE, and was to remain as a reward for the loyalty that Brant showed the crownFollowing governors had different ideas, and slowly over time the land was taken away bit-by-bitCambridge and Brantford sit on parts of the reserve today
404. Continued Development of the Lake Ontario and Erie Regions Colonel John Butler moved his regiment into the region in 1784His followers started the town of Newark, now known as Niagra-on-the-LakeCivilian loyalists set up small communities, which later grew into large cities (Burlington, Kingston, etc.)There were many skilled trades in the communities, so trade was goodThe United Empire Loyalists would succeed in their new communities, regardless of their losses in the war
41Loyalist ExpandBy the late 1790’s, there were about Loyalists settled in what is now, Southern OntarioThey felt entitled to support from the Crown, because of their loyaltiesFairly soon, they began to ask the government to change the law of Quebec, to be more English.
42How the Loyalists Changed the Face of Quebec Textbook H101-H105Read and complete the questions providedSUBMIT To me WHEN COMPLETED
43What were the causes, events and results of the War of 1812? Question 3What were the causes, events and results of the War of 1812?
44Causes Long Term Causes Immediate Causes Napoleonic Wars (1799-1815) France was defeated, but got revenge by supporting American troopsThis upset the British, and caused conflictImmediate CausesBritish Interfered with American Merchant ShipsAmericans were trying to expand into the NorthwestAmericans accused British of supplying First Nations with firearmsAmericans were spreading propaganda against the Canadas
45EVENTSIn June of 1812, America declared war on Britain. The War of 1812 was fought in many land battles, skirmishes and naval battles on the Great Lakes.Although the odds were against the British, sometimes it just takes a strong leader to change the tides of war. The British had two:Sir Isaac Brock, a British OfficerTecumseh, a Shawnee Chief
46Sir Isaac Brock/ Tecumseh Early in the war, Brock commanded the troops in Upper Canada, and with Tecumseh he planned to stop the Americans before they could invade from the south.They decided to attack various American forts, only weeks after war was declared, catching the American troops completely unprepared.Fort Michlimimackinac was captured without a single shot being fired
47The BattlesDetroit- With a force of only 400 soldiers and 600 First Nations, Brock and Tecumseh went to battle with the American General, General Hull.- Hull had over soldiers at Fort Detroit
481. Con’tBrock decided to use deception to scare General Hull, dressing his militia in red soldiers’ uniforms, and had each man set his own cooking fire, instead of the usual 1 fire/3 or 4 men.This made it seem like Brock had thousands, rather than just hundreds of soldiersTecumseh did the same with his warriors, having them constantly yell out battle cries to frighten the AmericansGeneral Hull feared for the lives of his men, and so surrendered without a battle even occurringDetroit secured the west and allowed for the defence of other parts of Upper and Lower Canada
492. Queenston HeightsOne of the most famous battles, fought not far from what is now Niagra-on-the-LakeIn October 1812, American soldiers moved from New York State into the area and captured the high ground around QueenstonGeneral Brock rushed to the attack, using a small force to push the Americans backHOWEVER!! A sniper shot Brock and he died almost instantlyHis attack slowed the Americans enough to allow other British forces to advance and push the Americans back to New YorkThe British took almost 1000 American prisoners, with very little loss
503. Beaver Dams (Thorold) June 24, 1813 550 Americans were camped at QueenstonThe commander of the troops and his officers were stationed at an inn, owned by James and Laura SecordLaura overheard the commander’s plans for attack, and in an act of bravery, rushed to tell British Colonel Fitzgibbon about the planned attack at Beaver DamsDue to Laura’s bravery, Fitzgibbons 80 soldiers and 250 First Nations men were able to prepare and then successfully defeat the AmericansVideo
514. Washington and Baltimore In retaliation for Americans burning towns in Upper Canada, the British forces attacked and burned Washington in August 1814They tried to do the same in BaltimoreSeveral British ships shelled Fort McHenryThe British ‘bombs bursting in air’ and the Congreve ‘rockets’ red glare’, would become key parts of the American national anthem
52VIP (Very Important Peoples) Quick Presentation of the following Individuals:TecumsehLaura SecordSir Isaac BrockLt. Colonel John By
54Sir Isaac Brock (1769-1812) Background Joined the army at age of 18 Fought with Britain against France in the Seven Years’ WarAchievementsTactics were beneficial in to the British in the War of 1812Deceived General Hull in the battle DetroitSignificanceAlly with Shawnee Chief, TecumsehHelped to defend and protect Upper CanadaDied in Battle, at Queenston Heights
56Tecumseh Background Great Shawnee Chief In American Revolution, Americans destroyed Shawnee villagesTecumseh realized that British would help protect their rightsAchievementsBecause he fought with Sir Isaac Brock, he was a recognized ally to the BritishSignificanceKey to the fight between the British and the AmericansHelped defeat General Hull at the Battle of Detroit
58Laura Secord Background Born in Massachusetts Married John Secord, and would later play a key role in the Battle of Beaver DamAchievementsSuccessful warned General Fitzgibbon of American attackSignificanceWithout her bravery, Beaver Dam would have lost to Americans, and Upper Canada would have been at risk for full invasion
60Lieutenant- Colonel John By BackgroundMilitary man, born in London, EnglandNot really in favour of fightingStationed in Lower Canada, in Quebec City since 1802AchievementsHelped design and build the Rideau Canal system, to transport goods from the St. Lawrence, up to OttawaMade new fortifications for Quebec CitySignificanceHelped to expand infrastructureWas charged with unauthorized spending, and shipped back to Great Britain
62TASKAnswer the “Flip Think” Questions on the back of the handout, ON LINED PAPER.Write in full sentencesHAND IN, WITH YOUR NAME ON IT, when you are finished!
63Effects of the War of 1812 Some are good ! Some are Bad ! Pgs H122-H123Read as a classDiscussComplete the organizer, deciding what were:Long Term EffectsShort Term EffectsPositive EffectsNegative Effects
64My Museum ExhibitOne of the easiest ways to experience history first hand, is to visit and tour local museums. Museum Curators, the people who run museums, spend a lot of time deciding what their themes for their exhibits will be, and what kinds of things they would like to put on display.This is your chance to try and ‘build’ a museum exhibition of your own, for British North America and War of 1812.
65Museum ‘Stuff’ to Consider Be interesting for your audience!Include your location, hours of operation, etc.What information do you want to put on display (Use your notes as a source! Oh, annd the textbook).Put pictures, information blocks and anything else you think you may want to!