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The American Civil War 1861-1865. Lincoln’s First Inauguration March 4, 1861.

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Presentation on theme: "The American Civil War 1861-1865. Lincoln’s First Inauguration March 4, 1861."— Presentation transcript:

1 The American Civil War

2 Lincoln’s First Inauguration March 4, 1861

3 Confederates Took Fort Sumter April 4, 1861

4

5 Lincoln Calls For Volunteers April 14, 1861

6 VIRGINIA SECEDED APRIL 17, 1861

7 Three More States Seceded Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina West VA seceded from VA Border States Maryland, Missouri, Kentucky, and Delaware Slave states that remained in the Union

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9 Resources of Each Side Northern 21 states Over 21 million people Superior manufacturing and food production 2/3 of country’s railroad mileage Superior Civilian Leadership Southern 11 states 9 million people – 4 million were slaves Defending own soil Superior Military Leadership More accustomed to guns and horses Cotton

10 Marching to Manassas July 18, 1861 – 1st battle – Bull Run – (Manassas) –people from DC came in carriages and had picnics to watch the fight

11 Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) Union – 30,000 troops Confederates 20,000

12 First Battle of Bull Run First Manassas July 21, 1861 Attempt to capture Richmond Union met with resistance at Bull Run Creek Union had initial advantage Confederate forces led by Thomas Jackson turned the tide Stonewall Union Army forced to retreat back to Washington

13 Stonewall Jackson General Thomas Jackson CSA – gets nickname “Stonewall” – His troops held their position while southern army retreated – Inspired Confederate soldiers to keep fighting

14 Rebel Yell Southerners counter attacked with “rebel yell” drove back Yanks Union line broken and retreat South did not chase

15 Effects of the First Battle of Bull Run

16 Taught north it would be a long fight Lincoln call up 1 million man army Southerners felt more confident Effects of the First Battle of Bull Run

17 McClellan made General of the Northern Army

18 The Anaconda Plan Three Pronged Union Strategy Capture Richmond Blockade the Confederacy Divide the Confederacy

19 Union Generals Fired after defeat at Bull Run General McDowell

20 Union Generals General McClellan Replaces McDowell

21 Naval War Union blockaded the South As war continued blockade became more effective

22 South developed fleet of blockade runners to try to continue trade

23 USS Monitor vs. CSS Virginia (Merrimack) Both were iron clad ships

24 USS Monitor vs. CSS Virginia (Merrimack) Both were iron clad ships

25 First fight ever between iron ships Battle was a draw

26 First fight ever between iron ships Marks the beginning of modern naval warfare

27 Eastern Front South controlled Shenandoah Valley

28 McClellan (Union) led several campaigns to attack Richmond Was very cautious with his plans Peninsula Campaign

29 General Robert E Lee used JEB Stuart to lead cavalry to stop McClellan Confederates win Seven Days Battle

30 Lee defeated Union Army at 2 nd Battle of Bull Run Puts Confederates close to Washington DC

31 Lee’s Invasion of North

32 Goals of Lee’s Invasion Force Lincoln to talk peace Farmers get to harvest food in VA Show Europe South can win South need Europe for military and financial support

33 Lee plans to attack Sharpsburg, Maryland North discovers Lee’s plan and launches a surprise attack against the Confederates

34 Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg) North and South fight all day

35 Antietam –One of the Bloodiest battles of the war –23,000 killed or wounded

36 Antietam –One of the Bloodiest battles of the war –23,000 killed or wounded McClellan (Union) allows Lee and Confederates to escape following the battle

37 Union Generals General McClellan Fired after Antietam for not pursuing Lee

38 Union Generals General Burnside Replaces McClellan

39 Effects of Antietam Europe does not ally with CSA Lincoln originally fought war only to preserve the Union After Antietam Lincoln decides to issue Emancipation Proclamation

40 Emancipation Proclamation Frees all slaves in REBELLING states on January 1, 1863 Old South will be destroyed and replaced with new values

41 Emancipation Proclamation Why does Lincoln free slaves in South not the North?

42 Emancipation Proclamation Why does Lincoln free slaves in South not the North? Freeing slaves in South seen as military action As Commander in Chief (head of military) Lincoln can take military actions

43 Emancipation Proclamation Why does Lincoln free slaves in South not the North? Freeing slaves in South seen as military action As Commander in Chief (head of military) Lincoln can take military actions Can’t free slaves in north because of Constitution Government can’t take property without due process Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, Missouri might secede

44 Black Americans Join Up Emancipation Proclamation also allows blacks into US Army Fought under white commanders and had unequal pay and duties Used them for support work 54 th Massachusetts – Glory

45 Black Americans Join Up Emancipation Proclamation also allows blacks into US Army Fought under white commanders and had unequal pay and duties Used them for support work 54 th Massachusetts – Glory

46 Black Americans Join Up Emancipation Proclamation also allows blacks into US Army Fought under white commanders and had unequal pay and duties Used them for support work 54 th Massachusetts – Glory

47 Western Front

48 Mississippi River Ohio River Union Army based in Cairo Illinois

49 Union is able to get control over rivers that lead into South

50 War in the West General Grant Western Commander US Army

51 War in the West Fort Donelson Fort Henry Victories give US control over Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers Gets US access to Deep South

52 Battle of Shiloh 52,000 Union Soldiers 41,000 Confederate Soldiers

53 General Johnston (CSA) killed – Beauregard takes over Union wins on counter attack by Grant Battle of Shiloh - Dead 13,000 Union Soldiers 11,000 Confederate Soldiers

54 Admiral Farragut (USA) takes New Orleans Gives control of Mississippi River to Union except for Vicksburg Mississippi

55 Fired after Antietam for not pursuing Lee General McClellan General Burnside Fired after Fredericksburg for losing to Lee General Hooker Fired after Chancellorsville for losing to Lee Union Generals

56 Fired after Antietam for not pursuing Lee General McClellan General Burnside Fired after Fredericksburg for losing to Lee General Hooker Fired after Chancellorsville for losing to Lee Union Generals General Meade given control of Union Army

57 Summer 1863 Lee goes north again --- Out of supplies --- Wanted to force peace Blue Ridge Mountains

58 Pender Heth Buford Confederates attack Buford’s Cavalry at Cemetery Hill near Gettysburg

59 Pender Heth Buford Confederates attack Buford’s Cavalry at Cemetery Hill near Gettysburg Buford holds off superior CSA forces until Union reinforcements arrive

60 Armies compete for control of high grounds Little and Big Round Top become major objectives

61 Armies compete for control of high grounds Little and Big Round Top become major objectives

62 Pickett’s Charge 15,000 Confederate soldiers attack Union positions Confederates make it to Ridge, but are driven back

63 Gettysburg marks the “high water” point of the Confederacy Gettysburg is the turning point of the Civil War Confederates never go on the offensive again

64 Gettysburg marks the “high water” point of the Confederacy Gettysburg is the turning point of the Civil War Confederates never go on the offensive again Meade does not pursue Lee

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66 Gettysburg Address Lincoln gives speech at dedication of a military cemetery in Gettysburg States that the Union is fighting to save democracy for the World

67 Gettysburg Address “It is … for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us … that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain --- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom --- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth”

68 Battle of Vicksburg Union wanted to divide South at Mississippi River Union had total control except Vicksburg MS and New Orleans

69 Battle of Vicksburg Ulysses Grant led Union attack against Vicksburg from river and land

70 Battle of Vicksburg Grant wins and gets complete control of Mississippi for Union

71 Civil War Battle Hospital 220,000 die from disease in North Didn’t have antiseptics (anti germ drugs) or anesthetics (pain killers) Doctors would perform surgery without anesthetics

72 Women in the War Women joined to cook and take care of men Women passed as men to fight in the war Women served as nurses Worked farms and businesses at home

73 Clara Barton Served as a nurse during war Created aid society to support soldiers

74 Elizabeth Blackwell Created Soldiers Aid Society –Inspected health conditions of hospitals in war


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