Presentation on theme: "Advanced Organizer Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) and Behavior Intervention Support Teams (BIST) Overview Why is Classroom Management."— Presentation transcript:
0Classroom Management Boot Camp for New Teachers! IntroductionsRegina M. Oliver, Ph.D., BCBA-D & Troy Baker
1Advanced OrganizerPositive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) and Behavior Intervention Support Teams (BIST) OverviewWhy is Classroom Management Important?Effective Classroom ManagementPrinciples of BehaviorStudent-Teacher RelationshipsHow to Access Help in your Building
2BIST Main Components Behavioral Intervention Support Team 2 School-wide Rules3 Life SkillsGrace and AccountabilityEarly InterventionTriage
32 School-wide Rules It’s never OK to be disruptive. It’s never OK to be hurtful.Importance of common language. Can tie any behavior back to these two schoolwide rules. Incorporate the rules into any processing or conversation with students about behavior. Ways that this can be reinforced throughout the building?
4Three Life SkillsI can have an uncomfortable feeling and not get in trouble.I can be OK even if others are not.I can do something even when I don’t want to.Life skills are not just about school, but about life in school and beyond. Any behavior that is not acceptable in a job is not acceptable at school. Ask students if they think these skills would be important to them as adults.
5What students need to change: GraceandAccountability
6Grace is:Giving Responsibility and Accountability to Children in EducationProviding what students need, “You’re too important to let you behave this way.”Having a relationship when students reject youHaving the courage to hold students accountableGiving kids what they need. Maintaining the relationship in the face of rejection.
7Grace is not: Being permissive, that’s enabling Lowering standards Giving more chancesRigid, but there are clear boundariesIt’s not about more chances, it’s about building skills and using time to help us. Avoiding rigidity means that we can maintain standards, but help build skills in an individual way. One destination, but many roads to get there.
8Accountability is:Guiding students to look at what problem the behaviors create in the students’ lives and how they can develop the 3 life skillsProviding consequences to protect them and a plan to practice missing skillsWaiting for students to partner with adultsConnecting behavior and life skills for long-term effects. Protect from what they can’t manage and a plan to build the skills so that they can manage. The partnership is so important that we must be willing to wait for kids to be ready to have it. The reason why building relationships is so important so that when we’re moving to accountability we have a foundation to build on.
9Accountability is not: Using anger to get to compliancePunishing studentsWithholding attention, the relationship is a means to accountabilityLecturing kidsCan’t scare kids into compliance, can’t punish them in to changing their behavior for the long-term, can’t use relationships as a weapon, can’t talk kids into a behavior.
10The 5 Steps to Accountability: I did it.I’m sorry.It’s part of a problem in my life.I accept the consequences.I accept and need help.This is where we need kids to get. They must be able to make these statements before we truly get accountability. That’s why traditional punishments and apologies don’t get deep enough.
11Four Questions the Adult Community Must Answer What does the student’s repetitious behavior tell us s/he can’t manage?What restrictions does s/he need based on what s/he can’t manage?What skill do we need to teach them while s/he is restricted?What will the integration process from restrictions to no restrictions look like?Think about behavior issues in terms of missing skills not in terms of behaviors that must be punished. When some children are learning to ride a bike, what do we do? What supports do we put in place? When they fall down, what do we do? How do we help them learn what they need to be successful? That’s why it’s so important to tie the behavior to the life skill and why that conversation must take place where the problem occurred.
12Discussion QuestionsHow do you feel about GRACE and ACCOUNTABILITY? What information do you need?Do you feel that the students can reach all 5 Steps to Accountability?What are the purposes of restrictions? What should restrictions look like at Everett? What shouldn’t they look like?What feels comfortable or uncomfortable? How can we support kids as they reach the five steps? Where do you think that kids will need restrictions? How can we do it?
13Early InterventionStop the behavior when you see it, don’t wait until you feel it.Be intrusiveDeal with “Gateway Behaviors”What good classroom managers do all the time (proximity, the evil eye, etc.)BIST does not replace good classroom management. For most kids, classroom management is all that you’ll need. Early intervention is so difficult because it’s so contrary to what we’ve been taught: pick your battles, don’t sweat the small stuff. There is no small stuff. Early intervention says that we need to confront the behaviors quickly to help students build life skills.
14Gateway BehaviorsWhat are the gateway behaviors that you see in your classroom? On the playground? In the hallways? In the cafeteria?What classroom management techniques do you use to stop them?
15Three Levels of Triage Building level Classroom level Individual or small group
16Building Triage Arrange supervision so every child is greeted. The best way to keep problems out of the building is through personal contact.
17Classroom Triage A quick glance at the class. Teachers already do this, but we need to be consistent and intentional.It takes 5-7 minutesBe sure to include a way to know how students are doing emotionally.
18Individual TriageDesigned as a proactive measure to meet individual student needs.Increase relationships for student within the building.Develop student’s skills to identify feelings and problem-solve.Can be prior to the start of the day and/or throughout the day.
19Caring ConfrontationWhat do you think of when you hear the word confrontation?Confrontation is frequently associated with negative emotionsNever confront with angerWe want to use language that will allow the student to partner with us as we strive towards change and growth.The goal is always to help students connect their behavior to the two school-wide goals and then ultimately to the missing skill. It’s about asking tough questions in a caring way that helps kids learn and partner with us to build their skills.
20Caring Confrontation Use phrases that focus on the student “I see… (disruptive behavior)”“Can you… (desired behavior)”“Even though… (student’s feeling)”Practice these at your table…
21DECIDE WHERE THEY GO BASED ON WHERE THE ACTING OUT STOPS. Placement ContinuumRegular SeatSafe SeatBuddy RoomRecoveryOfficeHomeDECIDE WHERE THEY GO BASED ON WHERE THE ACTING OUT STOPS.Lynn and Michelle: Hula hoop activity
22Processing Build relationship--”How are you?” Find out what happened-- “Can you tell me what happened?”Identify the missing skill-- “Sounds like you weren’t OK when...”Validate-- “I would be mad too if…”Connect the feeling to the behavior-- “What did you do when you were mad?”Set standard and goal-- “At this school it’s never going to be OK to …”Plan to manage the missing skill--”Next time you’re mad, what will you say/do? Where will you go? Who will you talk to?”PracticeGuide an Apology & RestitutionRemember the cards…
23Processing Processing always goes back to the 3 Life Skills: I can have an uncomfortable feeling and not get in trouble.I can be OK even if others are not.I can do something even when I don’t want to.How did those questions help to get to the life skills? What about the example? What types of questions could you use?
24How students move through the continuum… Moving to the safe seatMoving to the buddy roomMoving to recovery (what and where is recovery)
25Key is Building Relationships with Students We do this through:TriageClosure for students (handshake, goodbye, high five, hug, etc)What else? Brainstorm and share ways that you build relationships in your classroom.
26What is PBiS?STUDENTS5 %5-10%80-90%The purpose of school wide PBiS is to establish a climate in which appropriate behavior is the norm.TroyPBiS is a broad range of systemic and individualized strategies for achieving important social and learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior with all
27PBiS is not...a specific practice or curriculum…it’s a general approach to preventing problem behaviorlimited to any particular group of students…it is for all studentsnew…its based on long history of behavioral practices & effective instructional design & strategiesTroy
28Three Tier Prevention Model Logic Primary/Universal interventions implemented with ALL to prevent inappropriate behaviorSecondary/Targeted interventions implemented with SOME to reverse inappropriate behavior patternsTertiary/Individualized interventions implemented with a FEW to reduce harmful effects of severe behaviorTroy
29Multi-Tiered Systems of Support Academic SystemsBehavioral SystemsIntensive, Individual InterventionsIndividual StudentsAssessment-basedHigh IntensityIntensive, Individual InterventionsIndividual StudentsAssessment-basedIntense, durable procedures1-5%1-5%Targeted Group InterventionsSome students (at-risk)High efficiencyRapid response5-10%5-10%Targeted Group InterventionsSome students (at-risk)High efficiencyRapid responseTroyUniversal InterventionsAll studentsPreventive, proactive80-90%Universal InterventionsAll settings, all studentsPreventive, proactive80-90%
32Why is Classroom Management Important? Single most common request for assistance from teachers is related to behavior and classroom management (Rose & Gallup, 2005)School discipline issues such as disruptive classroom behavior increase teacher stress and burnout (Burke, Greenglass, & Schwarzer, 1996; Smith & Smith, 1996)One of the top reasons teachers leave the profession
33Insufficient Classroom Management Competencies Higher rates of discipline problems in the classroom (Berliner, 1986; Espin & Yell, 1994)Lost instructional time and decreased academic engagement (Gunter et al., 1993)Teachers find it more challenging to meet the instructional demands of the classroom (Emmer & Stough, 2001)Teachers will be less effective in improving student outcomes in academics (Tooke, 1997)
34Prevention EffortsChildren’s behavior is shaped by the social context of the environment during the developmental processThe progression and malleability of maladaptive behavior is affected by classroom management practices of teachers in the early grades (Greer-Chase et al., 2002)Aggressive students in aggressive, disruptive classroom environments are more likely to be aggressive in later grades (Greer-Chase et al., 2002)
36Effective Classroom Management Plans Daily SchedulePhysical OrganizationClass RulesClass RoutinesManaging Student WorkAccommodating DiversityCollecting Data and Adjusting Plan
37Evidence Based Practices in Classroom Management Maximize structurePost, Teach, Review, Monitor, and reinforce a small number of positively stated expectationsActively engage students in observable ways.Establish a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behaviorEstablish a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior.Troy - 1 & 3Regina 2, 4 & 5(Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, Myers, & Sugai, 2008)
381. Maximize structure in your classroom Develop Predictable RoutinesTeacher routines: volunteers, communications, movement, planning, grading, etc.Student routines: personal needs, transitions, working in groups, independent work, instruction, getting, materials, homework, etc.Design environment to (a) elicit appropriate behavior and (b) minimize crowding and distraction:Arrange furniture to allow easy traffic flow.Ensure adequate supervision of all areas.Designate staff & student areas.Seating arrangements (groups, carpet, etc.)
39Classroom Physical Arrangement VisibilityTeacher see students at all timesStudents see teacher, instructional materials, and displaysAccessibilityTeacher movement and access to all studentsStudents and teacher easily access materialsKeep high traffic areas free of congestionDistractibilityStudents seated away from obvious distractorsSeparate disruptive studentsAccessibility: A lack of equal visual access erodes student motivation & accountabilityTeacher must be able to see all students at all timesAll students must be able to see instructional areas & displaysAccessibility: Congestions increases potential for PBTeacher must be able to move easily to any student & access materials easilyStudents must be able to reach materialsDistractibility: Objects & students compete with teacher & materials for students’ attentionEvertson & Harris (2003)
402. Post, Teach, Review, Monitor, and reinforce a small number of positively stated expectations. Establish behavioral expectations/rules.Teach rules in context of routines.Prompt or remind students of rule prior to entering natural context.Monitor students’ behavior in natural context & provide specific feedback.Evaluate effect of instruction - review data, make decisions, & follow up.
41A Little Clarification About Expectations and Rules… SW ExpectationsClass ExpectationsClassroom Rules(Behavioral Examples of Expectations)CHAMPS helpswith thisExpectationsfor Routines
42Establishing Expectations Expectations/Rulesexpected norms of behaviorFunction: to prevent or encourage certain behaviorsRules are limited in number and do not changeRoutinesways of getting classroom activities completedFunction: to establish routines for predictability, reducing problem behavior, and saving timeProcedures are unlimited in number and may change
43Classroom Expectations vs. Classroom Rules Expectations: behaviors expected of all students and staff in all settingsRules: specific skills you want students to exhibit and the procedures you want students to follow in specific settings
44Similarities Between Expectations and Rules Both should be positively stated – tell students what you want them to doBoth should be limited in numberBoth should line up with your school’s school-wide expectationsBoth will clarify criteria for success
45Rules within Routines Matrix ExpectationsEntering ClassroomSeat WorkSmall Group ActivityLeaving ClassroomBe SafeRulesBe RespectfulBe Responsible
46Develop a Plan for Teaching Students to Engage in Routines Conversation: How much & what type?Help: How do they let you know they need it?Activity: What is it? How long should it take?Movement: How and when can students move?Participation: How will students be active and show engagement?Regina
47onversation What does it sound like? Can they engage in conversations? How loud? How will you judge this? (Zone system?)
48elp Hand Signal (1 finger, 2 fingers, 3 fingers) Colored toilet paper tube (red and green)Styrofoam cup on a stringFlags on the deskCardstock pyramid: “Please help me” and “Please keep working”Stand up your textbookPost-It for Help“Red Folder” of alternative workTip: Students always continue to work while waiting
49ctivityovement articipation What does it look like?
50Teach Rules in the Context of Routines Teach expectations directly.Define rule in operational terms—tell students what the rule looks like within routine.Provide students with examples and non-examples of rule-following within routine.Actively involve students in lesson—game, role-play, etc. to check for their understanding.Provide opportunities to practice rule following behavior in the natural setting.
51Teaching Your Rules and Routines ExplanationDefine in concrete termsRationaleDemonstrate/Model: examples & nonexamplesRehearsalPracticeDetermine if re-teaching is necessaryFeedbackSpecific praiseError correctionReteachYou don’t have to teach all the of the routines, only the ones that you want the students to follow.A faulty assumption at secondary level is that HS students automatically know how to behave in every classroom setting. No matter how consistent teachers may try to be, there will always be some differences in What each teacher expects (how conducts class). In the absence of explicitly communicated expectations, students are forced to guess how each teacher wants them to behave.1st 5 days of school: teach expectations before each new activity and give feedback.During our independent work time, I had to give 3 to 4 reminders for students to lower their voices.Students should be involved in discussions about how routines relate to rules & how important for increasing student success.
52OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF EXPECTED BEHAVIOR WITHIN SPECIFIC ROUTINE Lesson PlanNAME OF RULEStudents will use a question card when they need my help during independent work time.ROUTINEStudents will be taught how to use a question card during independent work time.OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF EXPECTED BEHAVIORWITHIN SPECIFIC ROUTINEWhen students need my help during independent work time they will flip there question card up on their desk. This signals to me that they have a question while I am circulating around the room. Students will be taught to skip that problem and work on another problem until I can get over to them to answer their question.p.1
53PRACTICE OR ROLE PLAY ACTIVITIES WAYS TO PROMPT EXPECTED BEHAVIOR Lesson PlanPOSITIVE EXAMPLESStudent flips up question card and continues working on another problem.NEGATIVE EXAMPLESStudent flips up question card but does not continue working.Student blurts out question instead of using question card.PRACTICE OR ROLE PLAY ACTIVITIESStudents will practice using question card.Students will blurt out answer and I will prompt them to use the question card.WAYS TO PROMPT EXPECTED BEHAVIORGo over to student and point to question card.Quietly remind student to use question card.Respond to students who use question card.p.2
54Social Skills Lesson Plan PROCEDURES FOR MONITORING STUDENT BEHAVIORNumber of times students use the question card.Number of times students blurt out question or get out of their seat.PROCEDURES FOR RECOGNIZING APPROPRIATE BEHAVIORPositive praise: thank you for using the question card.Responding to students that use question card.PROCEDURES FOR CORRECTING INAPPROPRIATE BEHAVIORQuietly reminding student to use question card.Responding quickly to students that use the question card. For some students this might be a quick touch (John I see you have a question, I will be right there. Remember to go on to the next problem).p.3
553. Actively engage students in observable ways. Provide high rates of opportunities to respondVary individual v. group respondingIncrease participatory instruction (enthusiasm, laughter)Consider various observable ways to engage studentsWritten responsesWriting on individual white boardsChoral respondingGesturesOther: ____________Link engagement with outcome objectives (set goals to increase engagement and assess student change)
56Range of evidence based practices that promote active engagement Direct InstructionComputer Assisted InstructionClass-wide Peer TutoringGuided notesResponse Cards
57Specific and Contingent Praise Group Contingencies Behavior Contracts 4. Establish a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior.Specific and Contingent PraiseGroup ContingenciesBehavior ContractsToken EconomiesAmy
58Specific and Contingent Praise Praise should be……contingent: occur immediately following desired behavior…specific: tell learner exactly what they are doing correctly and continue to do in the future“Good job” (not very specific)“I like how you are showing me active listening by having quiet hands and feet and eyes on me” (specific)
60STUDENT-TEACHER RELATIONSHIPS High effect size - .72How do you plan to establish relationships?STUDENT-TEACHER RELATIONSHIPS
61What Does 4 Positives to 1 Negative Mean? Students should experience more positive interactions (ratio of 4 positives for every negative) on all locations of school.Positive Interactions=Behaviorally specific feedback as to what the student did right (contingent)Smile, nod, wink, greeting, attention, hand shake, high five (non-contingent)Negative Interactions=Non-specific behavioral correctionsIgnoring student behavior (appropriate or inappropriate)
62Examples 1-Free Period File stuffer Coffee Coupon Golden Plunger High Fives, GotchasTraveling PassportSuper Sub Slips, Bus BucksBack/front of busFree homework couponDiscount school store, grab bagEarly dismissal/Late arrivalFirst/last in LineCoupon to store or restaurantPositive Office ReferralsExtra dessert1-Free PeriodFile stufferCoffee CouponGolden PlungerGive Em’ a HandKudos
63Success is more likely in the longer term when…. Prevention creates more positive than negative consequences
64Adults may need a tangible tool for monitoring ratios of praise to reprimands
65How to Access Help! PBIS coach (1 x week) School Psychologist BIST Consultant (1 x month)SAT processSpecial Education