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Advanced Organizer Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) and Behavior Intervention Support Teams (BIST) Overview Why is Classroom Management.

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Presentation on theme: "Advanced Organizer Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) and Behavior Intervention Support Teams (BIST) Overview Why is Classroom Management."— Presentation transcript:

0 Classroom Management Boot Camp for New Teachers!
Introductions Regina M. Oliver, Ph.D., BCBA-D & Troy Baker

1 Advanced Organizer Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) and Behavior Intervention Support Teams (BIST) Overview Why is Classroom Management Important? Effective Classroom Management Principles of Behavior Student-Teacher Relationships How to Access Help in your Building

2 BIST Main Components Behavioral Intervention Support Team
2 School-wide Rules 3 Life Skills Grace and Accountability Early Intervention Triage

3 2 School-wide Rules It’s never OK to be disruptive.
It’s never OK to be hurtful. Importance of common language. Can tie any behavior back to these two schoolwide rules. Incorporate the rules into any processing or conversation with students about behavior. Ways that this can be reinforced throughout the building?

4 Three Life Skills I can have an uncomfortable feeling and not get in trouble. I can be OK even if others are not. I can do something even when I don’t want to. Life skills are not just about school, but about life in school and beyond. Any behavior that is not acceptable in a job is not acceptable at school. Ask students if they think these skills would be important to them as adults.

5 What students need to change:
Grace and Accountability

6 Grace is: Giving Responsibility and Accountability to Children in Education Providing what students need, “You’re too important to let you behave this way.” Having a relationship when students reject you Having the courage to hold students accountable Giving kids what they need. Maintaining the relationship in the face of rejection.

7 Grace is not: Being permissive, that’s enabling Lowering standards
Giving more chances Rigid, but there are clear boundaries It’s not about more chances, it’s about building skills and using time to help us. Avoiding rigidity means that we can maintain standards, but help build skills in an individual way. One destination, but many roads to get there.

8 Accountability is: Guiding students to look at what problem the behaviors create in the students’ lives and how they can develop the 3 life skills Providing consequences to protect them and a plan to practice missing skills Waiting for students to partner with adults Connecting behavior and life skills for long-term effects. Protect from what they can’t manage and a plan to build the skills so that they can manage. The partnership is so important that we must be willing to wait for kids to be ready to have it. The reason why building relationships is so important so that when we’re moving to accountability we have a foundation to build on.

9 Accountability is not:
Using anger to get to compliance Punishing students Withholding attention, the relationship is a means to accountability Lecturing kids Can’t scare kids into compliance, can’t punish them in to changing their behavior for the long-term, can’t use relationships as a weapon, can’t talk kids into a behavior.

10 The 5 Steps to Accountability:
I did it. I’m sorry. It’s part of a problem in my life. I accept the consequences. I accept and need help. This is where we need kids to get. They must be able to make these statements before we truly get accountability. That’s why traditional punishments and apologies don’t get deep enough.

11 Four Questions the Adult Community Must Answer
What does the student’s repetitious behavior tell us s/he can’t manage? What restrictions does s/he need based on what s/he can’t manage? What skill do we need to teach them while s/he is restricted? What will the integration process from restrictions to no restrictions look like? Think about behavior issues in terms of missing skills not in terms of behaviors that must be punished. When some children are learning to ride a bike, what do we do? What supports do we put in place? When they fall down, what do we do? How do we help them learn what they need to be successful? That’s why it’s so important to tie the behavior to the life skill and why that conversation must take place where the problem occurred.

12 Discussion Questions How do you feel about GRACE and ACCOUNTABILITY? What information do you need? Do you feel that the students can reach all 5 Steps to Accountability? What are the purposes of restrictions? What should restrictions look like at Everett? What shouldn’t they look like? What feels comfortable or uncomfortable? How can we support kids as they reach the five steps? Where do you think that kids will need restrictions? How can we do it?

13 Early Intervention Stop the behavior when you see it, don’t wait until you feel it. Be intrusive Deal with “Gateway Behaviors” What good classroom managers do all the time (proximity, the evil eye, etc.) BIST does not replace good classroom management. For most kids, classroom management is all that you’ll need. Early intervention is so difficult because it’s so contrary to what we’ve been taught: pick your battles, don’t sweat the small stuff. There is no small stuff. Early intervention says that we need to confront the behaviors quickly to help students build life skills.

14 Gateway Behaviors What are the gateway behaviors that you see in your classroom? On the playground? In the hallways? In the cafeteria? What classroom management techniques do you use to stop them?

15 Three Levels of Triage Building level Classroom level
Individual or small group

16 Building Triage Arrange supervision so every child is greeted.
The best way to keep problems out of the building is through personal contact.

17 Classroom Triage A quick glance at the class.
Teachers already do this, but we need to be consistent and intentional. It takes 5-7 minutes Be sure to include a way to know how students are doing emotionally.

18 Individual Triage Designed as a proactive measure to meet individual student needs. Increase relationships for student within the building. Develop student’s skills to identify feelings and problem-solve. Can be prior to the start of the day and/or throughout the day.

19 Caring Confrontation What do you think of when you hear the word confrontation? Confrontation is frequently associated with negative emotions Never confront with anger We want to use language that will allow the student to partner with us as we strive towards change and growth. The goal is always to help students connect their behavior to the two school-wide goals and then ultimately to the missing skill. It’s about asking tough questions in a caring way that helps kids learn and partner with us to build their skills.

20 Caring Confrontation Use phrases that focus on the student
“I see… (disruptive behavior)” “Can you… (desired behavior)” “Even though… (student’s feeling)” Practice these at your table…

Placement Continuum Regular Seat Safe Seat Buddy Room Recovery Office Home DECIDE WHERE THEY GO BASED ON WHERE THE ACTING OUT STOPS. Lynn and Michelle: Hula hoop activity

22 Processing Build relationship--”How are you?”
Find out what happened-- “Can you tell me what happened?” Identify the missing skill-- “Sounds like you weren’t OK when...” Validate-- “I would be mad too if…” Connect the feeling to the behavior-- “What did you do when you were mad?” Set standard and goal-- “At this school it’s never going to be OK to …” Plan to manage the missing skill--”Next time you’re mad, what will you say/do? Where will you go? Who will you talk to?” Practice Guide an Apology & Restitution Remember the cards…

23 Processing Processing always goes back to the 3 Life Skills:
I can have an uncomfortable feeling and not get in trouble. I can be OK even if others are not. I can do something even when I don’t want to. How did those questions help to get to the life skills? What about the example? What types of questions could you use?

24 How students move through the continuum…
Moving to the safe seat Moving to the buddy room Moving to recovery (what and where is recovery)

25 Key is Building Relationships with Students
We do this through: Triage Closure for students (handshake, goodbye, high five, hug, etc) What else? Brainstorm and share ways that you build relationships in your classroom.

26 What is PBiS? STUDENTS 5 % 5-10% 80-90% The purpose of school wide PBiS is to establish a climate in which appropriate behavior is the norm. Troy PBiS is a broad range of systemic and individualized strategies for achieving important social and learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior with all

27 PBiS is not... a specific practice or curriculum…it’s a general approach to preventing problem behavior limited to any particular group of students…it is for all students new…its based on long history of behavioral practices & effective instructional design & strategies Troy

28 Three Tier Prevention Model Logic
Primary/Universal interventions implemented with ALL to prevent inappropriate behavior Secondary/Targeted interventions implemented with SOME to reverse inappropriate behavior patterns Tertiary/Individualized interventions implemented with a FEW to reduce harmful effects of severe behavior Troy

29 Multi-Tiered Systems of Support
Academic Systems Behavioral Systems Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based High Intensity Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures 1-5% 1-5% Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response 5-10% 5-10% Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Troy Universal Interventions All students Preventive, proactive 80-90% Universal Interventions All settings, all students Preventive, proactive 80-90%



32 Why is Classroom Management Important?
Single most common request for assistance from teachers is related to behavior and classroom management (Rose & Gallup, 2005) School discipline issues such as disruptive classroom behavior increase teacher stress and burnout (Burke, Greenglass, & Schwarzer, 1996; Smith & Smith, 1996) One of the top reasons teachers leave the profession

33 Insufficient Classroom Management Competencies
Higher rates of discipline problems in the classroom (Berliner, 1986; Espin & Yell, 1994) Lost instructional time and decreased academic engagement (Gunter et al., 1993) Teachers find it more challenging to meet the instructional demands of the classroom (Emmer & Stough, 2001) Teachers will be less effective in improving student outcomes in academics (Tooke, 1997)

34 Prevention Efforts Children’s behavior is shaped by the social context of the environment during the developmental process The progression and malleability of maladaptive behavior is affected by classroom management practices of teachers in the early grades (Greer-Chase et al., 2002) Aggressive students in aggressive, disruptive classroom environments are more likely to be aggressive in later grades (Greer-Chase et al., 2002)

35 Apply the 3-Tiered Model to Your Classroom

36 Effective Classroom Management Plans
Daily Schedule Physical Organization Class Rules Class Routines Managing Student Work Accommodating Diversity Collecting Data and Adjusting Plan

37 Evidence Based Practices in Classroom Management
Maximize structure Post, Teach, Review, Monitor, and reinforce a small number of positively stated expectations Actively engage students in observable ways. Establish a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior Establish a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior. Troy - 1 & 3 Regina 2, 4 & 5 (Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, Myers, & Sugai, 2008)

38 1. Maximize structure in your classroom
Develop Predictable Routines Teacher routines: volunteers, communications, movement, planning, grading, etc. Student routines: personal needs, transitions, working in groups, independent work, instruction, getting, materials, homework, etc. Design environment to (a) elicit appropriate behavior and (b) minimize crowding and distraction: Arrange furniture to allow easy traffic flow. Ensure adequate supervision of all areas. Designate staff & student areas. Seating arrangements (groups, carpet, etc.)

39 Classroom Physical Arrangement
Visibility Teacher see students at all times Students see teacher, instructional materials, and displays Accessibility Teacher movement and access to all students Students and teacher easily access materials Keep high traffic areas free of congestion Distractibility Students seated away from obvious distractors Separate disruptive students Accessibility: A lack of equal visual access erodes student motivation & accountability Teacher must be able to see all students at all times All students must be able to see instructional areas & displays Accessibility: Congestions increases potential for PB Teacher must be able to move easily to any student & access materials easily Students must be able to reach materials Distractibility: Objects & students compete with teacher & materials for students’ attention Evertson & Harris (2003)

40 2. Post, Teach, Review, Monitor, and reinforce a small number of positively stated expectations.
Establish behavioral expectations/rules. Teach rules in context of routines. Prompt or remind students of rule prior to entering natural context. Monitor students’ behavior in natural context & provide specific feedback. Evaluate effect of instruction - review data, make decisions, & follow up.

41 A Little Clarification About Expectations and Rules…
SW Expectations Class Expectations Classroom Rules (Behavioral Examples of Expectations) CHAMPS helps with this Expectations for Routines

42 Establishing Expectations
Expectations/Rules expected norms of behavior Function: to prevent or encourage certain behaviors Rules are limited in number and do not change Routines ways of getting classroom activities completed Function: to establish routines for predictability, reducing problem behavior, and saving time Procedures are unlimited in number and may change

43 Classroom Expectations vs. Classroom Rules
Expectations: behaviors expected of all students and staff in all settings Rules: specific skills you want students to exhibit and the procedures you want students to follow in specific settings

44 Similarities Between Expectations and Rules
Both should be positively stated – tell students what you want them to do Both should be limited in number Both should line up with your school’s school-wide expectations Both will clarify criteria for success

45 Rules within Routines Matrix
Expectations Entering Classroom Seat Work Small Group Activity Leaving Classroom Be Safe Rules Be Respectful Be Responsible

46 Develop a Plan for Teaching Students to Engage in Routines
Conversation: How much & what type? Help: How do they let you know they need it? Activity: What is it? How long should it take? Movement: How and when can students move? Participation: How will students be active and show engagement? Regina

47 onversation What does it sound like? Can they engage in conversations?
How loud? How will you judge this? (Zone system?)

48 elp Hand Signal (1 finger, 2 fingers, 3 fingers)
Colored toilet paper tube (red and green) Styrofoam cup on a string Flags on the desk Cardstock pyramid: “Please help me” and “Please keep working” Stand up your textbook Post-It for Help “Red Folder” of alternative work Tip: Students always continue to work while waiting

49 ctivityovement articipation
What does it look like?

50 Teach Rules in the Context of Routines
Teach expectations directly. Define rule in operational terms—tell students what the rule looks like within routine. Provide students with examples and non-examples of rule-following within routine. Actively involve students in lesson—game, role-play, etc. to check for their understanding. Provide opportunities to practice rule following behavior in the natural setting.

51 Teaching Your Rules and Routines
Explanation Define in concrete terms Rationale Demonstrate/Model: examples & nonexamples Rehearsal Practice Determine if re-teaching is necessary Feedback Specific praise Error correction Reteach You don’t have to teach all the of the routines, only the ones that you want the students to follow. A faulty assumption at secondary level is that HS students automatically know how to behave in every classroom setting. No matter how consistent teachers may try to be, there will always be some differences in What each teacher expects (how conducts class). In the absence of explicitly communicated expectations, students are forced to guess how each teacher wants them to behave. 1st 5 days of school: teach expectations before each new activity and give feedback. During our independent work time, I had to give 3 to 4 reminders for students to lower their voices. Students should be involved in discussions about how routines relate to rules & how important for increasing student success.

Lesson Plan NAME OF RULE Students will use a question card when they need my help during independent work time. ROUTINE Students will be taught how to use a question card during independent work time. OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF EXPECTED BEHAVIOR WITHIN SPECIFIC ROUTINE When students need my help during independent work time they will flip there question card up on their desk. This signals to me that they have a question while I am circulating around the room. Students will be taught to skip that problem and work on another problem until I can get over to them to answer their question. p.1

Lesson Plan POSITIVE EXAMPLES Student flips up question card and continues working on another problem. NEGATIVE EXAMPLES Student flips up question card but does not continue working. Student blurts out question instead of using question card. PRACTICE OR ROLE PLAY ACTIVITIES Students will practice using question card. Students will blurt out answer and I will prompt them to use the question card. WAYS TO PROMPT EXPECTED BEHAVIOR Go over to student and point to question card. Quietly remind student to use question card. Respond to students who use question card. p.2

54 Social Skills Lesson Plan
PROCEDURES FOR MONITORING STUDENT BEHAVIOR Number of times students use the question card. Number of times students blurt out question or get out of their seat. PROCEDURES FOR RECOGNIZING APPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR Positive praise: thank you for using the question card. Responding to students that use question card. PROCEDURES FOR CORRECTING INAPPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR Quietly reminding student to use question card. Responding quickly to students that use the question card. For some students this might be a quick touch (John I see you have a question, I will be right there. Remember to go on to the next problem). p.3

55 3. Actively engage students in observable ways.
Provide high rates of opportunities to respond Vary individual v. group responding Increase participatory instruction (enthusiasm, laughter) Consider various observable ways to engage students Written responses Writing on individual white boards Choral responding Gestures Other: ____________ Link engagement with outcome objectives (set goals to increase engagement and assess student change)

56 Range of evidence based practices that promote active engagement
Direct Instruction Computer Assisted Instruction Class-wide Peer Tutoring Guided notes Response Cards

57 Specific and Contingent Praise Group Contingencies Behavior Contracts
4. Establish a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior. Specific and Contingent Praise Group Contingencies Behavior Contracts Token Economies Amy

58 Specific and Contingent Praise
Praise should be… …contingent: occur immediately following desired behavior …specific: tell learner exactly what they are doing correctly and continue to do in the future “Good job” (not very specific) “I like how you are showing me active listening by having quiet hands and feet and eyes on me” (specific)

59 3860 Sum 06 Praise Guidelines(Source: Reavis, Kukic, Jensen, Morgan, Andrews, Fister, 1997) I-Feed-V I = immediate F = frequent E = enthusiasm E = eye contact (?) D = describe the behavior V = variety 4:1

High effect size - .72 How do you plan to establish relationships? STUDENT-TEACHER RELATIONSHIPS

61 What Does 4 Positives to 1 Negative Mean?
Students should experience more positive interactions (ratio of 4 positives for every negative) on all locations of school. Positive Interactions= Behaviorally specific feedback as to what the student did right (contingent) Smile, nod, wink, greeting, attention, hand shake, high five (non-contingent) Negative Interactions= Non-specific behavioral corrections Ignoring student behavior (appropriate or inappropriate)

62 Examples 1-Free Period File stuffer Coffee Coupon Golden Plunger
High Fives, Gotchas Traveling Passport Super Sub Slips, Bus Bucks Back/front of bus Free homework coupon Discount school store, grab bag Early dismissal/Late arrival First/last in Line Coupon to store or restaurant Positive Office Referrals Extra dessert 1-Free Period File stuffer Coffee Coupon Golden Plunger Give Em’ a Hand Kudos

63 Success is more likely in the longer term when….
Prevention creates more positive than negative consequences

64 Adults may need a tangible tool for monitoring ratios of praise to reprimands

65 How to Access Help! PBIS coach (1 x week) School Psychologist
BIST Consultant (1 x month) SAT process Special Education


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