Presentation on theme: "Behaviour Strategies for the Classroom"— Presentation transcript:
1 Behaviour Strategies for the Classroom Erin BilbenOccupational Therapist
2 My OT Background Providing OT services to school based population. Service provider with Renfrew Educational Services to the CBE (Bridges program, Children’s Village School, and William Roper Hull School).Provided OT services to Independent School Board in Partnership with Psychology teamCurrently working in hardest role, with longest work hours…
3 Overview What is an OT? Mental Health OT Breaking down Aggression & DefianceLesson PlansA little game to keep your attention – in the slides there are song titles in quotation marks, name the artist.
4 What is Occupational Therapy? “Working 9 to 5” Occupational Therapy is a health care profession that is concerned with a person’s ability to perform the daily occupations they are expected to, need to do or want to do.Daily occupations include self-care, productivity, and leisure activities.An OT strives to increase productivity and function within the person’s current environment.Being a parent is an occupation, brushing your teeth is an occupation, and specifically for children being a student is an occupation.An occupational therapist’s role is to identify the barriers that inhibit a person from being successful in their occupations.An OT does not strive to change or cure the inhibiting factors; instead we work with people to find ways to adapt, change or learn skills necessary to increase independence and success in their current environmental setting.The person’s performance of their daily occupations is influenced by the environment in which they are performing the activity.
5 Mental Health OT Occupational Therapists offer: Direct therapy services to student’s who struggle with emotional and behavioural concernsActivity based psycho-educational groupsAn exploration of behaviour from a sensory perspectiveCollaboration and consultation with teachers and the mental health team to ensure students receive the appropriate therapy serviceFunctional strategies to help with behavior. Activity based not counselling
6 Activity Analysis of Behaviour “ABC” Ask the questions:Why are they acting out?Working on the principle of Antecedent, Behaviour, Consequence (ABC) we look at AWhere does this behaviour frequently occur?When is it happening most?With Who?How do they react?Despite what you may believe BEHAVIOUR IS PREDICTABLEHallmark of an OT – Person – Environment – Occupation Model:PERSON: variety of different roles we undertake; composite of mind, body, and soulENVIRONMENT: cultural, social, physical; barriers and supports.OCCUPATION: all self-care, productivity, and leisure. Purposeful and meaningful.How? – screamers scream, cryers cry, hitters hit, biters bite and spitters spitRealize what you cannot tolerate and recognize that is your issue. My cannot tolerate is spitting – I know I am going to have an emotional reaction to spittingWhat do kids actually have control over in their life, not much. What goes in (eating) and what comes out (voiding) that is really it
7 Common Antecedents Removing access to preferred item or activity Requiring complianceRequesting completion of non preferred tasksParticipation in a groupThe end of computer timeYou must sit at your deskYou are not going outside until your math is doneThis is a group project you have to work with 5 other peopleMarcia L Braden, PhD PC
8 Hidden Antecedents Physical Curricular Environmental Ill Anxious, panicked, headaches, gastro intestinal issuesCurricularTasks that are too difficultEnvironmentalTransitionsCrowdsLoud and unpredictable soundsMarcia L Braden, PhD PC
9 Social Antecedents Introductions, eye contact, hand shaking Perceived or real conflict/confrontationEmbarrassment, compliments, criticism, attentionVerbal interaction, phone calls, conversational exchange, direct questioningIntroductions – I teach kids to look at someone’s ear if they are demanding that you look at them in the face, less threateningCompliments can be very difficult to handle for some kids with anxiety concerns.If you require kids to answer direct questions then make sure you count to at least 5 preferably 10 to allow them enough processing time to provide you an answer.Marcia L Braden, PhD PC
10 All behaviour serves a purpose MaintainAvoidEscapeAttentionSometime kids Act up to Get OutA lot of kids do not have a learned distinction between negative and positive attention – which is the foundation of positive behaviour support programsMarcia L Braden, PhD PC
11 Aggression Based on 3 Day Intensive Workshop with Dr Aggression Based on 3 Day Intensive Workshop with Dr. Gordon Neufeld Book – Hold On To Your Kids
12 Working Model of Aggression Frustration Moves a Child to AttackAggression is the outcome of frustrationAttacks can be verbal or nonverbal and can be primitive or learnedFrustration first moves the child to effect change.Frustration is the experience of something not working; therefore the first logical impulse would be to change the frustrating circumstancesFailing that, feelings of frustration should turn into feelings of futility.The feeling that no matter how much they cry, scream, hit or yell it is not going to change the outcome, essentially the child gives up.Working Model of Aggression(1) Children are often unaware of true sources of frustration and therefore dealing with that frustration is more difficult. Another problem in affecting change to relieve frustration for a child is that much of their life is outside of their control.If the attempt to change is successful, frustration comes to an end.This emotional transformation is what drives adaptation. Instead of being moved to accept change the child is moved to tears, or at least to sadness and disappointment.Through adaptation, fragile youngsters are transformed into resilient beings.Children with aggression problems are short on the tears of sadness and the feelings of disappointment because it causes them to feel vulnerable. Therefore instead of frustration ending in feelings of futility, it progresses towards aggression.
14 Working Model of Aggression…cont’d Failing that, the impulses to attack should be tempered with conflicting elements.When impulses to attack emerge into the awareness of the child, the mind scans for anything in consciousness that would conflict with the expression of those impulses (consequences, rules, empathy, desire to be good, etc.)Failing that, Frustration seeks expression in aggression.Dr. Neufeld’s research also indicates that no child under the age of 5 is able to have mixed feelings which is what we see in adolescents/adults with aggression issues. Only able to feel one feeling/thought at a time, therefore every experience is pure. If development is typical then children will grow out of aggression issues and be able to have mixed feelingsBetween the ages of 5 and7 the tempering elements of aggression (those impulses that tell us this is “not such a good idea” start to mix, and children learn to think before they act. However for children with aggression problems they are stuck at the developmental level of a preschooler when it comes to dealing with frustration; therefore they act without thinking.When ambivalence about attacking is lacking, attacking impulses will inevitably erupt in aggression. At the point of attack, the child’s eyes will shoot upwards in direction and to the side as the brain searches for ambivalence or the point of mixed feelings.Aggression therefore is a failure in adaptation
15 Six Helpful Ways of Viewing Aggression as an EMOTIONAL problem instead of a behaviour problem.as a FRUSTRATION problem instead of an anger problem.as an IMMATURITY problem instead of a learning problemas a VULNERABILITY problem instead of an exposure probleman ADAPTATION problem instead of a trauma probleman ATTACHMENT problem instead of a social problemthe emotion that fuels aggression is frustration- the emotional ability that is needed to tame aggression is that of feeling conflicting emotionsBe concerned for those students that have “lost their tears” therefore they are no longer attached to anything emotionally. Work VERY hard at attachment with these kids.2. Anger is what we feel when something is not fair; only humans can experience anger because we are the only species that has the ability to attribute responsibility.- If we perceive it as anger we will seek to understand the injustice and judge the response, without ever dealing with the frustrating events causing the aggression3. without having the capacity to have mixed feelings the child will continue to act without thinking.4. the more the child feels his own wounds the less likely he is to wound others.5. Aggression indicates a failure of adaptationIt is not so much what has happened TO the child, rather what has not happened WITHIN the child in response to frustration6. attachments are the primary source of frustration as well as the primary source of cues for how to express frustration . Think about the kids you have the most difficulty with in your classes and what their behavior is like after long weekends or holidays, we think it should be better but it is usually WAY worse because attachment is lost during the times of separation. Simple gestures can keep that attachment alive, simply tell the kids you will think of them over the holidays.
16 Why conventional discipline is ineffective with aggression Punishments and consequences are chosen to be deliberately frustrating.“since you have such a difficult time handling frustration in a civilized manner, let me give you even more frustration to handle”If a child is able to come to terms with futility giving consequences would work.However, children with aggression problems cannot come to terms with futility and will actually be pushed to aggression with this technique because it breeds frustration.the imposition of consequences also pushes the child’s face into his inability to control the circumstances.We must remember that works for most kids does not work for kids with aggression problems, and they can be WAY more disruptive than changing a few rules or jobs to suit a child with an aggression problem. These kids might need frequent breaks during the day so let them take the attendance to the office or return items, etc. other kids might be upset bc they consider that a reward however they will get over it.
17 Conventional discipline…cont’d Using “time-out” with children with aggression problems will also back fire because you are showing them that you can only be around me when you are good.It appears to be effective in the short term because it evokes a desperate pursuit of proximity. However the root problem of frustration is never addressed.Unfortunately there is a need for discipline for social reasons, and a commitment to the community.However if we find ourselves having to impose discipline for social reasons, we should try as much as possible to depersonalize the discipline process and personalize the relationship.REALLY establish a rapport and relationship with the kids I work with before I begin discipline or behavior modification strategies. Basically if you think that on day 1 establishing that you are the “boss” with children with behavioral difficulties you will see that backfire HUGE!!!
18 Food for thought… ”Don’t Stop Believing” You may not be able to validate the behaviour but you can ALWAYS validate the frustration.In our efforts of trying not to upset children, we now have to deal with children who are upsetting others through aggression.Praise with an aggressive child may back fire because accepting your praise my mean that they won’t measure up next time.Labeling the issue frustration makes the feeling external and gives kids power to do something about it.Ask children what are you frustrated about?Something is not workingYou always know more than the child – read the problemYou’ll never be angry without being frustrated, but you can be frustrated without being angry
19 Food for thought…cont’d When you lose the will to connect that is the time that you need to step back and take a minute because anything you say at that moment will hurt/harm the connection. Wait until that will to connect returns.We meet a child at the level they are at for toileting, language, etc. and help to develop the skills they need…why wouldn’t we do that with aggression?It is far more important to nurture a child than to reward them.By stepping away from student’s and taking a break you are demonstrating the exact coping skill you wish they would use. But you need to voice them, “I am feeling very frustrated right now, so I need to take a break, what should I do”…..
21 Defiance occurs in many diagnoses ADD & ADHDTourette’s DisorderAnxiety DisordersMood DisordersAutism Spectrum Disorder / Fragile XSocial/Emotional IssuesLearning/ Developmental ConcernsWhat we need to remember is that these kids are being asked to deal with adult issues on a daily basis without the cognitive ability or maturity to truly understand them. All of these disorders will bring out feelings of great frustration, so it is our job to identify the frustration and help to decrease it.
22 Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) “The Right Kind of Wrong” Always looking for option BFocused on when others break rules however no personal insight.Very black and whiteKids tend to get a sense enjoyment out of manipulating situations to their benefit.Going to spend time on Oppositional Defiant Disorder bc it is the king pin diagnosis of defiance. Principles will still work for kids that are just plain defiant without the diagnosis.More common in boys than girlsDefined as a pattern of disobedient, hostile, and defiant behavior toward authority figures. Pattern is longer and more severe compared to typical peers
23 What does it mean to have this Diagnostic Label? Family functioning difficultiesAcademic failureSocial failure – lack of social opportunitiesBeing labeled as a “bad kid”Teachers, parents or other adults being very reluctant to have the child in their environmentsThese kids don’t have a socially rich life – not likely to be invited to birthday parties, play dates, difficulty on sport’s teams, etcNon compliant = failure to follow reasonable request within reasonable amount of time; failure to follow through; failure to follow previously learned rules and guidelines.
24 Problems with the Diagnosis It can encourage adults not to take responsibility for their role in the behaviour and in the solution (i.e.: parenting styles).It labels the child as a behaviour problem – they can never get away from it, therefore what is the motivation to be good.It does not explain why the behaviour is occurring – these children crave a greater level of control. Decide what is appropriate for them to control?If we stop looking because they have a label we may miss what is really going on for that child. It may be easier to give the child an excuse rather than take the time to identify precipitating factors. We need to take responsibility for what we can do to help the child in their environment.Always give kids a choice and be consistent with how you present the options to them and what you allow. These kids will remember the one time you strayed from your normal rules and try for it every time. They do not thrive on novelty they thrive with consistency.
25 Dealing with oppositional behaviours Dr. Greene – author of The Explosive Child and Lost at School.describes oppositional children as inflexible-explosive.Defiant behaviours for children with an ODD diagnosis are not typically due to the following:lack of motivation, need to seek attention, lack of appreciation for authority, inept parenting.How we perceive these children is directly related to how we respond to their behaviours.If we perceive that the children are seeking attention, or doing things to drive us crazy our response will be to distinguish behavior through punishment and a power struggle.Biologically they are simply wired differently and you cannot fight biology!These kids know very quickly when they are not liked. And I KNOW they can be hard to like but keep the mantra of “I do not like your choices right now”
26 Collaborative Problem Solving Dr. Ross Greene Behind every challenging behaviour is a lagging skill and a demand for that skill (i.e.: an unsolved problem)Kids do well if they CAN…if they can’t we adults need to figure out what is getting in the way so we can help.Assessment of Lagging Skills & Unsolved Problems (ALSUP): tool used to enhance discussion about where children are having difficulty in development.Form is available for free on under paperwork.I use this tool to help provide clarity regarding what specifically the student is struggling with in their social behaviour. Useful for creating specific IPP goals
27 Examples of Lagging Skills from ALSUP __ Poor sense of time__ Difficulty maintaining focus__ Difficulty considering the likely outcomes orconsequences of actions (impulsive)__ Difficulty considering a range of solutions to a problem__ Difficulty expressing concerns, needs, or thoughts in words__ Difficulty understanding what is being said__ Difficulty managing emotional response to frustration so as to think rationally__ Difficulty deviating from rules, routine__ Difficulty handling unpredictability, ambiguity, uncertainty, novelty__ Difficulty shifting from original idea, plan, or solutionI recommend using this tool to help identify exactly where students are having difficulty, better understanding of difficult behaviour makes it easier to take things less personally.Look at each skill and do an activity analysis of what it takes to complete that skill and then those are the exact steps you need to teach.
28 Interesting Research“Response Perseveration and Sensitivity to reward and Punishment in Boys with ODD.” Mattys, W., van Goozen, S.H., Snoek, H & van Engeland, H. (2004). European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 13,Assessed using a computerized door-opening task. The boys decide whether to open the next door or stop playing the game. When the boys open a door, if there is a happy face they get a dime, if there is a sad face they must give back a dime. There is a steadily increasing ratio of sad faces (punishment) to happy faces (reward). The boys are told that they can stop playing at any time.The boys with ODD opened significantly more doors than the boys without ODD.Following punishment the boys with ODD more quickly opened the next door than did the boys without ODD.Thus, in this study, the boys with ODD showed low sensitivity to punishment.Which in a school setting I see this ALL the time, where kids with ODD are being punished and they are like, meh now what…Which really reinforces the principle of “Catch them Being Good” this reinforces what you want them to do instead of what you don’t want them to do. It also helps to maintain a relationship because you are now focused on finding positive behaviors. This is important now matter how minor you have to reach for a positive.Pebbles in your pocket to track your positive responses to a particular child. Start the day with all pebbles in one pocket, if you catch them being good shift a pebble, if you point out a negative behavior or reprimand then move a pebble back. Where would your pebbles be during the day?We must remember that even though these kids can express poor behavior better than most adults (swearing, pushing, etc) they are only kids. And that even negative behavior was learned somewhere so we need to be able to be the positive person in their life, because you might be the only one.
29 Strategies for Dealing with Defiance Focus on proactive rather than reactive – identify triggersIdentify situations in advance that will cause explosionsRead warning signals and take quick action, rather than waitingBe aware as an adult how you are responding to the childMaintain the relationship at all costsAct don’t react, Act don’t “yak”Begin instructions with student’s name2 word instructionsLearn what is motivating the studentUse incentive programVery important to give 2 choices – and don’t stray from those choices, once routine is established you can tailor choices so they are lead to the right choice….Don’t negotiate! You can do A or you can do B, it is your choice. No your options are A or B. I understand you want C right now but your options are A or B, you get to choose, I am going to count to 5 and then I need you to choose.
30 Language is KEY!!! “When You Say Nothing At All” “What is your job right now?”“Your job is ___, my job is ___?”“You get what you NEED, not what you want.”“You get what you get, don’t get upset”“It’s OK to be mad, it’s not OK to be mean.”“I don’t appreciate your behaviour right now, make a choice.”“I am expecting to see frustration with _____, so what is our plan to deal with that?”“What is not working for you right now?” “What can we change?”“I am sure you are feeling frustrated, you must need to get the feelings out.”Don’t start with “Don’t” – “Hit this not that”, “Punch this…”, “gentle hands”, “calm feet”Teach what things look like, many of these kids do not know what to do during abstract requests. Are you waiting? – teach what that looks like. Are you listening? – teach what that looks like….
31 Social SkillsWe have identified that kids with aggression and defiance problems are delayed developmentally in their ability to express their emotions.For kids this usually manifests itself into problems with social skills and peer relations. Number one referral request when working in behavioural classrooms.Teachers feel equipped to modify curriculum but how do we teach social skills.
32 Emotional Bingo www.creativetherapystore.com Excellent activity to teach understanding of emotionsExtension Activities:use faces to act out feelings verbally & non-verballyhave kids tell a story of a time they felt each feelingRoot of Frustration: inability to express or understand emotions beyond happy, sad, mad
33 Classroom QuestActivity adapted from: Teaching Friendship Skills – Intermediate Version, by Pat Huggins, Ernie Hergenroeder and Larry Moen (Dec 1993) pg 511Materials:Classroom Quest Interview formClassroom Quest Bingo sheetBingo DabbersRoot of frustration – feeling like you have nothing in common with peers, realizing the kids have more in common than they think.Depending on reading level as to the level of assistance. I have done this in classrooms where we do it as a full group each question read by myself all the way to kids being able to read them with a partner.
34 Classmate Quest – Interview Form Where were you born?Where is your favorite place to go?Do you like to spend time by yourself?Do you have a pet?Do you have a brother or sister?Can you speak another language?What is your favorite color?What is your favorite food?What is your favorite TV show?What is your favorite story?What is your favorite sport?If you could be someone else for a day, who would you be and why?
35 Eats supper with their family Is an only child Has a pet Watches TV at supper timeIs wearing sandalsHas their own addressLikes to readRides the bus to schoolIs on a sports teamCan count to ten in another languageWas born in CalgaryHas/had bracesMakes their own lunchDoesn’t like chocolateLikes to spend time by themselfFavorite color is redLives in a blue houseDoesn’t have a petIs wearing socks other than whiteWas born outside of AlbertaHas hair long enough for a pony tailHas been on an airplaneFavorite food is pizzaHas curly hairHas brown eyesScramble the boards and then distribute amongst the class and see who gets a bingo first. First round – Bingo = line across or up & down, second round = diagonal line, third round = blackout.Splinter skills within this activity – communicating with peers, asking and answering a question, navigating a group socially, listening skills
36 Personal Space Space Invaders Activity Purpose: To introduce strategies for students to create their own personal space and respect others personal space.
37 Space Invaders Discussion: What is personal space? Why is personal space important?How do you feel when your personal space has been invaded?Uncomfortable, mad, annoyed, nervous, scaredWhen do you feel this way?Talking to someone that you don’t know, someone is mad at you, being bullied, sitting at the carpet, touching, talking too loudly.Root of frustration – not being able to stand in line or learning that some kids need more space and it has nothing to do with liking someone.
38 Space InvadersWhat can you do if someone is invading your personal space?Increase personal space yourself – move, take a step back, sit in a different spot, use furniture to create spaceMeasure an arm length when someone is approaching youTell the person – “I feel more comfortable right here” , “I would feel more comfortable if you were right here” – show them arms lengthWalk away if the other person is ignoring your strategies
39 Discussion: Are you a space invader? How do you think other’s feel when you invade their space?When have you been a space invader, what were you doing?Assemblies, during free time, playground, lunch time, standing in line What are the consequences of being a space invader?Kids don’t want to play with you, kids may be scared of you, etc.How do you know if you are being a space invader?Facial expressions of other person, is the other person moving away, ask before you reach out and touch someone or their stuff, check your arms length
40 Space Invaders Freeze game Measuring comfort with personal space Using lively music have students move around the room, and when the music stops have them use their arms length check to see if they are being space invaders.If students struggle maintaining personal space independently it may be useful to use hoola hoops to give students a physical measure of personal space distance.Measuring comfort with personal spacePlace a piece of masking tape on the floor approximately 2 meters longHave one student stand at the end of the tapeEach student takes turns walking along the tape until they feel comfortable with the distance between themselves and the other person
41 Space InvadersPlease note: for students who need lots of distance between them and other people this activity may make them feel uncomfortable. Use this as a discussion among the class so they learn what each of their classmates needs for personal space.Tip:After a social skills lesson I always end with a coloring activity to transition back to seat work and allow kids time to debrief after lesson.This may make some kids feel very anxious – watch for physical signs of anxiety (your antecedents), wringing hands, twitching, shifting weight and most common redening of the ears.
42 Things Kids Do That Bug ME Adapted from: Teaching Friendship Skills: Intermediate version. by Pat Huggins, Ernie Hergenroeder and Larry Moen (Dec 1993) Pg 69Worksheet #1: Instructor reads list of items and asks students to check off what bugs them.Brainstorm and write on the board ideas of how these things make everyone feel (i.e.: angry, frustrated, etc.).Worksheet #2: Have the students pick one thing that bugs them (from worksheet #1) and how it makes them feel. Students will be able to copy directly from the brainstorming written on the board. Frustration : identifying triggers for kids, helping kids recognize that they frequently do to others the same behaviors that they don’t like
43 Worksheet #1 It Bugs Me When… __kids tell my secrets__kids break promises__ kids call me names__ kids tell lies__ kids try to be the center of attention__ people get mad over little things__ kids copy me__ kids poke, push or hit me__kids borrow my things don’t give them back__ kids want their own way__ kids interrupt me__ kids brag about themselves__ kids cheat in a game__ kids tell on me__ kids tease me__ kids act bossyBrainstorm feelings for each situation
44 Worksheet #2It Bugs Me When: _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ When kids do this to me I feel: _____________________________________ signed __________________
45 Am I A Bug?Extension activity to be done after “Things Kids do that Bug Me”Have a discussion about being honest with your answers, it can be embarrassing but we need to learn from our mistakes. It is helpful if teacher answers honestly as well.Brainstorm feelings that others would feel when we treat them poorly.Tie this lesson back to the previous one and compare answers. If answers are the same discuss concept of treating others the way you want to be treated.
46 Worksheet #1 Sometimes I…. __ tell other peoples secrets__ break promises__ call people names__ tell lies__ try to be the center of attention__ get mad over little things__ copy people__ poke, push or hit people__ borrow things and not give them back __ want my own way __ interrupt people __ brag about myself __ cheat in a game __ tell on people __ tease people __ act bossy
47 Worksheet #2 A Little Promise to Myself… These things bug ME so much I sure won’t do them to anyone else!Signed ____________________________
48 Extra tidbits….Using Break cards – kids can cash in a break card when they are feeling overwhelmed. Set number of cards and duration of break, as well as discussing what an appropriate break is.Reward cards – create a bunch of red and green squares, red indicates no reward and green indicates earning a reward. Discuss expectations for earning a reward, and then throughout lesson reward on task behviour with a green card going into a jar, and off task behaviour puts a red card into the jar. Tally cards up at the end and see if class earns a reward.Transitions – most common time for behavioural outbursts. Encourage students to use a transition object, carry a box, binder etc. with some weight for sensory input. Send student ahead of the class as an “investigator” gets them out of a line that may be overwhelming. Sensory breaks as transition tools – chair push ups, seated twists, etc.
49 ResourcesDr. Gordon Neufeld – Hold On To Your KidsDr. Ross Greene – The Explosive ChildMarcia Braden Ph.D, P.C –School Specialty – Abilitations –Is It Sensory or Is It Behavior? - Author(s): Betty A. Paris, PT, M.Ed. Carolyn Murray-Slutsky, MS, OTRTeaching Friendship Skills (Beginner & Intermediate version) – Author(s): Pat Huggins, Donna Wood Manion, Larry MoenMarcia Braden – excellent handout on her website for proper use and guidelines for using time out (specific to the diagnosis of FX but applicable to all)
50 Summary Behaviour is predictable! Try your absolute best to avoid taking a child’s expression of their behaviour personally.Always strive to find the cause of the behaviour; what is frustrating them and work to change that.Maintaining a relationship is the most important factor in behavioural change.SONGS“WORKING 9-5” - DOLLY PARTON“ABC” - JACKSON 5“DON’T STOP BELIEVING” - JOURNEY“THE RIGHT KIND OF WRONG” - LEANNE RHIMES“WHEN YOU SAY NOTHING AT ALL” – ALLISON KRAUS OR RONAN KEATING
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.