Presentation on theme: "Module 11-1. What is moral development? Changes in thoughts, feelings and behaviors regarding standards of right and wrong Intrapersonal Interpersonal."— Presentation transcript:
What is moral development? Changes in thoughts, feelings and behaviors regarding standards of right and wrong Intrapersonal Interpersonal – regulates social interaction & arbitrates conflict
Is there Universal Morality? Yes, similar moral prescriptions are found in all major religions. Civilizations will not success where there are no laws against murder, theft, and lies and no regulation of sexual behavior.
Does moral development require parental discipline? Humanist Psychology says No - Hoffman (1970) Cautions against Love withdrawal (anxiety) Don’t like you; going to leave you Cautions against Power assertion (hostility) Spanking, threatening, removing privileges Makes parents appear to have poor self-control Recommends Induction Reasoning, consequences Works best with older children, middle SES
Other Psychologists Have Different Advice Some strategies work better- Thompson Warm-responsive parent-child relationships Secure attachment linked to conscience development Proactive strategies Conversational dialogue Other strategies – Be a good role model Foster an internal sense of morality Tell them about expected behaviors Use reason with punishment
Some Parenting Styles Work Better Diana Baumrind Authoritative Authoritarian Indulgent (permissive-indulgent) Neglectful (permissive-neglectful)
Parenting Styles - Authoritative Most successful Style Involves acceptance of and involvement with children, warm, attentive, sensitive reasonable control and insistence on mature behavior gradual granting of autonomy Results in cooperative children with self-control, high self-esteem, social & moral maturity, & good school performance
Authoritarian Parenting Low in acceptance/involvement, autonomy granting High in coercive control – degrade, yell, command, criticize, punish Children are anxious and unhappy. Boys become defiant. Girls become dependent. In adulthood don’t take initiative. Controlling strategies work for low-SES, African- American parents.
Indulgent (Permissive) Parenting Warm and accepting Overindulging or inattentive Little control of the child’s behavior Children are impulsive, disobedient and rebellious, overly demanding and dependent on adults Tend to be non-achieving, especially boys
Neglectful (Permissive) Parenting Low acceptance and involvement Little control General indifference Emotionally detached, depressed May become child neglect Disrupts attachment, cognition, and emotional and social skills
How about Punishment Options? Spanking Considered necessary & desirable for centuries 70-90% of American parents have spanked their children Recent survey, 26% of parents of 3-4 year olds spank frequently 67% yell at their children frequently A number of countries have outlawed spanking
Objections to Spanking & Responses Out of control model for handling situations The “woodshed” was not out of control Punishment can instill fear, rage or avoidance This is temporary unless the parent-child relationship has other problems. Doe s the punishment fit the crime? Punishment tells children what not to do rather than what to do So? Tell them what to do along with the punishment.
Objections to Spanking & Responses Punishment can be abusive Abuse is abuse. It should not be disguised as punishment. Are we talking about spanking, or all punishment? Remember Hoffman? Are we thinking that children are “innately good?” Any evidence for this? Do parents believe that they have lost the right to discipline? What is the basis of that right?
Reasoning About Rules Social Conventional Reasoning Social rules & conventions are arbitrary & created by people Moral Reasoning Moral rules are obligatory, widely-accepted, and somewhat impersonal Ethics exist apart from social convention
Morality - Children & Rules Turiel – 1978, 1983 5-year-old children conceptualize the social world in three separate domains Moral Social-conventional Psychological (personal) They realize that the rules for each of these have different levels of changeability.
Moral Behavior among Children Factors (Behaviorist view) Reinforcement & punishment Depends upon consistency & timing Models Depends upon characteristics such as warmth & attractiveness Situations Children behave inconsistently depending upon peer pressure, likelihood of being caught, personal characteristics Self-control Convinced by reasoning, punishment
Social-cognitive Theory of Morality Albert Bandura Moral competence – knowledge, capabilities, skills, awareness of rules Moral performance – motivation, rewards, incentives Self-regulation – avoiding self-condemnation and fostering self-satisfaction & self-worth
Moral Emotion - Guilt Sigmund Freud The desire to avoid feeling guilty is the foundation of moral behavior. Superego consists of: Ego ideal – rewards by conveying a sense of pride and personal value Conscience – punishes disapproved behaviors by making the child feel guilty & worthless
Moral Emotion - Empathy Responding to another’s feelings with a similar emotional response Examples of development of empathy Some infants show global empathy 1-2 years, may feel discomfort but cannot translate into action Early childhood – add perspective-taking 10-12 may feel social or humanitarian empathy
Kohlberg’s Theory Heinz dilemma – Wife near death One drug might save her Cost $200 to make; charged $2000 Heinz raised $1000, offered to pay later Druggist said no Heinz stole the drug
Kohlberg’s Theory Level 1: Preconventional External rewards & punishments Level 2: Conventional Abide by internal standards of others (law or parents) Level 3: Postconventional Recognizes alternative codes, explores options, chooses one
Kohlberg - Preconventional Stage 1 – heteronomous Moral thinking is tied to punishment Stage 2 – individualism, instrumental purpose & exchange “live & let live” Equity of exchange: “I do you a favor; you do me one.”
Kohlberg - Conventional Stage 3: Mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships & interpersonal conformity Value trust, caring & loyalty to others; children like “good girl; good boy” Stage 4: Social systems morality Understanding the social order, law, justice and duty
Kohlberg – Post conventional Stage 5: Social contract or utility and individual rights Values, rights & principles undergird the law; laws are evaluated by how well they protect human rights & values Stage 6: Universal ethical principles Moral standard based on universal human rights; will follow conscience rather than law
Kohlberg Stage 7? Cosmic perspective See one’s self as one with the universe Already a religious position - Hindu, New Age
Kohlberg’s Critics Link between moral thought & moral behavior? Albert Bandura – people do not usually engage in harmful conduct until they have justified the morality of their actions to themselves Socially worthy cause God’s will
Can Morality be Examined Apart from Religion? Religion provides the assumptions which underpin moral reasoning and decisions. Religion takes morality from individual to collective and universal. Religion provides the authority for moral prescriptions.
Kohlberg’s Critics Rest – Assessment techniques What are the moral issues? Stages 5 & 6 do not stand up across cultures Example – Buddhist monks & emphasis on compassion India – social rules are inevitable
Kohlberg’s Critics Haidt (2008) Traditionalist [collectivist] societies expect individuals to limit their desires and play their roles within the group “Western conservatives also seem to be morally challenged.” Conclusion: Kolhberg has an individualist, liberal, progress bias.
Kohlberg’s Critics Carol Gilligan – gender bias Justice perspective – male norm that puts principles above people Care perspective – moral perspective that views people in terms of connectedness and emphasizes relationships & caring for others