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D ATA -B ASED D ECISION M AKING A CROSS T IERS Rachel Minelli, Educational Diagnostician Allison Whitney, School Psychologist.

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Presentation on theme: "D ATA -B ASED D ECISION M AKING A CROSS T IERS Rachel Minelli, Educational Diagnostician Allison Whitney, School Psychologist."— Presentation transcript:

1 D ATA -B ASED D ECISION M AKING A CROSS T IERS Rachel Minelli, Educational Diagnostician Allison Whitney, School Psychologist

2 W HAT IS D ATA -B ASED D ECISION M AKING ? Using student performance data to inform professional judgment Student performance data: ISAT scores and other standardized tests Benchmarking and progress monitoring data Grades and performance on assignments Objective measurement of student behaviors Others? Individual student, classroom, and school level Across all tiers

3 R EVIEW OF THE T IER S YSTEM Tier I Core Curriculum Tier II Small-Group Tier III Individualized Intervention

4 M AKING D ECISIONS Most of our students are not passing the ISAT Despite receiving intensive reading intervention, Sally is still not showing improvement in her reading After looking at the number of office referrals it becomes apparent that 8 th grade students are engaging in bullying behavior Billy is engaging in inappropriate behaviors and does not seem to be responding to the general classroom behavior plan

5 T IER I Types of Data ISAT data Benchmarking data Office referral Data collected by general education teacher Questions to answer How is each student responding to the core instruction? How many student are at-risk for failure? Is the current core instruction effective? What additional instruction is necessary? Which students may need additional assessments? What classroom level or school-wide changes should be made?

6 (Cates & Ditkowsky, 2011)

7 B ENCHMARKING Compare to national norms Compare to local norms Predict ISAT scores Interpretation School As a school, are there changes we need to make? (e.g., core curriculum, schedule) Classroom As a class, are there changes we need to make? (e.g., core curriculum, schedule, differential instruction) Individual Student Which students may need additional instruction? Which students may need Tier II intervention? Which students may need additional assessment? Across all levels, are the changes we’ve made working?

8 O FFICE R EFERRALS Interpretation School Identify specific times of the day or places in the building that are challenging Do we need extra behavioral support? Do we need to modify our school-wide behavior policy? Classroom Are specific classes having more behavioral difficulty than others? Do we need to modify the social-emotional curriculum? Or add social-emotional curriculum? Do we need to modify the classroom behavior plan? (e.g., Good Behavior Game) Individual Student Which students are having the most behavioral difficulty? Which students may need Tier II behavioral intervention? (e.g., check-in/check-out) Across all levels, are the changes we’ve made working?

9 C LASSROOM A SSESSMENTS Short assessments Administered by general education teachers Designed to inform instruction and gain information about individual student performance

10 E XAMPLE CORE V OCABULARY S CREENING Grades: 1-8 Time: minutes Format: Group or Individual Sample: screamwant yell hope (CORE, 2008)

11 I NTERPRETING THE D ATA Norm-referenced assessments Compare to other students’ performance Criterion-referenced assessments Compare to a specific standard Example: CORE Vocabulary Screening (CORE, 2008) Performance Level Proportion Correct Words Correct Benchmark75% or more23-30 StrategicBetween 50-74%12-22 Intensive49% or less0-14

12 T IER II/III Types of Data ISAT data Benchmarking data Office referral Teacher collected data Observation data Progress monitoring data Questions to Answer How is the student responding to the intervention? Is additional intervention necessary? Is special education necessary? (only Tier III level) Has the student met his/her goals?

13 D ATA C OLLECTION AND I NTERPRETATION Choose a measurable behavior Reading Words Read Correctly Per Minute Behavior Number of Aggressive Behaviors Per Hour

14 A S EVIDENCED BY … Define the behavior in an objective way “As evidenced by…” Aggressive Behavior kicking, spitting, hitting, biting, shoving, grabbing, throwing objects; behavior is directed towards another individual

15 D ATA C OLLECTION AND I NTERPRETATION Data collection should be at least weekly Collect at least 6 data points before making any decisions about intervention effectiveness or changing the intervention Note: If data are collected weekly, then an intervention should be in place at least 6 weeks before making any changes Graph the data!

16 E XAMPLE G RAPH

17 V ISUAL I NSPECTION Variability Level Trend (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)

18 V ARIABILITY Baseline: High Intervention: Low BaselineIntervention

19 L EVEL Baseline: Lower Intervention: Higher Baseline Intervention

20 T REND Baseline: Flat Intervention: Increasing Baseline

21 A IMLINE

22 Let’s Graph!

23 R EFERENCES Cates, G. L., and Ditkowsky,B. (2011). Best practices in data-based decision making within an RTI model. Illinois School Psychology Association Conference. Peoria, IL. Consortium on Reading Excellence (CORE) (2008). Assessing reading: Multiple measures for kindergarten through twelfth grade (2 nd ed.). Novato, CA: Arena Press. Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., and Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied behavior analysis (2 nd ed.). Merril.


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