How does communication take place in humans? What does it control? What happens without it?
Partners back to back, each with 12 blocks Partner 1 builds a structure (not a box) Partner 1 gives instructions to partner 2 on how to build the structure. Give one sentence at a time, Once said it can not be repeated. Give 1 direction/step for each of the 12 blocks Compare structures for accuracy Complete C.Q. and team activity questions
Get into groups of 4 Take about 20 minutes to discuss and answer the questions the teams are to complete Discuss as a group your team responses
2. What are ways communication occurs in machines and in the human body? 3. What are consequences of miscommunication in the body?
Your alarm goes off and your arm flies up to hit the snooze button. You drag yourself out of bed and decide what to wear and what to have for breakfast. Your sister’s pancakes smell good so you grab a few bites while she’s not looking and head out the door. Running late (as usual), you sprint to catch your bus. You struggle to keep your balance as you head to the back of the already moving vehicle. A younger kid slams into your side with his book bag. You are about to yell, but you figure it’s not worth it and grab a seat. You finish up the last of your math homework and turn on your iPod to clear your head. You have two tests and then a game after school. You think to yourself, “How am I going to get through the day?”
Sulci Gyri Why do they need bends or folds What other area in the body has bend or folds
Lab Journal for table drawing as above Anatomy in Clay manikin Terra cotta, blue, green & bone color clay Wire loop or wooden knife Body system Organizer handout Directional terms Activity 2.1.2 Region of the Brain LocationPrimary Function Cerebrum
4. How do the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system work together to control the body? 5. What are the functions of the main regions of the brain?
Nervous System 2 major divisions The Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System
Verbal Projection Auditory Reception Visual Reception Touch Reception ALL of these are NERVE Connections that travel to and from the Brain
Spinal Cord is a two-way conduction path carrying impulses to and away from the brain through the hole in the skull known as the foramen magnum. The Brain is divided into four major regions: cerebral hemisphere, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum Plus Cranial nerves 1
Peripheral Nerves are all nerves that are not part of the brain or spinal cord Example: fingertip nerves for pain and temperature Cranial nerves 2-12 originate in the CNS. However the cranial nerve axons extend beyond the brain and are therefore considered part of PNS Spinal nerves branch from the spinal cord and the autonomous nervous system (divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system).
There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves. Olfactory I Optic II Oculomotor III Trochlear IV Trigeminal V Abducens VI Facial VII Auditory (vestibulocochlear) VIII Glossopharyngeal IX Vagus X Spinal Accessory XI Hypoglossal XII
Nervous system communicates with the organs and tissues by way of electrical signals Afferent Pathway takes information TO the Brain--known as Sensory Nerves Efferent Pathway takes information AWAY from the brain--Efferent Pathway known as Motor Nerves
neuron – Only responsibility is sending and receiving nerve impulses or signals. Glial cells, the forgotten brain cell-are non-neuronal cells - provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and facilitate signal transmission in the nervous system Myelin is a electrically insulating material that forms a layer, the myelin sheath, usually around only the axon of a neuron.
A. Gathers information both from the outside world and from inside the body. SENSORY FUNCTION B. Transmits the information to the processing area of the brain and spinal cord. C. Processes the information to determine the best response. INTEGRATIVE FUNCTION D. Sends information to muscles, glands, and organs (effectors) so they can respond correctly. Muscular contraction or glandular secretions. MOTOR FUNCTION
Equipment needed Computer /Internet / Microsoft Excel White Latex free swim cap Sharpie colored markers Anatomy in Clay Maniken Lab Journal
The motor cortex located on the left side of the brain controls movement on the right side of the body..
On one side of the cap map the structures located on the external view of the brain. On the other side of the cap display an internal view of the brain and show functional areas. An example layout of the exterior and interior brain found at the National Geographic: Brain Anatomy site: http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science /health-and-human-body/human-body/brain- article.html View this site for map structure model http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science /health-and-human-body/human-body/brain- article.html Part II
The cartoon-like drawing shows how the motor cortex is devoted to controlling specific body parts. Some body parts are depicted larger than others (for example, the hand is larger than the shoulder) because there are more muscles controlling those areas.
Add the last column to the journal table and add activities/processes Part III Region of the Brain LocationPrimary Function Specific Activities/Processes Cerebrum
Can we live with out part of the brain. What are the functions of the different lobe of the brain. What are the facilities. What is Phrenology? Franz Joseph Gall 9 March 1758 – 22 August 1828 early pioneer in the study of the localization of mental functions in the brain.Franz Joseph Gall brain
The frontal lobe, behind the forehead, controls thinking, planning, judgment and movement. The parietal lobe, on the top of the head, interprets sensory information, from the nerves regarding taste, smell and touch. Spatial Orientation The occipital lobe in the back of the head main center for visual processing. The temporal lobe, on the sides near the temples, organizes sensory input, auditory perception, language and speech production, as well as many memories are stored there.
Cerebrum is the wrinkled upper half of the brain, what you think of as "brain." The deep wrinkles, called sulci, increase the surface area so more information can be processed. The cerebrum is divided into two hemispheres, Each hemisphere has four lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. Read more: http://www.ehow.com/about_5393248_different-parts- brain-do.html#ixzz2fH3a8LCj
The cerebellum is located in the back of the head below the occipital lobe. It combines sensory information to help coordinate movement – Balance It is also the part of the brain that helps you pass a field sobriety test from law enforcement by enabling you to touch your nose with your eyes closed and walk a straight line heel to toe.
The brain stem includes the midbrain, the pons and the medulla oblongata. The brain stem is very important to life, regulating heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature and sleeping. Any nerve impulse traveling to the brain from the spinal cord must first pass through the brain stem.
Diencephalon is just above the brain stem Made up of the thalamus and hypothalamus. The thalamus is the gatekeeper for messages sent to and from the cerebrum and the spinal cord. The hypothalamus controls body temperature and vital urges such as thirst, hunger and fatigue.
6. How do scientists determine which areas of the brain are associated with specific actions, emotions or functions?
Brain Stem- The part of the brain composed of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata and connecting the spinal cord with the forebrain and cerebrum. Central nervous system- The part of the nervous system which in vertebrates consists of the brain and spinal cord, to which sensory impulses are transmitted and from which motor impulses pass out, and which supervises and coordinates the activity of the entire nervous system. Cerebellum- A large dorsally projecting part of the brain concerned especially with the coordination of muscles and the maintenance of bodily equilibrium, situated between the brain stem and the back of the cerebrum and formed in humans of two lateral lobes and a median lobe. Cerebrum- The dorsal portion, composed of right and left hemispheres, of the vertebrate forebrain; the integrating center for memory, learning, emotions, and other highly complex function of the central nervous system.
Gyrus- A convoluted ridge between anatomical grooves. Limbic System- A group of subcortical structures (as the hypothalamus, the hippocampus, and the amygdala) of the brain that are concerned especially with emotion and motivation. Lobe- A division of a body organ (as the brain, lungs, or liver) marked off by a fissure on the surface. Peripheral nervous system- The part of the nervous system that is outside the central nervous system and comprises the cranial nerves excepting the optic nerve, the spinal nerves, and the autonomic nervous system. Phrenology- The study of the conformation of the skull based on the belief that it is indicative of mental faculties and character. Sulcus- A shallow furrow on the surface of the brain separating adjacent gyri.
Cells are the basic building blocks of all living things. The human body is composed of trillions of cells. They provide structure for the body, take in nutrients from food, convert those nutrients into energy, and carry out specialized functions. Cells also contain the body’s hereditary material and can make copies of themselves.
Neurons are similar to other cells in the body because: Neurons are surrounded by a cell membrane. Neurons have a nucleus that contains genes. Neurons contain cytoplasm, mitochondria and other organelles. Neurons carry out basic cellular processes such as protein synthesis and energy production. Neurons differ from other cells in the body because:
Neurons have specialized extensions called dendrites and axons. Dendrites bring information to the cell body and axons take information away from the cell body. Neurons communicate with each other through an electrochemical process. Neurons contain some specialized structures (for example, synapses) and chemicals (for example, neurotransmitters).
Small, branchlike projections of the cell make connections to other cells and allow the neuron to talk with other cells or perceive the environment. Dendrites can be located on one or both ends of a cell. Provide a large surface area for connecting with other neurons. They carry nerve impulses away from the cell body
This main part has all of the necessary components of the cell, such as the nucleus (which containsDNA), endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes (for building proteins) and mitochondria (for making energy). If the cell body dies, the neuron dies.DNA
This long, cable like projection of the cell carries the electrochemical message (nerve impulse or action potential) along the length of the cell. Depending upon the type of neuron, axons can be covered with a thin layer of myelin sheath, like an insulated electrical wire Myelinated neurons are typically found in the peripheral nerves (sensory and motor neurons), while non-myelinated neurons are found in the brain and spinal cord.
Myelin is made of special cells called Schwann Cells that forms an insulated sheath, or wrapping around the axon. Myelin is composed of 80% lipid and 20% protein. Myelin Sheaths greatly increase the speed of impulse along an axon. Some myelinated axons conduct impulses as rapid as 200 meters per second
SMALL NODES or GAPS of un-insulated axonal membrane called the Nodes of Ranvier are between adjacent myelin sheath cells capable of generating electrical activity
Parkinson's The Synapse is a structure that permits the electrical impulse to pass from one cell to another cell by way of chemicals called neurotransmitters.
Multipolar neurons are so-named because they have many processes that extend from the cell body: Functionally, these neurons are either motor or association (CNS). Unipolar neurons have but one process from the cell body. However, that single, very short, process splits into longer processes Unipolar neurons are sensory neurons - conducting impulses into the central nervous system. Bipolar neurons have two processes - one axon & one dendrite. Also sensory, example, neurons found in the retina of the eye.
Carries impulses from receptors e.g pain receptors in skin to the CNS( brain or spinal cord)
Carries impulses from sensory nerves to motor nerves.
Carries impulses from CNS to effectors- e.g. muscle to bring about movement or gland to bring about secretion of hormone e.g. ADH
An action potential is part of the process that occurs during the firing of a neuron.neuron During the action potential, part of the neural membrane opens to allow positively charged ions inside the cell and negatively charged ions out. This process causes a rapid increase in the positive charge of the nerve fiber. When the charge reaches +40 mv, the impulse is propagated down the nerve fiber. This electrical impulse is carried down the nerve through a series of action potentials.
Established due to an unequal distribution of ions (charged atoms) on the two sides of a nerve cell membrane. Expressed as -70 mV, (the minus means that the inside of the neuron is slightly negative relative to the outside. Called a RESTING potential because it occurs when a membrane is not being stimulated or conducting impulses, (in it's resting state).
Passive Transport Movement of molecules with the concentration gradient i.e., from high to low concentration, in order to maintain equilibrium in the cells. Active Transport Use of ATP (a form of energy) to pump molecules against the concentration gradient i.e., from low concentration to high concentration.
To transmit an impulse over a distance without weakening requires the signal to be re- amplified along the way. Takes a +charged ion and pushes it to an area of even greater + charge Plus more Na+ outside the cell so pushing against a Na+ concentration gradient – to an area of more Na+ concentration
Step 1- 3 cytoplasmic Na+ ions from inside bond to the pump (or Protein) Step 2- ATP donates a phosphate group for energy & changes shape of the protein Active Transport= acact Gary Kaiser
Na+ K+ Pump- Continued Step 3- Through active transport, Na+ is expelled to the outside. Step 4- 2 extracellular K + bind to the pump, releasing the phosphate Step 5- The pump resumes its original shape. Step 6- K + is released inside
Write a paragraph Diagram and label 2 neurons passing a message Create 5 trivia questions
4. How are electrical impulses created in the human body? 5. How do neurons convey information using both electrical and chemical signals?
Reaction is voluntary while reflex is involuntary Reaction takes place through sensory nerves that bring back message from the brain to the motor nerve whereas sensory nerves bypass brain and go up to CNS only in the case of reflex. This is why reflex is faster than reaction.
REFLEXES are very fast, and Most Reflexes Never Reach the Brain They are a rapid MOTOR RESPONSE to a STIMULUS because the Sensory Neuron connected DIRECTLY with a MOTOR NEURON in the Spinal Cord. Blinking to protect your eyes from danger is a reflex. Sneezing is another examples of Reflex. 31 PAIRS of spinal nerves originate in the spinal cord and branch out to both sides of the body. Carrying messages to and from the spinal cord. Within the spinal cord, motor and sensory neurons are connected by INTERNEURONS
A. Step on a tack with your bare foot. B. Receptors in the skin are stimulated. C. The Sensory Neurons carry the impulse to Spinal Cord. D. A group of Neurons in the Spinal Cord AUTOMATICALLY ACTIVATES Motor Neurons. E. These Motor Neurons cause the Muscles (effectors) in your leg to contract, pulling you foot away. 5. Notice that this message did not go to the Brain, but was completed in the Spinal Cord. REFLEX)
6. What factors impact our ability to react to a stimulus? 7. How and why does reaction time differ in reflex and voluntary actions?
What is reaction time? Who can reaction time be important factor in our lives?
Can be Voluntary –Due to a thought and directed by the Central Nervous system– Reaction time test Can be Involuntary- generated by a reflex › Papillary light reflex › Jaw jerk reflex › Corneal reflex › Gag Reflex › Knee Jerk reflex › Achilles Reflex › Rooting reflex of newborn
www.nytimes.com/interactive/2009/07/ 19/technology/20090919-driving- game.htmlwww.nytimes.com/interactive/2009/07/ 19/technology/20090919-driving- game.html. Driving –texting activity http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/react ion/reaction.htmlhttp://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/react ion/reaction.html time to think -act, think act, read think act, read think negate act activity for logger pro.
www.edheads.org/activities/brain_stimul ation/swf/index.htm. www.edheads.org/activities/brain_stimul ation/swf/index.htm Divide into groups by your assigned case study Research symptoms of your case study When you decide on diagnose Ck with your teacher. If correct prepare presentation for the class. Search : disorders of the nervous system
8. How do errors in communication impact homeostasis in the human body? 9. How can biomedical professionals help treat, cure and improve the quality of life of those suffering from nervous system disorders?
Provide background on your case List of the symptoms Discuss the areas of the brain affected and the symptoms exhibited to help diagnose your patient Describe the prognosis of the patient Describe what is life going to be like for this person Discuss two biomedical professionals that may be able to help this individual deal with his/her disease Also include any information that is listed in your Activity.
Action Potential- A momentary reversal in electrical potential across a plasma membrane (as of a nerve cell or muscle fiber) that occurs when a cell has been activated by a stimulus. Axon- A long nerve cell process that usually conducts impulses away from the cell body. Dendrite- Any of the usually branching protoplasmic processes that conduct impulses toward the body of a neuron. Ion- An atom or group of atoms that carries a positive or negative electric charge as a result of having lost or gained one or more electrons. Myelin sheath- In a neuron, an insulating coat of cell membrane from Schwann cells that is interrupted by nodes of Ranvier. Neurologist- A physician skilled in the diagnosis and treatment of disease of the nervous system.
Neuron- A nerve cell; the fundamental unit of the nervous system, having structure and properties that allow it to conduct signals by taking advantage of the electrical charge across its cell membrane. Neurotransmitter- A substance (as norepinephrine or acetylcholine) that transmits nerve impulses across a synapse. Reaction Time- The time elapsing between the beginning of the application of a stimulus and the beginning of an organism's reaction to it. Reflex- An automatic and often inborn response to a stimulus that involves a nerve impulse passing inward from a receptor to the spinal cord and thence outward to an effector (as a muscle or gland) without reaching the level of consciousness and often without passing to the brain. Synapse- The place at which a nervous impulse passes from one neuron to another.
Neurons use impulses to relay messages from throughout the body What other means do humans have to provide communication within in the body