Presentation on theme: "Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children (P.A.R.C.) v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1971, 1972) Rachaellen M. Murr MA School Psychology candidate."— Presentation transcript:
Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children (P.A.R.C.) v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1971, 1972) Rachaellen M. Murr MA School Psychology candidate Ball State University
Overview/Purpose Brief Background Court Case Details Verdict Effects on school psychologists Implications for the field
Historical Background Right to a free public education Children with mental “retardation” before 1970’s School psychologists’ role What were parents supposed to do? P.A.R.C. v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania became a turning point in history (Jacob, Decker, & Hartshorne, 2010; P.A.R.C., 1972)
Court Case Details Date: 1971-1972 Plaintiff: ▫P.A.R.C. including 13 parents of children Defendant: ▫Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (State of Pennsylvania’s State Education Board, specifically pinpointing 13 school districts) Jacob, Decker, and Hartshorne, 2010;
Court Case Details Basis: ▫Protection Clause ▫Procedural Due Process Plaintiff's Attorney ▫Thomas K. Gilhool (Gilhool, 2011; P.A.R.C., 1972)
Court Verdict/Ruling Consent Agreement reached in 1972 Ruling favors plaintiff’s concerns Reasoning: ▫All are capable of benefitting from education ▫“self-sufficiency” and “self-care” Placement of all children into a “free program of education and training appropriate to the child’s capacity” (Jacob, Decker, & Hartshonre, 2010; P.A.R.C., 1972)
Outcome Pennsylvania-first state to guarantee education to such children Mills v. Board of Education of District of Columbia and other cases Development of federal law leading to IDEA (Jacob, Decker, & Hartshonre, 2010; P.A.R.C., 1972)
Implications to school Psychology How did it change practice today? Study by Sansosti and Sansosti (2013) Evidence of evolution of practice with children with impairments (Sansosti & Sansosti, 2013)
Growth of Knowledge Change in general practices Struggle for access to fair education How does this knowledge allow a school psychologist to develop professionally? ▫Good practices to follow
References Gilhool, T. K. (2011, September 28). Interview by L. Martin. [Video recording] Visionary Vioces Interviews. Institute on Disabilities. Retrieved from http://disabilities.temple.edu/voices/detailVideo.asp?mediaC ode=006-01#.UpyW_MRDuSp Jacob, S., Decker, D., & Hartshorne, T. S. (2010). Law and School Psychology: An Introduction 27-31. Ethics and Law for School Psychologists 6 th Edition. John Wiley and Sons. Hoboken, New Jersey. Jacob, S., Decker, D., & Hartshorne, T. S. (2010). Ethical-Legal Issues in the Education of Students with Disabilities Under IDEA 79-123. Ethics and Law for School Psychologists 6 th Edition. John Wiley and Sons. Hoboken, New Jersey. Kuriloff, P., True, R., Kirp, D., & Buss, W. (1974). Legal Reform and Educational Change: The Pennsylvania Case. Exceptional Children, 41, 35-42.
References Public Interest Law Center of Philadelphia. (2013) Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Citizens (PARC) V. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Retrieved from http://www.pilcop.org/pennsylvania- association-for-retarded-citizens-parc-v-commonwealth-of- pennsylvania/ Sansosti, F. J., & Sansosti, J. M. (2013). EFFECTIVE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE DELIVERY FOR STUDENTS WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS: WHERE WE ARE AND WHERE WE NEED TO GO. Psychology In The Schools, 50, 229-244. doi:10.1002/pits.21669 Shapp, M. J. (1972). Right to an Education for the Retarded in Pennsylvania, The. Syracuse L. Rev., 23, 1085. The Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. 343 F. Supp. 279 (1972). Retrieved from LexisNexis Academic database. Yell, M. L., Rogers, D., Rogers, E. L. (1998). The Legal History of Special Education: What a Long, Strange Trip It’s Been! Remedial and Special Education: A journal of the Hammill Institute on Disabilities, 19, 219-228. doi: 10.1177/074193259801900405
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