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Non-Compliant Learners Laura A. Riffel, Ph.D. Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
How do we teach children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder or children who refuse to do work? Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
First Step: Change your mindset: –These are not problem behaviors or bad behaviors…. –These are behaviors you would like to “target” for change. When you say words like “bad behavior and problem behavior”, a perception of the child forms in your mind. BAD KID- PROBLEM KID- Get the kid out of here. The child is okay; it is just the behavior you would like to go away- so target it. Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
Design a Multimodal Treatment One intervention is not going to change the child’s behavior. You will need: –Antecedent modifications Things you do before a behavior has a chance to show up You determine when those need to be employed by looking at behavior patterns: –Time of day –Day of the week –Contexts, settings, subjects being presented, certain peers being around, certain adults being around etc. Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
Multimodal design continued You will need to teach replacement behaviors: –This child has learned that certain behaviors have a pay off The child will have to be taught ways to release anger and frustration in socially appropriate ways. We cannot just tell them to “be good”, we have to actually give them techniques that will help them do something different. Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
Multimodal design continued You will need to make consequence modifications: –Everyone hates this one because it is “What will you do different when the behavior occurs?” We don’t like to think about changing ourselves. How will we avoid paying off with attention or escape from work consequences and yet still manage the behavior? How do we refrain from going to brain stem? Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
Discipline without a relationship leads to rebellion. Dr. Josh McDowell Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
Let’s look at the reason behind behavior first: Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
Remember the functions….. Positive Reinforcement To get: –Attention Adults Peers –Access to: Materials Sensory Negative Reinforcement To escape: –Work –Adults –Peers –Sensory Overload –Pain Emotional Physical Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
How to CARE for behavior C ontrol –How can I make it appear the child has more control over situations? A ttention –Does the child want the adult attention or peer attention? R evenge –What social skills can we give the child to help them refrain from reactive strategies? E scape –Why does the child want to get out of work or get away from a situation? (low self-esteem, inadequate skills, etc.) Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
Functional Behavior Assessment- FBA Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes What behavior do you want to target for change? What setting or context typically precedes this behavior? What is the payoff for the child? What behavior could replace this behavior? What could you do proactively that would change this? What can the adults do different to avoid paying off?
Functional Behavior Assessment- FBA Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes Saying “F..ing B….ch” out loud in class. Assignment to write paragraphs on a topic. Gets sent to office; which allows him to escape. Writing a paragraph after being taught. Pre-teach a writing technique in private. Let them earn some free homework passes for appropriate work.
The multi-modal plan: Does not just put one statement in place: –Consider if your doctor said, “Get better.” –No different to tell a child with a medical diagnosis to “Be Good.” (it only works for ET) Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
Label appropriate behavior Instead of telling the child what “NOT” to do- tell them what to do by labeling it when you see it. –I like the way you….(the more you say- the more you’ll see.) Get rid of the totalitarian rules: –Don’t __________ –No ____________ –Quit ____________ –Stop ____________ Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
Sticks and Stones Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder need to learn bonding strategies in order to build relationships: –Teach the ODD child to respond to others rather than react to others. Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
Teach the “I” strategy for Independence Share the emotion (feeling) Explain the why (the cause) Make a request (the solution) I feel frustrated when I don’t know the answer to a question. Please teach me a trick to make it easy. Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
Cool down technique for YOU Children with ODD seem to be able to send us from frontal cortex to brain stem in 20 seconds flat. This happens because we have been trained to think, “I must react immediately to this situation because that’s what we do.” The truth is…we don’t think best when we are upset. Train yourself to do the following: Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
Use the late night host technique If you don’t have enough information yet ask an open ended question like: –“Tell me more.” Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
When you do deal with it…. Handle all problems with compassion first. –“Oh, man I can totally understand why you felt like doing that. –But the rules for that are x,y, and z at this school. –So we’ll see you in detention on what day? –After that, let’s get together and talk. –Be sure to come see me the next day.” Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
Use a Point System How many of you collect frequent flyer miles or reward points for hotels? It makes you want to engage in a particular behavior. Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
Student-Teacher Rating Form Date: StudentHour OneHour TwoHour ThreeHour FourHour FiveHour Six Respect Self Respect Others Respect Property Total Points 3= Great Day- No or very few behavioral learning opportunities occurred 2= Pretty Good Day- few behavioral learning opportunities occurred 1= This day could have been better- more than a few behavioral learning opportunities occurred Student Signature: _________________________________________________ Teacher Signature: _________________________________________________ Parents' Signature: _________________________________________________ For younger students use smiling faces: Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
Check In- Check Out Program The most critical factor influencing the development of prosocial behavior is the attachment to at least one prosocial adult who believes in the child and provides unconditional acceptance and support (Horner et.al., 2008; Hawkins, 1995; Bernard, 1995; Brooks, 1994; & Katz, 1995) Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
ODD- First instinct is to not trust adults TUMS for the ODD Child: –T ouch them- High five or gentle touch on forearm when talking to them. Message: We touch people we like. –U se their name –M ake eye contact –S mile Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
Focus on the Four “P’s” P ublic Relations P roficiency P ower P hilanthropy Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
Public Relations All children need to feel that they belong. Be their public relations person by letting their appropriate behavior earn the class a reward. Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
Proficiency Many behavioral issues occur because the student feels inadequate academically. Pre-teach part of the lesson in a study session, an online learning lab, or resource room. Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
Power Give the child the power to control their destiny by giving them independence. Using options, teaching them to think “How’s this next decision going to affect me?” Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
Philanthropy You will be surprised that these students are generally great working with younger students or students with disabilities. –Their behavior is typically more appropriate with younger and less able students. Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
Cooking Spray- Be “PAM” Don’t let words from other students stick to you. Be: –P roactive not reactive –A ffirmative –M ove Away Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
P roactive not reactive Teach the child to have a plan to keep themselves in frontal cortex: –Teach them breathing techniques –Give them an outlet for tensing muscles such as a stress ball they keep in their pocket –Teach them how to go to their “zen” place Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
A ffirmative Teach the child to tell themselves positive statements: –I can handle this. –I am better than this. –This is not worth losing privileges over. Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
M ove Away Teach the child to say something like: –“Thanks for sharing your opinion and move away.” Teach the child to not make eye contact when saying the above statement. Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
Ice it down…. Know how you can add ice to a hot cup of cocoa and it cools it down to “just right”? Or ice an inflamed muscle and it calms down. Learn what to say to bring the child down to “just right.” For example: –If the child likes to set up the overhead projector and you see they are about to go over the edge, ask them to set up the overhead projector for you. Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
Music calms the inner “beast” We all have times when our inner beast comes out. –Share with the student what you do…. Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
60 beats per minute Our resting heart rate is 60 beats per minute –Heart rates during aggressive behaviors reach as high as 147 beats per minute and they reach that rate a full seconds prior to the aggressive behavior Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
Rules for parents & teachers Have clear expectations- not rules –Don’t say don’t, stop, quit, or no Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
Keep the expectations simple and positive Respect Relationships Respect Responsibilities Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
Routines Changes in routine can be just as upsetting to a child with ODD as to a child with Asperger Syndrome or Autism Stick to the routine and let them know about changes in advance. Give them “heads up” reminders –When the music stops you will have two minutes before the bell. Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
Q-TIP Get yourself a Q-tip –(Quit Taking It Personally) –You are not the cause of the defiance- you are an outlet for the child Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
Find out what floats their boat Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
Focus on Strengths Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
Be Columbo- whisper in the right ear Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
KISS Don’t give a lot of words….blah, blah, blah –Be quick, be quiet, be gone Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
Love Notes Children with ODD will do the opposite of what you want if you tell the world they are doing a “good job”. Give them love notes privately telling them what they did well. Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
You catch more flies with…. Never yell at a child with ODD- remember Newton’s Law of Inertia? –A body persists in its state of … uniform motion unless acted upon by an external unbalanced force.” In other words, if a child is yelling, then yelling at them is not going to change their behavior. Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
Safe place Have a place for the child to go if they absolutely need to- do not call it “time out” and do not use it as a punishment One school I visited had the igloo room. It was staffed and students could go there to de-puff when they were ready to explode. Riffel, L.A. (2009)© - permission to copy with no changes
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