2 40% !!!!!!!!of ALL Teenagers say they experience mild or severe stress in their lifeIt’s how they handle the stress that will determine how healthy they are
3 STUDENT STRESS RATING SCALE The following are events that occur in the life of a college student. Place a check in the left-hand column for each of those events that has happened to you during the last 12 months.___ Death of a close family member points____ Jail term - 80 points____ Final year or first year in college - 63 points____ Pregnancy (to you or caused by your) - 60 points____ Severe personal illness or injury - 53 points____ Marriage - 50 points____ Any interpersonal problems - 45 points____ Financial difficulties - 40 points____ Death of a close friend - 40 points____ Arguments with your roommate (more than every other day) - 40 points____ Major disagreements with your family - 40 points’____ Major change in personal habits - 30 points____ Change in living environment - 30 points____ Beginning or ending a job - 30 points____Problems with your boss or professor - 25 points____ Outstanding personal achievement - 25 points____ Failure in some course - 25 points____ Final exams - 20 points____ Increased or decreased dating - 20 points____ Changes in working conditions - 20 points____ Change in your major____ Change in your sleeping habits - 18 points____ Several-day vacation - 15 points____ Change in eating habits - 15 points____ Family reunion - 15 points____ Change in recreational activities - 15 points____ Minor illness or injury - 15 points____ Minor violations of the law - 11 pointsScore: _________________
4 INTERPRETING YOUR SCORE Less than 150 points : relatively low stress level in relation to life eventspoints : borderline rangeGreater than 300 points : high stress in relation to life eventsNote: From Girdano, D.A., Everly, G. S., Jr., & Dusek, D. E. (1990). Controlling stress and tension (3rd edition), ENnglewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
6 WHAT IS STRESS?Stress is your mind and body’s response or reaction to a real or imagined threat, event or change.The threat, event or change are commonly called stressors. Stressors can be internal (thoughts, beliefs, attitudes or external (loss, tragedy, change).May feel tension, frustration, worry,sadness, or withdrawal
7 Identifying Stressors Situations that make you feel stress are called stressorsNot everyone reacts the same way to the same stressorsRecognizing what stressors make you experience stress is the first step in controlling your stressACTIVITY:Take a moment to think about what type of day you have had? How many stressors – mild or major have you encountered today?
8 EUSTRESSEustress or positive stress occurs when your level of stress is high enough to motivate you to move into action to get things accomplished.
9 DISTRESSDistress or negative stress occurs when your level of stress is either too high or too low and your body and/or mind begin to respond negatively to the stressors.
10 RECOGNIZING STRESS SIGNALS Symptoms could be:Physical such as headaches or upset stomachChanges in sleep or eating patternsYou need to learn the ways in which your body signals you that you are experiencing stress, so that you can recognize it and deal with it before it makes you illACTIVITYWhat signals does your body send you that you are under stress?
12 Stages of StressAlarm StageResistance StageExhaustion Stage
13 1. ALARM STAGEAs you begin to experience a stressful event or perceive something to be stressful psychological changes occur in your body. This experience or perception disrupts your body’s normal balance and immediately your body begins to respond to the stressor(s) as effectively as possible.
14 EXAMPLES Cardiac - increased heart rate Respiratory - increased respirationSkin - decreased temperatureHormonal - increased stimulation of adrenal genes which produce an adrenal rush.
15 2. RESISTANCE STAGEDuring this stage your body tries to cope or adapt to the stressors by beginning a process of repairing any damage the stressor has caused. Your friends, family or co-workers may notice changes in you before you do so it is important to examine their feedback to make sure you do not reach overload.
16 EXAMPLESBehavior indicators include: lack of enthusiasm for family, school, work or life in general, withdrawal, change in eating habits, insomnia, hypersomnia, anger, fatigue.Cognitive Indicators include: poor problem solving, confusion, nightmares, hyper-vigilance.
17 RESISTANCE STAGE MORE EXAMPLES Emotional indicators include:tearfulnessfearanxietypanicguiltagitationdepressionoverwhelmed.
18 3. EXHAUSTION STAGEDuring this stage the stressor is not being managed effectively and the body and mind are not able to repair the damage.
19 EXAMPLESDigestive disorders, withdrawal, headaches, tension, insomnia, loss of temper, skin disorders etc..
20 Who Causes us stress ? Parents Teachers Coaches Brothers/Sisters FriendsOneselfEnvironmentOthers???
21 RESPONDING TO STRESS E + R = W Many times when we experience stress, we don’t stop to think about how we handle it.We respond to stress based on habits and patterns that we have developed over timeSome habits are healthy, and others are unhealthyACTIVITYIdentify an unhealthy response to stress. Think of a stressful situation in which you respond with this negative habit. Think of a healthier alternative to handle this stressor!Remember, no matter how stressful the situation, take your time, realise you have a choice and choose to make stress response that is productive, healthy and ends well
22 How do most teenagers escape stress? Listen to MusicTalk to Friends/FamilyWatch TelevisionPhysical ActivityYogaMeditation/Relaxation BreathingSeek Solutions…….Do You?Seek Support
23 “I’m really depressed” Depression is more severe than stress and it lasts longer (at least 2-3 weeks)Feel hopelessFeel sadFeel aloneWorryWithdrawal (from your friends and family)21 days
24 How do teenagers escape depression? Become indifferent-avoid peopleExhibit anger at those around themBecome aggressive, yell, fight, complainDrinkSmokeSleepCryAttempt suicide
25 Stressed/Depressed Where do you go? TeachersPastorPhysicianCoachRelativesParentsFriends
26 I’M IN CONTROL - DISTRESS RELIEF STRATEGIES Feeling good about yourselves can be an effective buffer against stress. Eliminate unnecessary worries.PHYSICAL1. Relax neck and shoulders2. Take a stretch3. Get a massage4. ExerciseGET MENTAL5. Count to 106. Control your thoughts7. Fantasize8. Congratulate yourself9. Ignore the problem if appropriate, after evaluation10. Perform self maintenance11. Talk to a counselorGET SPIRITUAL12. Meditate13. Pray14. Remember your purposeUSE YOUR BODY AND MIND TOGETHER15. Take a break16. Get hug therapy17. Try progressive relaxation18. Try yoga19. Try aroma therapy20. LaughDEVELOP NEW SKILLS21. Prioritize daily tasks22. Learn something23. Practice a hobby
27 LEARNING TO HANDLE CONFLICT There are 3 types of conflictInternal Conflict – conflict within yourselfInterpersonal – conflict between two peopleInter-group – conflict between members of onegroup and another group
28 3 METHODS TO HANDLE STRESS AvoidanceConfrontationResolutionAvoidanceConfrontationResolutionCryQuitPoutBack stabGive inDenyUse humourStop speaking to person?YellFightAccuseTalkGet a mediatorCompromiseShare ideas
29 USING “I” STATEMENTS I feel… (state the feeling) When you…(state the person’s behavior)Because…(state the effect it has on you)I want…(state what you want to happen)(ie) I feel hurt and angry… when you tell other people something I told you in confidence… because it is embarrassing and it made other people angry with me… I want you to promise that when I tell you something in confidence that you will not tell a single person.”
30 Factors That Effect Resiliency Being a Resilient TeenWhat is resiliency?Resiliency: is the ability to recover fromdisappointment, difficulty, or a crisis.Factors That Effect ResiliencyExternal factors: include your family, your school or community, and your peers.Internal factors: are the ones you have control over.Positive values: demonstrate positive values through your words and actions.Social dependency: you have empathy and friendship skills. It also means you can resist negative peer pressure and resolve conflicts nonviolently.Positive identity: indicates positive self-esteem and a sense of purpose.
31 Resiliency Simplified… Recognize your symptoms of stressUse relaxation techniquesExerciseTime managementWatch your dietGet enough sleep and restHelp othersTake time outs – vacations, mental breaksGive in occasionallyTackle one thing at a timeDon’t try to be perfectHave some fun – laugh lots and enjoy life!
32 How to be Resilient…Get Together Talk with your friends and, yes, even with your parents. Understand that your parents may have more life experience than you do, even if it seems they never were your age.Cut Yourself Some Slack When something bad happens in your life, the stresses of whatever you're going through may heighten daily stresses. Your emotions might already be all over the map because of hormones and physical changes; be prepared for this and go a little easy on yourself, and on your friends.Create A Hassle-Free Zone Make your room or apartment a "hassle-free zone" - not that you keep everyone out, but home should be a haven free from stress and anxieties.Stick To The Program During a time of major stress, map out a routine and stick to it. You may be doing all kinds of new things, but don't forget the routines that give you comfort.Take Care Of Yourself Be sure to take of yourself - physically, mentally and spiritually. And get sleep. If you don't, you may be more grouchy and nervous at a time when you have to stay sharp.
33 Resiliency cont…Take Control Bad times make us feel out of control - grab some of that control back by taking decisive action.Express Yourself Tragedy can bring up a bunch of conflicting emotions, but sometimes, it's just too hard to talk to someone about what you're feeling. If talking isn't working, do something else to capture your emotions like start a journal, or create art.Help Somebody Nothing gets your mind off your own problems like solving someone else's. Try volunteering in your community or at your school, cleaning-up around the house or apartment, or helping a friend with his or her homework.Put Things In Perspective The very thing that has you stressed out may be all anyone is talking about now. But eventually, things change and bad times end. Learn some relaxation techniques, whether it's thinking of a particular song in times of stress, or just taking a deep breath to calm down. When you talk about bad times, make sure you talk about good times as well.You can learn resilience. But just because you learn resilience doesn't mean you won't feel stressed or anxious. You might have times when you aren't happy - and that's OK. Resilience is a journey, and each person will take his or her own time along the way. Resilience can help you be one of the people who've "got bounce."