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Chapter 12 The Developmental-Behavioral Approach.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12 The Developmental-Behavioral Approach."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 12 The Developmental-Behavioral Approach

2 Developmental and Behavioral Principles: A Blend Historical influences –Maturationists believe that development is independent of experience. –Constructivists say that is not entirely true. There needs to be a match between developmental level and experience.

3 Developmental and Behavioral Principles: A Blend Historical influences –Maturationists believe that development is independent of experience. –Constructivists say that is not entirely true. There needs to be a match between developmental level and experience.

4 History Friederich Froebel: the Father of Kindergarten argued that children need hands-on experiences. John Dewey: Progressive Education Movement, put strong emphasis on the learning environment.

5 History Maria Montessori: female physician in Italy, was a champion of children with special needs. She designed materials and sequential learning activities called didactic materials (manipulative materials in which the child’s errors and successes are self-evident.

6 Maturationists Internal predisposition Physiological characteristics Inherited traits Essential psychological makeup of a human being

7 Intrinsic Motivation: The joy of learning Children will seek out additional learning on their own simply because they wanted to and because it made them feel good about themselves.

8 Developmental and Behavioral Principles: A Blend (continued) The problem of the match –Providing materials for children at the right time in the right way is a concern for teachers. –Materials should lead to rewarding experiences, and children should feel proud that they did it themselves.

9 Developmental and Behavioral Principles: A Blend (continued) Learning from success –Teachers break learning down into small steps and reward the success of mastering the little steps. –Children then are motivated to learn more.

10 Developmental and Behavioral Principles: A Blend (continued) Environmental arrangements –A prepared learning environment matched to each child’s current skill levels –Materials and activities sequenced in small enough segments to provide both success and challenge –Emphasis on learning through play and active involvement with appropriate materials –Responsive teachers who serve as guides and facilitators rather than instructors

11 Behavior Principles and Practices Every child can learn –Teachers need to believe that every child can learn. –There needs to be a responsive learning environment.

12 Reinforcement A consequence or event, or procedure which follows a behavior. Reinforcement increases the behavior. Reinforcers can be internal or external.

13 ABC Antecedent: what comes before a behavior Behavior: Consequence: what followed the behavior A and C are environmental events, planned or unplanned.

14 Behavior Principles and Practices (continued) Reinforcement procedures –Negative reinforcement Strengthen behavior by removing an unpleasant consequence. –Intrinsic reinforcement Feelings of accomplishment from completing a task, discovering something new, or solving a problem.

15 Behavior Principles and Practices (continued) –Positive reinforcement A pleasant consequence for doing a behavior, increasing its likelihood. –Adult social reinforcement Children turn to adults to see how to react to behaviors.

16 Behavior Principles and Practices (continued) –Teacher behaviors that have a strong impact on children: Verbal responsiveness Descriptive praise Physical proximity Physical contact Physical assistance Providing things that children want

17 Behavior Principles and Practices (continued) –Natural and logical consequences Natural consequences—occur without teacher intervention Logical consequences—set up by adults as results to a child’s behavior

18 Behavior Principles and Practices (continued) Withdrawing or withholding reinforcers –Taking away a desired object as a result of behavior –Teachers may Ignore behavior Remove materials that are causing the behavior Remove the child from the activity

19 Behavior Principles and Practices (continued) –Incompatible behaviors Two behaviors that counteract each other cannot be present at the same time. Example: walking and running cannot occur together. –Catch the child being good When the child is good, praise the child, increasing the good behavior.

20 Behavior Principles and Practices (continued) Discipline versus punishment –Punishment stops a behavior for the moment, but nothing is gained. –Discipline guides the child to learn a new response or behavior.

21 Behavior Principles and Practices (continued) Punishment –Punishment stops a behavior for the moment, but does not cause behavior to change. –Side effects of punishment Effects are undesirable. If you yell to stop a behavior, you are modeling yelling. The children begin to yell.

22 Discipline Teaches a child appropriate behavior. Provides appropriate expectations and consequences for the child. It teaches the child self-control, and how to behave.

23 Positive Guidance Let child know you value her even if her behavior must be stopped. Help child understand why positive behavior is better. Help child identify possible consequences of actions. Allow child to deal with reasonable consequences. Create developmentally appropriate environment. Remove child from situations that cause misbehavior. Firmly redirect inappropriate behavior.

24 It’s easier to change the environment than change the child. Focus on shaping positive behavior. Direct attention should be assertive, positive, and self-esteem building.

25 Preventing Behavior Problems Carefully plan the environment (Ch 13) Understand typical child developmental Match the environment to children’s needs Assure children are busy and excited about their activities and accomplishments

26 Observational Learning Children learn social skills by imitating others. – communication styles – attitudes – responses to stress Children learn both appropriate and inappropriate behaviors.

27 Competition Competition discourages cooperation and may damage self-esteem. Competitors: opponents, adversaries who contend against each other. Never use comparisons to label or stereotype children.

28 Discipline Methods Redirection – replace inappropriate behavior with more appropriate behavior Objectivity – respond with impartiality, neutrality, and open-mindedness – avoid a judgmental or emotional manner

29 Praise vs. Encouragement To praise is "to commend the worth of or to express approval or admiration" (Brophy, 1981, p.5). Dreikurs and others (1982) say that praise is usually given to a child when a task or deed is completed or is well done. Encouragement, on the other hand, refers to a positive acknowledgment response that focuses on student efforts or specific attributes of work completed. Unlike praise, encouragement does not place judgment on student work or give information regarding its value or implications of student status.

30 Praise Is product oriented Is nonspecific, places a judgment on the student, and gives some indication of the student's status in the group.

31 Encouragement Offers specific feedback rather than general comments. – For example, instead of saying, "Terrific job," teachers can comment on specific behaviors that they wish to acknowledge. Focuses on improvement and efforts rather than evaluation of a finished product. Uses sincere, direct comments delivered with a natural voice. Does not set students up for failure. –Labels such as "nice" or “terrific" set students up for failure because they cannot always be "nice" or "terrific". Helps students develop an appreciation of their behaviors and achievements. Avoids competition or comparisons with others. Works toward self-satisfaction from a task or product. Is process oriented.

32 Praise Encouragement Your are the best student I ever had. You are a fine student. Any teacher will appreciate and enjoy you. You are always on time.You sure make an effort to be on time. You have the highest score in the class on this exam. You did very well on this exam. I am so proud of you.You seem to really enjoy learning You're the best helper I ever had. The room looks very neat since you straightened the bookshelves. I'm so proud of your artwork. It is nice to see that you enjoy art.

33 Praise Encouragement stimulates rivalry and competition stimulates cooperation and contribution for the good of all focuses on quality of performance focuses on amount of effort and joy evaluative and judgmental; person feels "judged" little or no evaluation of person or act; person feels "accepted" fosters selfishness at the expense of others fosters self-interest, which does not hurt others emphasis on global evaluation of the person-"You are better than others." emphasis on specific contributions -"You have helped in this way." creates quitterscreates triers fosters fear of failure fosters acceptance of being imperfect fosters dependence fosters self-sufficiency and independence

34 Praise vs. Encouragement Recognition and encouragement are appropriate. Overabundance of gushy or insincere praise is inappropriate. Article: Five Reasons to Stop Saying "Good Job!“ by Alfie Kohn YOUNG CHILDREN September 2001

35 Behavior Principles and Practices (continued) –Reminders, redirections, and reprimands Remind a child of the expected behavior. Redirect them to a different behavior. Reprimand with a verbal warning to stop a behavior.

36 Behavior Principles and Practices (continued) –Sit and watch Child sits at the edge of the play activity and watches. Child learns consequence. Child learns appropriate play.

37 Behavior Principles and Practices (continued) –Time-out Used as a last resort. All reinforcement is removed. Children do not learn what to do in time- out, just what not to do.

38 Step-by-Step Learning Task analysis is breaking down a task into small steps that can be rewarded upon accomplishment. Builds confidence in the child to be independent.

39 Step-by-Step Learning (continued) Observation and task analysis –Teacher observes a child doing a task. –Teacher sees when the child needs help. –Teacher breaks the task down into small steps for the child. –Teacher rewards the child for success at each step.

40 Step-by-Step Learning (continued) Prompting, fading, cueing –Physical and verbal prompts help the child. –Fading is the removing of prompts as the child becomes competent. –Some prompts may be physical. –Guide the child through the steps to be independent.

41 Step-by-Step Learning (continued) Amount and timing of reinforcement –The amount varies from child to child. –It needs to be enough to change the behavior, but not so much that the child expects it. –Timing needs to be close to the behavior so that the child knows what is being rewarded.

42 Step-by-Step Learning (continued) Praise –Praise should be real and descriptive. –Avoid using “good boy” or “well done.” –Tell the child what was good or well. –Phrase it so that the child feels good about himself or herself, not just pleasing others.

43 Praise vs. Encouragement To praise is "to commend the worth of or to express approval or admiration" (Brophy, 1981, p.5). Dreikurs and others (1982) say that praise is usually given to a child when a task or deed is completed or is well done. Encouragement, on the other hand, refers to a positive acknowledgment response that focuses on student efforts or specific attributes of work completed. Unlike praise, encouragement does not place judgment on student work or give information regarding its value or implications of student status.

44 Praise Is product oriented Is nonspecific, places a judgment on the student, and gives some indication of the student's status in the group.

45 Encouragement Offers specific feedback rather than general comments. – For example, instead of saying, "Terrific job," teachers can comment on specific behaviors that they wish to acknowledge. Focuses on improvement and efforts rather than evaluation of a finished product. Uses sincere, direct comments delivered with a natural voice. Does not set students up for failure. –Labels such as "nice" or “terrific" set students up for failure because they cannot always be "nice" or "terrific". Helps students develop an appreciation of their behaviors and achievements. Avoids competition or comparisons with others. Works toward self-satisfaction from a task or product. Is process oriented.

46 Praise Encouragement Your are the best student I ever had. You are a fine student. Any teacher will appreciate and enjoy you. You are always on time.You sure make an effort to be on time. You have the highest score in the class on this exam. You did very well on this exam. I am so proud of you.You seem to really enjoy learning You're the best helper I ever had. The room looks very neat since you straightened the bookshelves. I'm so proud of your artwork. It is nice to see that you enjoy art.

47 Praise Encouragement stimulates rivalry and competition stimulates cooperation and contribution for the good of all focuses on quality of performancefocuses on amount of effort and joy evaluative and judgmental; person feels "judged" little or no evaluation of person or act; person feels "accepted" fosters selfishness at the expense of others fosters self-interest, which does not hurt others emphasis on global evaluation of the person-"You are better than others." emphasis on specific contributions - "You have helped in this way." creates quitterscreates triers fosters fear of failurefosters acceptance of being imperfect fosters dependence fosters self-sufficiency and independence

48 Praise vs. Encouragement Recognition and encouragement are appropriate. Overabundance of gushy or insincere praise is inappropriate. Article: Five Reasons to Stop Saying "Good Job!“ by Alfie Kohn YOUNG CHILDREN September 2001

49 Learning by Imitation Children learn by watching. Model the behavior they see. They learn through the television, their peers, their parents, and caregivers. “Do as I say, not as I do” is ineffective teaching.

50 Learning by Imitation (continued) Competition is inappropriate –Comparing children’s progress to another child does not improve development. –Children should be compared to their own earlier learning. –Children then compete to better themselves, rather than to beat someone else.


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