Presentation on theme: "4. Imagic Icons in Chinese and Other Languages. 4. Imagic Icons w4.1. Saussure’s Principle I Revisited wAlmost all language is symbolic as the relationship."— Presentation transcript:
4. Imagic Icons w4.1. Saussure’s Principle I Revisited wAlmost all language is symbolic as the relationship between words and their meanings is not (merely) based on contiguity or similarity, but on convention. wSaussure: “Principle I: The Arbitrary Nature of the Sign -- The bond between the signifier and the signified is arbitrary.” w“… the whole group of systems grounded on the arbitrariness of the sign. In fact, every means of expression used in society is based, in principle, on collective behavior or—what amounts the same thing—on convention.”
4.1. Saussure’s Principle I Revisited w“In concluding let us consider two objections that might be raised to the establishment of Principle I: w1) Onomatopoeia ( 擬聲詞 ) might be used to prove that the choice of the signifier is not always arbitrary. But onomatopoeic formations are never organic elements of a linguistic system. Besides, their number is much smaller than is generally supposed. … As for authentic onomatopoeic words (e.g. glug-glug, tick- tock, etc.), not only are they limited in number, but also they are chosen somewhat arbitrarily, for they are only approximate and more or lest conventional imitations of certain sounds (cf. English bow-wow and French ouaoua).” (Saussure, Chapter 1) w 一個蚊子哼哼哼. ‘A mosquito hums and hums.’ w 兩個蒼蠅嗡嗡嗡. ‘Two flies drone and drone.’ ( 曹雪芹《紅樓 夢》 )
4.1. Saussure’s Principle I Revisited wThe bark of a dog in 18 languages The bark of a dog in 18 languagesThe bark of a dog in 18 languages w“2) Interjections ( 嘆詞 ), closely related to onomatopoeia, can be attacked on the same grounds and come no closer to refuting our thesis. One is tempted to see in them spontaneous expressions of reality dictated, so to speak, by natural forces. But for most interjections we can show that there is no fixed bond between their signified and their signifier. We need only compare two languages on this point to see how much such expressions differ from one language to the next (e.g. the English equivalent of French aїe! is ouch!). w 哎喲 ( 哎唷 / 唉喲 ) in 24 languages 哎喲 ( 哎唷 / 唉喲 ) in 24 languages 哎喲 ( 哎唷 / 唉喲 ) in 24 languages wSaussure is both right and wrong. wRight: “…Particularly deserving of notice are icons in which the likeness is aided by conventional rules…” (Peirce 1940:105) wWrong: The role and importance of nonarbitrary coding in language is grossly underestimated.
4.2. Imagic Icons w4.2. Imagic Icons (beyond Onomatopoeia and Interjection) wDirect relationship between particular sounds with particular meanings; recurrent patterns of association wExample 1: the concept of “round” conveyed by the use of lip-rounding vowels (like u and ü) in Chinese wCircle, ring, sphere, ball, roll, cylindrical mass, round, circular, ellipse, etc. w 「圓 yuan 、圈 quan 、圓圈 yuanquan 、圓周 yuanzhou 、橢圓 tuoyuan 、卷 juan 、環 huan 、圍 wei 、繞圈 raoquan 、轉 zhuan 、旋 轉 xuanzhuan 、團 tuan 、弧 hu 、柱 zhu 」 … wIn contrast: 「點 dian 、面 mian 、線 xian 、方 fang 、尖 jian 、邊 bian 、角 jiao 」 …
4.2. Imagic Icons wIn ancient Chinese: w 「洄 hui ：《一切經音義》『水轉也』」 w 「帷 wei ：《釋名》『帷，圍也』」 w 「回 hui ：《說文》『回，轉也』」 w 「運 yun ：《廣雅》『運，轉也』」 w 「棍 gun ：《一切經音義》『棍，轉也』」 w 「袞 gun ：《周禮鄭玄註》『袞衣，卷龍也』」 w 「裙 qun ：《廣雅》『繞領，裙也』王念孫疏証『裙 之言圍也』」 w 「軍 jun ：《說文》『軍，圜圍也』」 w… …
4.2. Imagic Icons wMore examples in Mandarin: w 果 guo vs 菜 cai ；瓜 gua vs 葉 ye ；豆 dou vs 米 mi ；洞 dong vs 山 shan ；鍋 guo vs 鏟 chan ；碗 wan vs 飯 fan ；餛飩 huntun vs 麵 mian ；包子 baozi vs 饅頭 mantou ；球 qiu ；珠 zhu ；曲 qu ；彎 wan ；丸 wan ；坨 tuo ；輪 lun ；筒 tong ；桶 tong ；； ；；孔 kong ；窟窿 kulong … … wCounter-examples? wNumerous words containing lip-rounding vowels but not referring to round shapes: 「國、骨、過、誤、烏、孤、哭、骷、路、 雨、語 … 」 w 「蛋 dan 」： an exception – 「卵 luan 」 in ancient Chinese and in modern Hakka （客家話）, Southern Min （閩南話 : 潮州、 廈門 … ）, Northern Min （閩北話：福州、建甌 … ） -- in other parts of China, 「卵」 is a taboo word.
4.2. Imagic Icons wExample 2: ‘i’ for quite sounds; ‘a’ for loud sounds in Mandarin. w 笑咪咪 xiao-mimi ‘smiling; with a smile on one’s face’ w 笑嘻嘻 xiao-xixi ‘grinning, smiling broadly’ w 笑哈哈 xiao-haha ‘laughingly, with a laugh’ w 靜 jing ‘still, quiet, calm’ w 清靜 qingjing ‘peace and quiet’ w 寂靜 jijing ‘silence’ w 輕聲的 qingsheng-de ‘whispery’ w 私語 / 低語 siyü/diyü ‘whisper’ ------ w 嘈 cao ‘noise’ w 吵 chao ‘make a noise; quarrel’ w 響聲 xiangsheng ‘noise’
4.2. Imagic Icons w 噪聲 zaosheng ‘noise’ w 嘈雜 caozá ‘noisy’ w 叫喊 jiaohan ‘to yell’ w 叫嚷 jiaorang ‘to yell’ w 叫喚 jiaohuan ‘to yell’ w 吶喊 nahan ‘to shout’ w 嚷嚷 rangrang ‘to make a loud noise’ w 罵 mà ‘to scold’ w 嗥 / 嚎 hao/hao ‘to howl’ w 嚎啕 haotao ‘to cry loudly’ w 鼓譟 guzao ‘to make an uproar’ w 長嘯 changxiao ‘to make a loud whistling sound’ wCounter-examples? w 泣 qi ‘to weep’; 啼 ti ‘to cry, weep, crow’; 鳴 ming ‘to cry, to make a sound’; 嘶 si ‘to yell, (of horses) neigh, whinny’
4.2. Imagic Icons wExample 3: In Chinese antonymous pairs, ‘i’ for a smaller magnitude (size, length, weight, distance, etc); others (‘a’ ‘u’ etc) for a bigger magnitude w 輕 qing ‘light (in weight)’ vs 重 zhong ‘heavy’ w 近 jin ‘near’ vs 遠 yuan ‘far’ w 親 qin ‘(of social connetions) close’ vs 疏 shu ‘distant’ w 細 xì ‘thin, fine, soft’ vs 粗 cu ‘thick, wide, rough, husky’ w 低 di ‘low (in height)’ 高 gao ‘high’ w 閉 bi ‘close’ vs 開 kai ‘open’ w 密 mi ‘close, dense’ vs 疏 shu ‘sparse, scattered’ w 集 ji ‘gathered’ vs 散 san ‘scattered’ w 緊 jin ‘tight’ vs 鬆 song ‘loose’ w 疾 ji ‘fast, quick’ vs 緩 huan ‘slow, relaxed’ w 利 li ‘(of knife) sharp’ vs 鈍 dun ‘blunt’
4.2. Imagic Icons w 裡 li ‘inside’ vs 外 wai ‘outside’ w 貧 pin ‘poor, impoverished’ 富 fu ‘rich, abundant’ w 瘠 ji ‘barren, infertile (soil)’ vs 腴 yu ‘fertile, fat, plump’ w 陰 yin ‘feminine’ vs 陽 yang ‘masculine’ w 雌 ci ‘female’ vs 雄 xiong ‘male’ w 牝 pin ‘female (of some animals)’ vs 牡 mu ‘male (of some animals)’ w 併 bing ‘combine, merge’ vs 分 fen ‘separate, divide’ w 凝 ning ‘congeal, condense’ vs 融 / 溶 / 熔 rong ‘melt, dissolve’ w 私 si ‘private’ vs 公 gong ‘public’ w 子 / 嬰 zi/ying ‘son/baby’ vs 母 / 父 mu/fu ‘mother/father’ wCounter-examples? w 遲 chi ‘late’ vs 早 zao ‘early’ w 進 jin ‘move forward’ 退 tui ‘move backward’ w 弛 chi ‘loose, relaxed’ 張 zhang ‘tense, tight’ w 張 zhang ‘tense, tight’ vs 張 zhang ‘open, spread, stretch’ w 師 shi ‘teacher’ 生 sheng ‘student’
4.2. Imagic Icons wBasic Phonetics: wPhonetics: the study of the speech sounds of human languages wThe Speech Organs
4.2. Imagic Icons wVoiceless and Voiced: [s-] vs [z-], [f-] vs [v-]
4.2. Imagic Icons wArticulators: tongue, lips, roof of the mouth, etc woral cavity 口腔, nasal cavity 鼻腔
4.2. Imagic Icons wPhonetic Transcription and IPA wINTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (IPA) wEach phonetic symbol represents one and only one sound. wThe use of phonetic symbols to represent speech sounds is called transcription. w Phonetic Classification w(a) how they are made, i.e. the manner of articulation ( 發音方法 ) w(b) where in the oral cavity they are made, i.e. the place of articulation ( 發音部位 ). w(With respect to manner of articulation), two broad distinctions: w(1) sounds which are made with a smooth, continuous, unobstructed airflow through the oral cavity; w(2) sounds which are made with some obstruction to the airflow in the oral cavity.
4.2. Imagic Icons wConsonant ( 元音 ) and vowels ( 輔音 ) wConsonants are the speech sounds which are made by a closure or narrowing in the vocal tract so that the air ‑ stream is either completely blocked or so restricted that audible friction is produced. (e.g. [p] [s]) wVowels are the speech sounds which are articulated with the air ‑ stream coming evenly over the center of the tongue. They do not involve a complete closure nor the degree of narrowing which will cause audible friction. (e.g. [i] [a] [u]) wVowels: sounds in which there is no obstruction to the flow of air as it passes from the larynx to the lips.
4.2. Imagic Icons wWhat Criteria to Use When Classifying Vowels wThe total configuration of the oral cavity w(a) How high is the tongue? w(b) What part of the tongue is involved; that is, what part is raised or lowered? w(c) What is the position of the lips? wTwo major parameters: w(1) the shape of the lips (the degree of lip rounding) w(2) tongue position (the part of the tongue which is raised and the height to which it is raised.) wThe other parameters: w(3) the duration of the vowel (long vowels vs short vowels)
4.2. Imagic Icons wRounded and Unrounded Vowels in Chinese w 圓唇元音、不圓唇元音. e.g. [i] as in 衣 (M) ; [y] as in 魚 (M) wRounded vowels in Cantonese and Mandarin: wUnrounded vowels in Cantonese and Mandarin [a] [i] [e] … …
4.2. Imagic Icons wTongue Position: Two-dimensional Parameter w(1) Horizontal dimension: the part of the tongue that is raised (front- central-back); w(2) Vertical dimension: the height of tongue raising (high-mid-low)
4.2. Imagic Icons wHorizontal: the part of the tongue that is raised wFront refers to the part of the tongue opposite the hard palate. wBack refers to the part of the tongue opposite the soft palate. wCentral refers to the part of the tongue opposite where the hard palate and soft palate meet. wVertical: the extent to which the tongue rises in the direction of the palate, or how open is the mouth wHigh (close) wMid-high (close-mid) wMid-low (open-mid) wLow (open)
4.2. Imagic Icons wVowels in Cantonese and Mandarin: w[i] as in 醫, 衣 (C, M), 鹽, 熱 (C, the main sound) wfront, high, unrounded w[y] as in 迂, 于 (C, M), 淵, 月 (C, the main sound) wfront, high, rounded [e] as in 明, 經, 激 (C, before – ng, -k), 堆, 雷 (M, the 3 rd sound) wfront, mid-high, unrounded w[a] as in 丫 (C), 巴, 打, 沙 (C, M, the 2 nd sound) wfront, low, unrounded
4.2. Imagic Icons w[u] as in 烏, 污 (C, M), 寬, 闊 (C, the sound after [f]) [ ] as in 痾, 柯 (C), 哀, 安 (C, the 1 st sound)
4.2. Imagic Icons wMonophthongs 單元音 and Diphthongs 復元音 wPure vowels vs gliding vowels wA monophthong has an unchanging quality. wA diphthong is a gliding vowel which involves a change in quality within the one vowel. It glides from one element to a second element. wExample: [ai] in Cantonese and Mandarin (as in 太 ).
4.2. Imagic Icons wConsonants in Chinese wWhat Criteria to Use When Classifying Consonants? wTwo major criteria: w(1) manners of articulation 發音方法 ; w(2) places of articulation 發音部位 wTwo minor criteria: (articulatory variables) w(1) aspiration 送氣與否 : how strong the air-flow is when the obstruction is released; w(2) voicing 清濁 : whether the vocal cords vibrate.
4.2. Imagic Icons wBy Articulatory Variables (The Two Minor Criteria) w(1) Aspiration: refers to the breath that accompanies a speech sound production. wIf a consonant is articulated with an audible puff of breath, then it is aspirated such as the [p h ] (or [p’]) in 怕 (M). wIf a consonant is articulated without audible breath, then it is unaspirated, such as the [p] in 罷 (M). w(2) Voicing: refers to the auditory result of the vibration of the vocal cords. wThe speech sounds which are produced with the vibration of the vocal cords are called “voiced sounds 濁音 ”. wThose that are produced without the vibration of the vocal cords are “voiceless sounds 清音 ”. wAll vowels are (normally) voiced. wOnly the following consonants in Cantonese and Mandarin are voiced; the rest are voiceless. w w
4.2. Imagic Icons wBy Manner of Articulation w(1) stop (or plosive) 塞音 ( 阻塞音、爆破音 ): [p-] in 巴 wTwo articulators are brought into contact with each other and there is a complete closure in the oral cavity resulting in the interruption of airflow through the mouth. The closure is suddenly released, resulting in an explosive rush of air. The velum is raised such that no air escapes through the nasal cavity. wStops in Cantonese (C) and Mandarin (M): w[p] as in 巴、把、悲、比 (C); 巴、把、悲、比 (M) w[p h ] as in 拋、跑、鋪、普 (C); 拋、跑、鋪、普 (M) w[t] as in 多、躲、低、抵 (C); 多、躲、低、抵 (M) w[t h ] as in 拖、妥、梯、體 (C); 拖、妥、梯、體 (M) w[k] as in 基、紀、驕、矯 (C); 給、高、根、哥 (M) w[k h ] as in 溪、啟、求、舅 (C); 科、楷、靠、狂 (M) w[kw] as in 瓜、寡、鍋、果 (C). w[kw h ] as in 夸、跨、規、愧 (C).
4.2. Imagic Icons w(2) nasal (or nasal stop) 鼻音 : [m-] in 馬 wThere is a complete closure in the oral cavity (as for stops), but this time the velum is lowered, allowing air to escape smoothly through the nasal cavity. wNasal consonants in Cantonese and Mandarin: w[m] as in 麻、馬、苗、秒 (C); 麻、馬、苗、秒 (M) w[n] as in 呢、你、奴、怒 (C); 呢、你、奴、怒 (M) w as in 牙、瓦、我、餓 (the 1 st sound); 紅、張、明、朋 (the last sound) (C); 紅、張、明、朋 (the last sound) (M) w(3) fricative 擦音 : [f-] in 科 (C), 飛 (M); [s-] in 思 wTwo articulators are brought close enough together to cause audible friction as air passes through the narrow gap in between them. wFricatives are continuant consonants. wPlosives are not continuants.
4.2. Imagic Icons wFricatives in Cantonese and Mandarin: w[f] as in 科、火、灰、賄 (C); 飛、肥、沸、發 (M). w[s] as in 思、死、宵、小 (C); 思、死、四、酸 (M) w as in 詩、史、燒、少 (M) w as in 斜、徐、心、鞋 (M) w[h] as in 希、好、虛、許 (C) w[x] as in 黑、好、海、厚 (M) w(4) affricate 塞擦音 : [ts-] in 茲 wCombines the characteristics of stops and fricatives. Initially, there is a complete closure in the oral cavity (as in stops), but the release is gradual rather than abrupt, resulting in audible friction as air escapes (as in fricatives). wInvolving two manners of articulation wA combination of a plosive and a fricative
4.2. Imagic Icons w(5) lateral 邊音 : [l-] in 老 wThe air-stream is obstructed along the center of the oral tract, but both sides of the tongue are away from the roof of the mouth, so that the air can go through the mouth laterally. wLateral in Cantonese and Mandarin: w[l] as in 黎、禮、牢、老 (C); 黎、禮、牢、老 (M) wConfusion of [l]/[n] in Cantonese: 李 = 你 ([lei] [nei]) w[l] is a kind of “voiced continuant (or, approximant)”. w(6) voiced continuant 濁通音. wIn the production of a continuant, the space between two approximating vocal organs is a little wide than that of a fricative, just wide enough to avoid causing clearly audible friction when the air-stream passes through them. wAlso referred to as approximant. wTwo kinds of voiced continuants: liquids 流音 and glides 滑音 wLiquids in Cantonese and Mandarin: w[l] as in 黎、禮、牢、老 (C); 黎、禮、牢、老 (M) w as in 人、肉、如、容 (M)
4.2. Imagic Icons wGlides (semi-vowels 半元音 ) in Cantonese: w[w] as in 蛙、華、威、毀 (C). w[j] as in 爺、野、丘、蹂 (C). w[w] and [j] are closely similar to [u] and [i], but with a narrower passage, and much shorter.