Presentation on theme: "Shakespeare’s World: Elizabethan England. Life in London."— Presentation transcript:
1Shakespeare’s World: Elizabethan England. Life in London. Elizabethan TheatreThe GlobeWilliam ShakespeareOther important actors, poets, playwrights
2ELIZABETHAN ENGLAND Country unified, trade and commerce flourished Age of explorationExpanding with confidence and reflecting in it the drama of the periodEngland became a dominant force under Elizabeth I ( )London largest city in Europe. Population: 93,000 in ,000 by Doubles again in 50 years.
3Continued. 1558 to 1603 (Elizabeth I's reign) Renaissance: Rebirth out of darker times.Male superiorityReturn to ProtestantismImprovement of the educational systemEnglish language gains importanceIn Italy, Galileo invents the telescope = challenges the way people think about Earth and the universe.Drama, theatres and Shakespeare
5Queen Elizabeth I ( )Believed in royal absolutism: Rising against her and her laws was not only criminal but also a blasphemous actPeople thought Democracy was silly. The Monarchy is based on hierarchy of power as seen in the Bible: God, angels, humans, etc. = Kings, Nobles, normal people, etc.Queen Elizabeth Had an immense influence over the country; politically and sociallyShe was very popular with her people.She represented greatness to her people.She loved the theater (others wanted to close all theaters because they were “sinful”).Reckless, unpredictable:execution of Mary, Queen of Scotsimprisonment of Sir Walter RaleighPersecution of Catholics
6King James became King in 1603 He loved the theater (as did Elizabeth).He made Shakespeare’s theater group (The Lord Chamberlain’s Men) into his own group. The name changed to The King’s Men.King James also requisitioned the first English translation of the Bible, called the King James version of the Bible. It was published in 1611.
7ELIZABETHAN ENGLAND cont. The Theatres in London were not on the “better” side of the River ThamesThey were located on the Bishop of Canterbury’s Land, across the river from downtown London.Surrounded by brothels,pubs and gaming housesBear baiting matches were held at theaters if no play was scheduled.
8Life in London around 1600Was a labyrinth of tiny streets, with only one route across the Thames, the river which dominated the cityMost of the 200,000+ population was crammed within the city walls.Sanitation issues lead to rise in disease and plague.The lord mayor ran the cityThe houses and palaces of the nobility lay to the west, near Westminster (safe from plague outbreaks).People worked long hours, with workers often living on the work premises with their masters.Theatres were outside the walls of the city, near the brothels.
10ELIZABETHAN THEATRENo Women actors! All parts were played by men! Why? Because many considered the theater sinful and they didn’t want innocent women corrupted by it.Elizabethan stage practices were learned from Medieval dramas and the traditions of the pageant wagon.In the early days,Elizabethan theatre space was located in courtyards and the larger homes of noble patrons.Due to advances many playwrights were able to write very different plays than the more formal GreeksElizabethan Theatre was able to be more expansive and include many more actors and actionNo hesitancy to show murder and bloodshed on stage.
11THEATRE: A COMMERCIAL VENTURE No longer state or church supported (many thought plays were sinful).6 days a week (NO Sundays)In the afternoon,(2-5)No lightsChanged plays often to keep the people comingThey announced what kind of play was showing with flags: Black-Tragedy,White-comedy, Red-HistoryOne play could be performed up to ten times in a season
12THEATRE SPACE“the Theatre’ first permanent theatre space built in EnglandBuilt by James Burbage father of an important actor of Shakespeare’s day.Constructed in amphitheatre/thrust style:open air
13THE GLOBE THEATRE One of the most famous Elizabethan theatres Surrounded on three sides by seating “galleries”Shakespeare’s troupe performed here.He was part owner in the theatreThe acting company had about 25 actors, all maleHalf of the actors were share holders in the theatre.
15Globe cont. Stage was 43 feet wide Extended 1/2 way into the yard(about 27 1/2ft)3 stories of galleries:12ft.,11ft. And 9ft in height4 separately divided gentlemen’s rooms
16The Globe“Groundlings” stood on the ground floor, more expensive seats were in the balconies.The floor was covered in nut shells (people ate during the show just like we eat in movies).The audience was very loud and vocal. Actors really had to yell to be heard. If someone did not like the play, they would yell at the actors and maybe even throw things at them.No scenery BUT they did have nice costumes and props.
21TO BE OR NOT TO BE…..The Globe theatre was burned to the ground in 1613Fire started when a prop cannon explode during the first night performance of Henry VIII.Rebuilt on the same site.Was Demolished in 1644 when theatres were closed.
22PLAYWRIGHTS Paid by the play Shakespeare averaged two a year Often plays of specific playwright written exclusively for one theatre.No copyright laws; use of sidesWilliam Shakespeare, Sir Walter Raleigh, Christopher Marlowe, Edmund Spencer were all Elizabethan playwrights
23WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE Born April 23, 1564 at Stratford–upon-Avon. Died April 23, He was 52-years-old.Father John Shakespeare was a glove maker and trader.William attended grammar school, learned Latin, and read the classics including mythology.Married Anne Hathaway in She was He was 18.3 children: Susanna + twins: Judith & Hamnet (Hamnet died in 1596 at age 11).Moved to London betweenWas part of the acting group called The Lord Chamberlain’s Men (it became the King’s Men)Wrote 37 plays and 154 poems/sonnets.Plays are divided into Histories, Tragedies, Comedies & Tragicomedy
24Shakespeare:Probably not happily married to Anne. He left her his “second best” bed.Loved his children and was devastated by Hamnet’s death. After that, he wrote many great tragedies.Became wealthy due to his part ownership of the Globe. He retired in 1613 after the Globe burned down and he moved back to Stratford.He died on his birthday, April 23, in the year He is buried in Stratford at Holy Trinity Church.
25THE KING’S MEN Shakespeare was a member of the Lord Chamberlain’s Men. Became King’s Men when James I became king in 1603.Company was given royal patent. Performed at court 12 times a year. This provided job security and boosted Shakespeare’s fame.Between this AND Shakespeare’s owning part of the Globe, he made plenty of money.
28Shakespeare’s grave in Holy Trinity Church, Stratford.
29SHAKESPEARE PLAYS History Plays: Henry IV Parts1&2,4&6 Parts 1,2 &3,Richard II and III etc.Tragedies: Romeo & Juliet, Hamlet, Macbeth, King Lear, Othello, etc.Comedies:12th Night,Much ado About Nothing, Taming of the shrew, Midsummer Night’s Dream, etc.Tragicomedies: All’s Well That Ends Well, A Winter’s Tale, etc.
30The First FolioThe first time his complete works were published in one volume.Came out in 1623 (a few years after his death).It is the reason we still have most of Shakespeare’s plays.This shows how respected Shakespeare was.
31SHAKESPEARE AS A MUSICAL? Many of Shakespeare’s plays have been adapted into other formsThey are some of the most quoted plays of all timeStill very popular today
34RICHARD BURBAGE Greatest actor of the time period Shakespeare wrote parts for himHamlet,Othello,King Lear,Anthony and othersFather built “The Theatre’
35CHRISTOPHER MARLOWE Educated at Cambridge Atheist, tavern brawler Associated with the darker side of the Elizabethan periodDied in a tavern fight at 28Most famous play The Tragical History of Dr. FaustusFamous line from Faustus: “Is this the ship that launched a thousand ships?” – referring to Helen of Troy.
36BEN JOHNSON Most influential after Shakespeare Had strong convictions about what audiences should likeArrogant, quarrelsome, volatile temperImprisoned 2 timesWrote a very complimentary poem to Shakespeare that was printed in the First Folio.1st”poet Laureate of England
37COURT MASQUES Derived under James I (1603-1625) Written often to compliment a person or occasionSpecific roles were done by professional actor but courtiers themselves performed the masqueContained three spectacular dancesThree main dances:1.entry dance 2.main dance 3.going out dance
38COURT MASQUESAllegorical story used comparing honored person to a mythical character or situationDancers were usually all men but sometimes ½ men and 1/2 women in a “double” masqueScenery,costumes and special effects for most of the Masques were by Indigo Jones( )
40RESTORATION THEATREThe theatre was closed in 1644 and all theatre was banned through the Cromwell period in England.When Charles II was restored to power he re-opened the theatres in England.(1660)Noted for its ComediesCynical View,witty dialogue, sophisticated sexual behavior“Virtuous” characters no matter the situation .“Honor” depended on wit not reputation
41RESTORATION cont.Depicted the conventions of the Courtly society where elegance of phrase and appearance were highly prized over sincerity and morals.William Congreve( ) Love for love,The way of the WorldWilliam Wycherley(1640_1715) The Country wifeOliver Goldsmith: She stoops to ConquerRestoration was first to use women in female rolesBy the 1700(Queen Anne) there was a revival of classical style and morality.The change was slow at first but by 1730 (George I) the hero/heroine was becoming more virtuous.