Presentation on theme: "Non-directive Intervention Theories Edward Ford – Responsible Thinking Process (RTP) Patrick Connor – Pain Model."— Presentation transcript:
Non-directive Intervention Theories Edward Ford – Responsible Thinking Process (RTP) Patrick Connor – Pain Model
General Models of Child Discipline Non-directive intervention Responsible Thinking Process (RTP) Pain Teacher effectiveness training
Theoretical Basis of the RTP* Model RTP* Model is based on the Perceptual Control Theory (PCT**). **(PCT: Bourbon 1999: Powers 1973,1989). PCT states that people operate using a perceptual system that allows us to receive and interpret environmental signals from which meaning is developed. The meaning-making process occurs through the following three systems: system, principles and program.
Perceptual Control Theory. PCT Meaning Making Process System concept level The beliefs and values of the person we want to be. Principles level The standards and goals selected to establish boundaries for our behaviour. Program level The programs and strategies selected to achieve our goals.
Principles of the RTP* Model. An ideal school provides a safe environment and promotes learning opportunities. An ideal school provides a safe environment and promotes learning opportunities. Rules and standards must exist (preferably decided by the class). Rules and standards must exist (preferably decided by the class). Yelling at or punishing someone will not teach them to be responsible (Ford). Yelling at or punishing someone will not teach them to be responsible (Ford). Questioning students will encourage reflection and reorganisation of thought. This will help students act responsibly. Questioning students will encourage reflection and reorganisation of thought. This will help students act responsibly.
Strategies of the RTP* Strategies of the RTP* Strategies Supportive: Quality time together builds quality relationships Builds self-worth in a student which leads to fewer disagreements Corrective: - RTP* - Conflict resolution Both are needed to help students improve their social skills
The Process of RTP*. Ask questions. Ask questions. Assist reorganisation. Assist reorganisation. Adopt rules. Adopt rules. Take responsibility. Take responsibility.
The RTP* Process – dealing with disruptions 1. What are you doing? 2. What are the rules? 3. What will happen when you break the rules? 4. Is that what you want to happen? 5. What do you want to do now? 6. What will happen if you disrupt again?
Your task: Your task: In your groups think of a scenario where the Responsible Thinking model can be implemented. Each group will present their role play to the class. In your groups think of a scenario where the Responsible Thinking model can be implemented. Each group will present their role play to the class. One person is to be the student, another the teacher. One person is to be the student, another the teacher. You will all be given a copy of the suggested order of questioning. You will all be given a copy of the suggested order of questioning.
School-wide Strategies School-wide Strategies RTC* RTC* Student support teams Student support teams Chill-out passes Chill-out passes Student protocols (for negotiating re-entry to class) Student protocols (for negotiating re-entry to class)
Ford’s RTP* Model Ford’s RTP* Model Advantages: Teaches students to be responsible for their own thinking and actions. School-wide model, consistency. Disadvantages: Control-based teachers find model difficult to adapt to. Cost: RTC needs to be staffed.
Have you thought about using any non-directive intervention theories in your class? 1. Yes 2. No
If you have, which model do you prefer? 1. Ford 2. Connor 3. Bit of both
The Pain Model (Patrick Connor) Core Principles of the model: 1. The teacher must acknowledge that the student is in pain and then appropriately respond to them in order to relieve their pain. 2. Value the person (including such individuals as students, teachers and parents.
1. Acknowledge the Pain People from all walks of life may experience both psychological or physical pain. Identification of a child's pain can occur through talking conversations between their parent/s and teacher. Once the pain they are experiencing (psychological or physical) has been identified then the prior leads to an understanding of the cause of the child’s behaviour. Once the pain has been acknowledged, the process can commence between teachers, parents, administrators, health professionals etc to initiate corrective strategies.
2. Value the Person Positive and strong relationships between teachers and the students and their parents are the basis of intervention and the means for moving forwards to improve the situation” - (Edwards & Watts, 2008, pg 270). Interactions must be non-blameful, non-judgmental and should replace control. Supported by the Supportive School Environment Policies in various States around Australia. Purely analytical /rational approaches = don’t work with high risk students. Replace psychological pain with a positive/happy experience = starting point.
Preventative Strategies for Teachers to Implement 1. Develop lasting relationships with students to build up positive student-teacher relationship. Some techniques include; Playing games, doing puzzles and eating lunch/recess with students. 2. Give clear and precise instructions which can then be used as a point for discussion if behaviour deters from the instruction/s. 3.Teachers need basic knowledge, skills and support to deal with high risk students - need to be educated about the various types of behaviour and causes 3.Teachers need basic knowledge, skills and support to deal with high risk students - need to be educated about the various types of behaviour and causes.
Development of a Personal Student Behaviour Management Plan ? Key Steps Include; Creating a plan before the high risk student arrives/prior to the commencement of term. Give the student/s responsibilities and tasks to call their own in order to create a sense of ownership and belonging to the class.
In this situation would you…? 1. Yell at the student for disrupting the class. 2. Use stress relieving techniques to help the student. 3. Say the cat is probably in the burgers served at the school canteen. 4. Remove the student and speak to her separately about her disruptive behaviour.
Impact on Classroom Organization & Teaching Strategies It may be difficult to assess the cause of the “pain”. You may need to research the student’s background, meet with the school psychologist, Educational Assistants, parents/guardian and School Administration. Careful placement of the student experiencing “pain” in the classroom – possible peer mentor or buddy system. Make the learning environment a welcoming place – positive slogans/pictures around the room, therapeutic/relaxing music and breathing exercises could be implemented. POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT!!!
Implementation Some examples of strategies that could be implemented in the classroom; STRATEGYEXPLANATIONMETHODS Relieving the PainCalming for Student/s Breathing exercises Relaxing tense muscles Re-skillingDrama Re-enacting the scene Asking for a solution Reconstructing Self-esteemSlogans, success and encouragement Practising a new skill Encouraging effort Develop AgreementsRecording discussion outcomes E.g. History of preceding events, future plans, terms of the agreement, support systems Self-managing LogTrack behaviour/responses and progress Use a numerical scale for recoding behaviour. Adjunctive TherapiesUse adventure based activities Use sport/ physical activity and outdoor activities to build skills, self-esteem and confidence Collaboration with ParentsMaintaining 2-way communication with parents – continuous Include parents in finding a solution Non-judgemental invite to parents/carers Referring OnTherapeutic interventions Provide new environment/s Encourage emotional release
Social and Moral Development The pain model will facilitate the social and moral development of primary aged children. The pain model will facilitate the social and moral development of primary aged children.
Shortcomings of the Model The model is extremely resource intensive to implement. Some teachers may need intensive professional development on the model. Teachers may refer high-risk students to BMU’s (Behaviour Management Units) if they can not handle the student/s however many schools are not lucky enough to have BMU’s in operation due to them being somewhat costly. Teacher/s may need additional support to implement the model. For example in the form of a teacher’s aid but due to budgeting restrictions the additional support may not be provided. If the designated class has a large number of high risk students then the teacher may have difficulties implementing the model - time factor. May be hard to get parents on board (e.g. they may be in denial, non- responsive to dealing with the issue/s their student is facing). The notion of the creation of a “welfare & holistic centre” at the school may not be possible due to no support from school administration and additionally due to budget restrictions.