3Theoretical Basis of the RTP* Model RTP* Model is based on the Perceptual Control Theory (PCT**).**(PCT: Bourbon 1999: Powers 1973,1989).PCT states that people operate using a perceptual system that allows us to receive and interpret environmental signals from which meaning is developed.The meaning-making process occurs through the following three systems: system, principles and program.
5Principles of the RTP* Model. An ideal school provides a safe environment and promotes learning opportunities.Rules and standards must exist (preferably decided by the class).Yelling at or punishing someone will not teach them to be responsible (Ford).Questioning students will encourage reflection and reorganisation of thought. This will help students act responsibly.
7The Process of RTP*. Ask questions. Assist reorganisation. Adopt rules.Take responsibility.
8The RTP* Process – dealing with disruptions 1. What are you doing?2. What are the rules?3. What will happen when you break the rules?4. Is that what you want to happen?5. What do you want to do now?6. What will happen if you disrupt again?
10Your task:In your groups think of a scenario where the Responsible Thinking model can be implemented. Each group will present their role play to the class.One person is to be the student, another the teacher.You will all be given a copy of the suggested order of questioning.
11School-wide Strategies RTC*Student support teamsChill-out passesStudent protocols (for negotiating re-entry to class)
12Ford’s RTP* Model Advantages: Teaches students to be responsible for their own thinking and actions.School-wide model, consistency.Disadvantages:Control-based teachers find model difficult to adapt to.Cost: RTC needs to be staffed.
13Have you thought about using any non-directive intervention theories in your class? YesNo
14If you have, which model do you prefer? FordConnorBit of both
15The Pain Model (Patrick Connor) Core Principles of the model:The teacher must acknowledge that the student is in pain and then appropriately respond to them in order to relieve their pain.2. Value the person (including such individuals as students, teachers and parents.
161. Acknowledge the PainPeople from all walks of life may experience both psychological or physical pain.Identification of a child's pain can occur through talking conversations between their parent/s and teacher.Once the pain they are experiencing (psychological or physical) has been identified then the prior leads to an understanding of the cause of the child’s behaviour.Once the pain has been acknowledged, the process can commence between teachers, parents, administrators, health professionals etc to initiate corrective strategies.
172. Value the PersonPositive and strong relationships between teachers and the students and their parents are the basis of intervention and the means for moving forwards to improve the situation” - (Edwards & Watts, 2008, pg 270).Interactions must be non-blameful, non-judgmental and should replace control.Supported by the Supportive School Environment Policies in various States around Australia.Purely analytical /rational approaches = don’t work with high risk students.Replace psychological pain with a positive/happy experience = starting point.
18Preventative Strategies for Teachers to Implement Develop lasting relationships with students to build up positive student-teacher relationship. Some techniques include; Playing games, doing puzzles and eating lunch/recess with students.2. Give clear and precise instructions which can then be used as a point for discussion if behaviour deters from the instruction/s.3. Teachers need basic knowledge, skills and support to deal with high risk students - need to be educated about the various types of behaviour and causes.
19Development of a Personal Student Behaviour Management Plan ? Key Steps Include;Creating a plan before the high risk student arrives/prior to the commencement of term.Give the student/s responsibilities and tasks to call their own in order to create a sense of ownership and belonging to the class.
21In this situation would you…? Yell at the student for disrupting the class.Use stress relieving techniques to help the student.Say the cat is probably in the burgers served at the school canteen.Remove the student and speak to her separately about her disruptive behaviour.
22Impact on Classroom Organization & Teaching Strategies It may be difficult to assess the cause of the “pain”. You may need to research the student’s background, meet with the school psychologist, Educational Assistants, parents/guardian and School Administration.Careful placement of the student experiencing “pain” in the classroom – possible peer mentor or buddy system.Make the learning environment a welcoming place – positive slogans/pictures around the room, therapeutic/relaxing music and breathing exercises could be implemented.POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT!!!
23ImplementationSome examples of strategies that could be implemented in the classroom;STRATEGYEXPLANATIONMETHODSRelieving the PainCalming for Student/sBreathing exercisesRelaxing tense musclesRe-skillingDramaRe-enacting the sceneAsking for a solutionReconstructing Self-esteemSlogans, success and encouragementPractising a new skillEncouraging effortDevelop AgreementsRecording discussion outcomesE.g. History of preceding events, future plans, terms of the agreement, support systemsSelf-managing LogTrack behaviour/responses and progressUse a numerical scale for recoding behaviour .Adjunctive TherapiesUse adventure based activitiesUse sport/ physical activity and outdoor activities to build skills, self-esteem and confidenceCollaboration with ParentsMaintaining 2-way communication with parents – continuousInclude parents in finding a solutionNon-judgemental invite to parents/carersReferring OnTherapeutic interventionsProvide new environment/sEncourage emotional release
24Social and Moral Development The pain model will facilitate the social and moral development of primary aged children.
25Shortcomings of the Model The model is extremely resource intensive to implement.Some teachers may need intensive professional development on the model.Teachers may refer high-risk students to BMU’s (Behaviour Management Units) if they can not handle the student/s however many schools are not lucky enough to have BMU’s in operation due to them being somewhat costly.Teacher/s may need additional support to implement the model. For example in the form of a teacher’s aid but due to budgeting restrictions the additional support may not be provided.If the designated class has a large number of high risk students then the teacher may have difficulties implementing the model - time factor.May be hard to get parents on board (e.g. they may be in denial, non-responsive to dealing with the issue/s their student is facing).The notion of the creation of a “welfare & holistic centre” at the school may not be possible due to no support from school administration and additionally due to budget restrictions.