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Social Psychology Social Psychology - Studying the way people think about, influence and relate to others. Attitude Attraction Aggression Group Behavior.

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Presentation on theme: "Social Psychology Social Psychology - Studying the way people think about, influence and relate to others. Attitude Attraction Aggression Group Behavior."— Presentation transcript:

1 Social Psychology Social Psychology - Studying the way people think about, influence and relate to others. Attitude Attraction Aggression Group Behavior

2 Think about the last time you broke the speed limit (not 5 miles over, but really speeding) Why were you speeding? Think about the last time you saw someone speed by you or drive recklessly? How did you feel about the speeding driver? Why were they so rude?

3 Thinking about ourselves and others Attribution Theory - how we explain others’ behavior - by attributing it either to their external situation or their internal disposition Situational Attribution – External the environment/assigned roles (teacher, president, policeofficer) Dispositional Attribution – Internal personality traits – Example: Student’s hostility – Situational – reaction to stress or abuse – Dispositional – aggressive personalit

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5 Fundamental Attribution Error Fundamental attribution error - tendency to overestimate the role of dispositional factors and underestimate situational factors Can be attributed to: – Self-serving bias – readiness to perceive ourselves favorably – explain strangers' behavior in terms of personality traits and our own behavior in terms of situational constraints. – More common in Individualistic cultures – Avoid by observing people in many situations How do you view your teacher’s behavior? If you win it is because you are awesome…if you lose, it must have been the coach …We (Solon) won they game …They (Solon) lost the game

6 Attitudes Attitudes - Feelings, based on beliefs, that guide our behavior Advertising is ALL based on attitude formation.

7 4 Ways Attitudes Affect Actions 1.Central Route of Persuasion - opinion change from thoughtful focus on scientific evidence and arguments – More lasting, more likely to influence behavior, more often with analytical people – Example: After seeing a political debate you decide to vote for the candidate because you found her views and arguments convincing. 2.Peripheral Route Persuasion –opinion change through incidental cues (Speakers attractiveness, endorsement of famous person, emotion evoking music or images) Occurs more rapidly Example: after seeing a political debate you may decide to vote for a candidate because you like the sound of the person's voice, or the person went to the same university as you did. 3.Social Pressure 4.Vivid, Easily recalled information

8 5 Ways Actions Affect Attitudes 1.Foot-in-the-door phenomenon – persuasion technique to get someone to agree first to a small request to get them to comply later with a larger request – Example: “Can I borrow the car to go to the movies? Can I borrow the car to go to OSU this weekend?” 2.Door-in-the-face phenomenon – persuasion technique to get someone to comply by first making an extremely large request, then requesting something smaller – Example: “Can I have a car for my 16 th birthday? Can I have a new iphone?” 3.Norms of reciprocity – social expectation that people will respond to each other in kind – Example: “I’ll let you copy off of my test in AP Psych. Can I copy off of yours in AP Physics”

9 Fritz Heider concluded that people tend to attribute others' behavior either to their 1.heredity or their environment. 2.biological motives or their psychological motives. 3.thoughts or their emotions. 4.dispositions or their situations. 5.abilities or their effort.

10 Christopher failed is AP Psych exam because he spent the weekend at the hospital with his mother who had cancer, his classmates said it was because he is lazy. This is an example of 1.Central Route Persuasion 2.Door in face phenomenon 3.Peripheral route persuasion 4.Fundamental attribution error 5.Foot in door phenomenon

11 Instead of providing arguments in favor of a political candidate, ads may build political support by associating pictures of the candidate with emotion-evoking music and images. This strategy best illustrates 1.Dispositional attribution 2.Central route persuasion 3.Situational attribution 4.Peripheral route persuasion 5.Foot in door phenomenon

12 A person's behavior is most likely to be inconsistent with his or her attitudes when 1.the attitudes are implicit rather than explicit. 2.external influences on behavior are minimal. 3.the person has not publicly communicated those attitudes. 4.the attitudes are discrepant with most other people's opinions. 5.our behavior is influenced by powerful external factors.

13 Role-Playing Affects Attitudes 4. Role Playing – Role– set of behaviors for a specific social position – Zimbardo - Stanford Prison Study – What did Zimbardo attribute the guards and prisoner behavior to? – How did the situation at Abu Ghraib mirror Zimbardo’s findings?

14 Cognitive Dissonance 5. Cognitive Dissonance Theory (Festinger) - Discomfort we feel when your thoughts and behaviors or two thoughts are inconsistent – People want to have consistent attitudes and behaviors….when they are not they experience dissonance (unpleasant tension). – Usually they will change their attitude or behavior. Example: You believe cheating in wrong. You glance over at your neighbors paper and copy a few answers down, then convince yourself that it’s not wrong if person is careless enough to leave their paper exposed – How does this relate to social injustice? You have a belief that cheating on tests is bad. But you cheat on a test!!! The teacher was really bad so in that class it is OK.

15 Cognitive Dissonance Fetzinger’s study Hypothesis: If you believe x, but publically state “not x”, you will experience cognitive –the larger the pressure used to elicit the behavior (more $ paid), the smaller your dissonance Independent variable: Paid $1 or $20 Dependent variable: Ratings of Interview questions Results: $1 had more dissonance – When there is insufficient justification for the behavior, the dissonance is larger, and the attitude change is larger

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17 Conformity Conformity - Adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard – You change your beliefs or your behavior – Example: Asch conformity experiments

18 Conformity and Obedience Chameleon effect- unconsciously mimicking others’ expressions, postures and voice tones – Example: We yawn when others yawn…look at the ceiling when others do Mood linkage – sharing up and down moods of others – Example : reading a sad text creates mood contagion in listeners

19 Asch’s Study of Conformity

20 Asch’s Conformity Experiment Independent Variable Dependent Variable Operational Definition Confounding Variables # of wrong answers given by the confederates whether or not the participants conform. Record the # of times the participant conformed Participant guesses what experiment is about and goes along

21 Factors Increasing ConformityFactors Decreasing Conformity Size of the Group  Conformity tends to increase as the size of the group increases.  However, there is little change in conformity once the group size reaches 6-8. With one other person (i.e. confederate) in the group conformity was 3%, with two others it increased to 13% and with three or more it was 32% (or 1/3).  Because conformity does not seem to increase in groups larger than four, this is considered the optimal group size. Lack of Group Unanimity / Agreement  When one other person in the group gave a different answer from the others, and the group answer was not unanimous, conformity dropped.  Asch (1951) found that even the presence of just one confederate that goes against the majority choice can reduce conformity as much as 80%.  This suggests that individuals conform because they are concerned about what other people think of them (i.e. normative influence). Difficulty of Task  When the (comparison) lines (e.g. A, B, C) were made more similar in length it was harder to judge the correct answer and conformity increased.  When we are uncertain, it seems we look to others for confirmation. The more difficult the task the greater the conformity. Answer in Private  When participants were allowed to answer in private (so the rest of the group do not know their response) conformity decreases.  This is because there is less groups pressure and normative influence is not as powerful, as there is no fear of rejection from the group. Status of Majority Group If someone is of high status (e.g. your boss) or has a lot of knowledge (e.g. your teacher), they might be more influential, and so people will conform to their opinions more (e.g. informational influence).  The higher the status of the group the higher the level of conformity. http://www.simplypsychology.org/asch-conformity.html

22 Asch’s Results – About 1/3 of the participants conformed. – 70% conformed at least once. Conditions that Strengthen Conformity: 1.The group is unanimous 2.You are insecure within the group or made to feel incompetent 3.The group is at least three people. 4.You admire the group’s status 5.You had made no prior commitment to any response 6.The task is difficult (informational social influence) 7.Your culture encourages respect for social standards

23 Reasons for Conforming Normative social influence – conform to others to gain approval/avoid rejection – Example: fads and fashions Informational social influence – (aka Social Proof) – conform to others because you think they are right When we don’t know how to behave we copy other people..they act as information sources on how to behave Occurs most often when: – The situation is ambiguous. We have choices but do not know which to select. – There is a crisis. We have no time to think and experiment. A decision is required now! – Others are experts. If we accept the authority of others, they must know better than us. – Examples: » Go to a foreign county, follow what natives do » Listen to the weatherman and don’t drive to Ohio State when she predicts a snowstorm

24 Compliance Compliance - a demand, request, or rule from another person, group, or institution that influences another to change their behavior – You change your behavior but not necessarily your beliefs – Example: Your parents tell you to go to Ohio State when you want to go to Michigan. You agree to their request – What strategies have we already discussed would get someone to comply with a request?? Foot in door, door in face phenomenon’s

25 Obedience Obedience – following orders without question because they come from a legitimate authority – Examples: Milgram’s Experiment Stanford Prison Experiment Teacher asks you to take a test, you take it without questioning her

26 Milgram’s Study Of Obedience Independent Variable Dependent Variable Operational Definition Ethics Proximity of the learner Amount of shock administered Record the highest amount of shock administered Informed Consent – not truthful, harm to participant (stress), Debriefed, Confidentiality Other tests: Prestige of the setting, Proximity of Authority, Presence of rebellious peers

27 Results of the Milgram Study

28 What did we learn from Milgram? Ordinary people can do shocking things – evils can grow out of compliance/obedience to others’ evils and situational attributes Factors that increase obedience: – Experimenter in close proximity to “teacher” – Learner placed in a different room – Experiment associated with prestigious location (Yale) Ethics – Harm- stress on participants

29 David's history teacher asked him why so many German people complied with Hitler's orders to systematically slaughter millions of innocent Jews. David suggested that the atrocities were committed because the Germans had become unusually cruel, sadistic people with abnormal and twisted personalities. Use your knowledge of the fundamental attribution error and Milgram's research on obedience to highlight the weaknesses of David's explanation.

30 David is attributing the Germans actions to their inner dispositions rather than situational factors. Milgram's obedience research explains these atrocities: Milgram's studies indicate that the majority of people will follow orders by an authority figure, even if those orders involve harming others.

31 Individual Behaviors in the Presence of Others 1.Social Facilitation 2.Social Loafing 3.Deindividiation

32 Social Facilitation Theory Social Facilitation – stronger performance in the presence of others If you are really good at something (well learned tasks)….or it is an easy task…you will perform BETTER in front of a group. Why? Arousal Examples: – counting backwards from 10 to 1 – Home field advantage – Comedy routines seem funnier in a crowded room than in an uncrowded room Social Impairment - If it is a difficult task or you are not very good at it…you will perform WORSE in front of a group Why? Arousal Example: Memorizing nonsense syllables

33 Social Loafing Social Loafing - the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling efforts toward a common goal than if they were individually accountable. – More common among men and individualistic countries – Example – some teenagers work harder on individual projects than on group projects

34 Deindividuation Deindividuation – presence of others arouses people and diminishes their responsibility. – Works with Social Facilitation Feel anonymous and aroused by presence of others. – Causes - Reduced self awareness and accountability when in a crowd – Example - Rioting behaviors, mob violence, Lord of the Flies – How could this cause a social injustice?

35 A crowd at a soccer game starts to boo, yell at the home team, and throw cups and trash at the players after the team loses a very close match. Explain how social facilitation and deindividuation contribute to the crowd's behavior.

36 The principle of social facilitation may be influencing the crowd to boo and yell more loudly at the players. Our performance is enhanced when we are in the presence of others, and these fans may be yelling more loudly because they are in a crowd rather than alone. In addition, deindividuation is most likely influencing the fans' behaviors: In group situations that involve arousal and anonymity (such as being in a crowd at a soccer game), we tend to lose self- awareness and inhibitions, possibly leading to aggressive behaviors such as throwing trash at players.

37 2 effects of Group Interaction Group Polarization Group Think

38 Group Polarization Group polarization - If a group is like-minded, discussion strengthens its prevailing opinion. – Groups tend to make more extreme decisions than the individual. – Example: Some students think Mr.. Jeter is a slightly better teacher than Mrs. Joseph After discussing it with each other they think that Mr. Jeter is definitely a better teacher.

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40 Groupthink Groupthink - Group members suppress reservations about the ideas supported by the group. – Desire for group harmony. – Worse in highly cohesive groups—(group polarization). – Avoided when leader welcomes outside opinions – Example: Challenger, Bay of Pigs Invasion

41 Think pair share If representatives from the Republican and Democratic parties gathered to discuss a minimum wage bill, how might the concepts of group polarization and groupthink influence the discussion and eventual vote?

42 Groupthink - might influence the eventual decision if each group is united in its views about the minimum wage bill and no one speaks against the group decision. Groupthink occurs when an unwise decision emerges from a group discussion in which the group's opinion is united and no dissenting views are heard. Group polarization- might occur if the Democratic and Republican groups are united in their opinions, and each group becomes more sure of its own opinion. Group polarization theory predicts that a group's preexisting like-minded belief will be strengthened through discussion.

43 Cultural Influence Culture – behaviors, ideas, values, and traditions shared by a group Example: Japanese culture – Culture within animals – Culture in humans Preservation of innovation Division of labor

44 Variations Across Cultures Norm – rules for accepted and expected behavior – Example: Personal space – the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies – North Americans prefer more than Latin Americans Pace of life – More fast paced in U.S. than Mexico – manana Expressiveness – Mediterranean cultures more warm, but less efficient than Northern Europe

45 Ethnocentrism Ethnocentrism - belief that your own ethnic group is superior to others – Judge others by our own cultural standards – How can ethnocentrism lead to social injustice? – It is one of the major reasons for divisions among races and religious groups in society,

46 Variation Over Time Changes over the generations

47 The Power of Individuals Social control – regulation of peoples behavior through social norms Personal control – the power of the individual to do the opposite of what is socially accepted – Example – 3 soldiers at Abu Ghraib prison Minority influence – the power of one or two individuals to sway majorities – Holding consistently to opinion – Self confidence

48 Social Relations – how we relate to one another: prejudice, aggression, attraction, altruism, peacemaking

49 Stereotypes, Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice - unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members 3 components: beliefs, emotions and predisposition to action Example: “I dislike fat people” Stereotype - Overgeneralized beliefs about a group of people. Example: “obese people are gluttonous” Discrimination - An action based on a prejudice (behavior). Example: to not hire an obese person

50 Provide an example of prejudice, stereotype and discrimination for each of the following Solon Girls Teachers Americans

51 Prejudice How Prejudiced Are People?

52 Which person would you want to have a long term relationship with?

53 Automatic Prejudice

54 Implicit racial associations: harboring unconscious racial associations Unconscious patronization: evaluate performance based on racial stereotypes – low expectations result in inflated praise and insufficient criticism hindering minority student’s academic achievement Racial influenced perceptions - people more often mistakenly shot targets who were black. Seeing black – the more a person’s facial features are perceived as typical of their racial category, the more likely they are to elicit race-based responding. Reflexive bodily responses – studies have detected implicit prejudice in facial responses and activation of amygdala– demonstrates implicit prejudice.

55 Social Roots of Prejudice 1. Social inequalities – justify stereotypes – Blame the victim dynamic – victims of mistreatment are held partially responsible for their problems Examples: – Poverty breeds higher crime rates, therefore, it’s o.k. to discriminating against those in poverty. – Slaves were lazy and ignorant – Victims of rape are sexually provocative – How does this create social injustice?

56 Social Roots of Prejudice 2. Us vs. Them Social Identities – portion of our self-concept that comes from our membership in social groups Example: I am an American, teacher, Catholic – In-Group – people with whom we share a common identity Example: SHS Students – Out-group – People with whom we don’t share a common identity Example: Twinsburg Students – In Group Bias – tendency to favor our own group Example: SHS is better than Twinsburg Girls rule, boys drool Solon vs. Twinsburg

57 What are your social identities? How many different cliques are there at SHS? How do these groups differentiate themselves to others? Who are your in-groups Who are your out-groups How can your group communicate to others that members don’t fit the stereotype

58 Cognitive Roots of Prejudice 1.Categorization Out-group homogeneity – overestimating the similarity within other groups Other-race effect (aka own-race bias, or cross-race effect) – the tendency to recall faces of ones own group more accurately than faces of other races Example: “They all look alike” 2.Vivid cases – tend to remember vivid cases more easily

59 Cognitive Roots of Prejudice 3. Just-world phenomenon – tendency to believe that people get what they deserve – Examples: Rich people got to be rich through hard work; homeless through laziness. – Bad things happen to bad people, good things happen to good people

60 Emotional Roots of Prejudice 1. Fear – 9/11 2. Anger Scapegoat Theory – theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame – Example: Jews in Nazi Germany

61 Think Pair Share Jill, a female employee at ACME Industries, recently complained that she had been sexually harassed by one of her male supervisors. Upon hearing of this complaint, Luis, a fellow employee, commented, “If the women around here would stop some of their flirting, they'd be left alone.” Jason, another co- worker, quickly added, “If the women in this country stopped trying to act like men, they'd all be treated with more respect.” Explain how these insensitive remarks illustrate some of the social, emotional, and cognitive roots of prejudice.

62 social roots - Bryan’s comment (“If the women in this country stopped trying to act like men”) implies an ingroup bias: Jason identifies an “outgroup” (women) as the cause of the problem rather than his “ingroup” (men) as the reason for the problem. emotional roots, Kurt‘s comment (“If the women around here would stop some of their flirting”) provides an outlet for discomfort and anger by identifying an outgroup to blame (scapegoat theory) for the situation (“flirty” women). cognitive roots - both Kurt’s and Bryan’s comments are examples of the just-world phenomenon: the tendency for people to believe the world is just and people get what they deserve (in this case, “flirty” women and women who “act like men” are responsible for sexual harassment).

63 Psychology of Aggression Aggression – any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy – Always involves the intent to hurt – Varies from culture to culture Not instinctual

64 Two men fight for a piece of bread The warden of the prison executes a convicted criminal A boxer gives his opponent a bloody nose A hunter kills an animal and mounts it as a trophy A man viciously kicks a cat

65 The Biology of Aggression Instinctual? Genetic Influences – Breeding – Twin studies – Y chromosome Neural Influences – Limbic system - – Frontal Lobe Biochemical Influences – Hormones – Neurotransmitters – alcohol amygdala No, varies to much from culture to culture

66 Aggression Theories 1. Aversive Events – Frustration-aggression principle – blocking an attempt to achieve a goal creates anger Fight or flight reaction to stress – Adverse stimuli – physical pain, insults, high temperatures etc. can create anger Example: pitchers frustrated by batter’s home run, will hit the next player up to bat, or the batter the next time he is a bat 2. Social and cultural influences – Reinforcement – experience has taught that aggression pays – Aggression higher when: Ostracized, high disparity between rich and poor, minimal father care, stressed Aggression-replacement program – communication skills, anger control, moral reasoning, modeling appropriate behavior

67 Aggression Theories 3. Observing models of aggression – sexually explicit media models Rape myth – some women enjoy or invite rape and like it – High TV Viewing = Acceptance of myth – Greater use of pornography by sex offenders 4. Acquiring Social Scripts – Social scripts – mental tapes for how to act provided by our culture i.e. media Example: Sexual scripts or violent scripts obtained from movies and T.V, that are acted out in real life 5. video games and violence – Increase arousal, hostility, physical aggressiveness, lower grades – Catharsis hypothesis - disconfirmed

68 Figure 14.12 Biopsychosocial understanding of aggression Because many factors contribute to aggressive behavior, there are many ways to change such behavior, including learning anger management and communication skills, and avoiding violent media and video games. © 2011 by Worth Publishers

69 Your psychology class is studying aggression. Phyllis, an outspoken student, says, “I think one big cause of aggression are those horrible violent video games. Boys are the only ones who like those games, and they are way more violent than girls.” Evaluate Phyllis' statement according to psychological findings about the biological factors of aggression and the psychological and social-cultural factors of aggression.

70 biological factors of aggression – relationship between testosterone and aggression Violent criminals tend to be young men with higher- than-average testosterone levels. – psychological and social-cultural factors of aggression Observing models of aggression (such as those in violent video games) is associated with higher levels of aggressive behavior.

71 Attraction 5 Factors of Attraction 1.Proximity 2.Physical Attractiveness 3.Similarity 4.Reciprocal Liking 5.Reward Theory of Attraction

72 1. Proximity Mere exposure effect- Increased attraction to novel stimuli that become more familiar – The more we are exposed to something, the more we like it Example: Taiwanese man who sent 700 letters to his girlfriend asking to marry him. She did marry--

73 2. Physical Attractiveess The power of physical attractiveness

74 2. The Hotty Factor Being Beautiful… – Predicts frequency of dating – Perceived as healthier, happier, more honest and successful, but not more honest and compassionate – Unrelated to self-esteem and happiness – In the eye of the culture – Evolutionary – Symmetry – Depends on our feelings for someone

75 2.Physical Attractiveness and Culture Obesity is so revered among Mauritania's white Moor Arab population that the young girls are sometimes force-fed to obtain a weight the government has described as "life-threatening".

76 Are these cultures really that different?

77 2. Physical Attraction and Biological “Universals” Symmetrical Face Youthful Appearance Healthy looking

78 2. Physical Attractiveness and Psychology Led to believe someone has appealing traits (honest, humorous,) rather than unappealing (rude, unfair, abuses) – we perceive the person to be more attractive

79 3. Similarity Paula Abdul was wrong- opposites do NOT attract. Birds of the same feather do flock together. Similarity breeds content. More alike, the more liking endures

80 4. Reciprocal Liking Reciprocal Liking - You are more likely to like someone who likes you. Why? When our self esteem is low

81 5. Reward theory of Attraction Reward Theory of Attraction - We continue relationships that offer more rewards than costs – Associating with people that are attractive is socially rewarding – When someone works with us, it costs less time and effort to develop a friendship and enjoy the benefits

82 Romantic Love Love – Passionate Love – intense positive absorption of another Key ingredient….arousal Two Factor Theory of Emotion ( Schachter/Singer) – “My heart is beating, I think (cognition), I’m in love – If aroused will feel more attraction for someone – Companionate Love – deep affectionate attachment Equity – both partners receive in proportion to what they give – Examples: sharing household chores Self-disclosure – revealing of intimate details

83 Research indicates that we often form more positive impressions of beautiful people than of those who are physically unattractive. Explain how advertisements and movies might encourage this tendency. Use your knowledge of the factors that facilitate interpersonal attraction to suggest how people could be influenced to feel more positively about those who are physically unattractive.

84 Feel positively toward attractive people through two main areas of attraction research: proximity and physical attractiveness. – Proximity - indicates that the closer we feel to others, the more attractive we find them to be. – Mere-exposure effect - predicts that the more often we see an individual (such as someone in an ad or a movie), the more attractive we find that person and the more positive our behavior toward the person. Standards for attractiveness are influenced by – cultural standards - e.g., for thinness – biological “universals” e.g., a youthful-looking or healthy-looking appearance and a symmetrical face – People who meet these cultural and biological standards of attractiveness are more likely to appear more often in ads and movies, resulting in our positive behavior toward them.

85 Altruism Altruism - unselfish regard for the welfare of others Example: 9/11 people across the country donated time and money to assist

86 Prosocial Behavior Bystander Effect - Tendency for a bystander to be less likely to help if other people are present – Example: Kitty Genovese case in Kew Gardens NY. Diffusion of Responsibility – When many people share the responsibility we think someone else will help Example – Latane’s study Pluralistic Ignorance - People decide what to do by looking to others – a lack of reaction is interpreted as a non-emergency situation

87 Altruism

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89 Norms for Helping Social exchange theory – we want to maximize the benefits and minimize the costs – Example: Donating blood – weigh costs (time, discomfort, anxiety) vs. benefits (good feelings, social approval, less guilt) Intrinsically rewarding – reward pathway in brain = what neurotransmitter? Social Norms that Influence Altruism Reciprocity norm – we help someone who has helped us – Example: I’ll help you with your Psych homework because you’ve helped me with my Chem homework Social-responsibility norm – we help people who need our help – Example: The elderly, children

90 While walking through a busy city park, Mr. Cruz experiences sharp chest pains that indicate to him the onset of a heart attack. Describe several things Mr. Cruz should do to increase the chances that someone will come to his aid and quickly provide him with appropriate medical attention. Explain the rationale for your advice in light of research on altruism and the decision-making process underlying bystander intervention.

91 Conflict and Peacemaking Conflict – a perceived incompatibility of goals actions and ideas – Example: marital dispute Destructive Social Processes – Social trap we harm our collective well being by following our personal interests Whalers believed that taking a few whales wouldn’t hurt the species and other Whalers would take them if they didn’t …some species became endangered….same for buffalo

92 Enemy Perceptions Mirror-image perceptions – mutual views seen by conflicting people – Example: We are ethical and peaceful – they are evil and aggressive and visa-versa Self-fulfilling prophecy – perceptions that can lead to their own fulfillment – Example: If Thomas thinks Lisa is annoyed with him, he may snub her causing her to act in ways that justify his perception

93 Conflict and Peacemaking Contact – non competitive and between parties of equal status Cooperation – Superordinate goals – shared goals achieved through cooperation Example: 2 groups of boys at a summer camp who hated each other, worked together to fix the camp’s water system Communication - Mediators Conciliation – GRIT – strategy designed to decrease international tension Example: Kennedy gesture to banning nuclear tests above ground led to the Nuclear Test Ban treaty between the US


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