Presentation on theme: "Social Psychology Attitude Attraction Group Behavior Aggression"— Presentation transcript:
1Social PsychologyAttitudeAttractionGroup BehaviorAggressionSocial Psychology - Studying the way people think about, influence and relate to others.
2Think about the last time you broke the speed limit (not 5 miles over, but really speeding) Why were you speeding?Think about the last time you saw someone speed by you or drive recklessly?How did you feel about the speeding driver? Why were they so rude?
3Thinking about ourselves and others Attribution Theory - how we explain others’ behavior - by attributing it either to their external situation or their internal dispositionSituational AttributionExternalthe environment/assigned roles (teacher, president, policeofficer)Dispositional AttributionInternalpersonality traitsExample:Student’s hostilitySituational – reaction to stress or abuseDispositional – aggressive personalit
5Fundamental Attribution Error How do you view your teacher’s behavior?Fundamental attribution error - tendency to overestimate the role of dispositional factors and underestimate situational factorsCan be attributed to:Self-serving bias – readiness to perceive ourselves favorablyexplain strangers' behavior in terms of personality traits and our own behavior in terms of situational constraints.More common in Individualistic culturesAvoid by observing people in many situationsIf you win it is because you are awesome…if you lose, it must have been the coach …We (Solon) won they game …They (Solon) lost the game
6AttitudesAttitudes - Feelings, based on beliefs, that guide our behaviorAdvertising is ALL based on attitude formation.
74 Ways Attitudes Affect Actions Central Route of Persuasion - opinion change from thoughtful focus on scientific evidence and argumentsMore lasting, more likely to influence behavior, more often with analytical peopleExample: After seeing a political debate you decide to vote for the candidate because you found her views and arguments convincing.Peripheral Route Persuasion –opinion change through incidental cues (Speakers attractiveness, endorsement of famous person, emotion evoking music or images)Occurs more rapidlyExample: after seeing a political debate you may decide to vote for a candidate because you like the sound of the person's voice, or the person went to the same university as you did.Social PressureVivid, Easily recalled information
85 Ways Actions Affect Attitudes Foot-in-the-door phenomenon – persuasion technique to get someone to agree first to a small request to get them to comply later with a larger requestExample: “Can I borrow the car to go to the movies? Can I borrow the car to go to OSU this weekend?”Door-in-the-face phenomenon – persuasion technique to get someone to comply by first making an extremely large request, then requesting something smallerExample: “Can I have a car for my 16th birthday? Can I have a new iphone?”Norms of reciprocity – social expectation that people will respond to each other in kindExample: “I’ll let you copy off of my test in AP Psych. Can I copy off of yours in AP Physics”
9Fritz Heider concluded that people tend to attribute others' behavior either to their heredity or their environment.biological motives or their psychological motives.thoughts or their emotions.dispositions or their situations.abilities or their effort.
10Central Route Persuasion Door in face phenomenon Christopher failed is AP Psych exam because he spent the weekend at the hospital with his mother who had cancer, his classmates said it was because he is lazy. This is an example ofCentral Route PersuasionDoor in face phenomenonPeripheral route persuasionFundamental attribution errorFoot in door phenomenon
11Dispositional attribution Central route persuasion Instead of providing arguments in favor of a political candidate, ads may build political support by associating pictures of the candidate with emotion-evoking music and images. This strategy best illustratesDispositional attributionCentral route persuasionSituational attributionPeripheral route persuasionFoot in door phenomenon
12A person's behavior is most likely to be inconsistent with his or her attitudes when the attitudes are implicit rather than explicit.external influences on behavior are minimal.the person has not publicly communicated those attitudes.the attitudes are discrepant with most other people's opinions.our behavior is influenced by powerful external factors.
13Role-Playing Affects Attitudes Role– set of behaviors for a specific social positionZimbardo - Stanford Prison StudyWhat did Zimbardo attribute the guards and prisoner behavior to?How did the situation at Abu Ghraib mirror Zimbardo’s findings?
14Cognitive Dissonance5. Cognitive Dissonance Theory (Festinger) - Discomfort we feel when your thoughts and behaviors or two thoughts are inconsistentPeople want to have consistent attitudes and behaviors….when they are not they experience dissonance (unpleasant tension).Usually they will change their attitude or behavior.Example: You believe cheating in wrong. You glance over at your neighbors paper and copy a few answers down, then convince yourself that it’s not wrong if person is careless enough to leave their paper exposedHow does this relate to social injustice?You have a belief that cheating on tests is bad.But you cheat on a test!!!The teacher was really bad so in that class it is OK.
15Cognitive Dissonance Fetzinger’s study Hypothesis: If you believe x, but publically state “not x”, you will experience cognitive –the larger the pressure used to elicit the behavior (more $ paid), the smaller your dissonanceIndependent variable: Paid $1 or $20Dependent variable: Ratings of Interview questionsResults: $1 had more dissonanceWhen there is insufficient justification for the behavior, the dissonance is larger, and the attitude change is larger
17ConformityConformity - Adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standardYou change your beliefs or your behaviorExample: Asch conformity experiments
18Conformity and Obedience Chameleon effect- unconsciously mimicking others’ expressions, postures and voice tonesExample: We yawn when others yawn…look at the ceiling when others doMood linkage – sharing up and down moods of othersExample: reading a sad text creates mood contagion in listeners
20Asch’s Conformity Experiment Independent VariableDependent VariableOperational DefinitionConfounding Variables# of wrong answers given by the confederateswhether or not the participants conform.Record the # of times the participant conformedParticipant guesses what experiment is about and goes along
21Factors Increasing Conformity Factors Decreasing Conformity Size of the GroupConformity tends to increase as the size of the group increases.However, there is little change in conformity once the group size reaches 6-8. With one other person (i.e. confederate) in the group conformity was 3%, with two others it increased to 13% and with three or more it was 32% (or 1/3).Because conformity does not seem to increase in groups larger than four, this is considered the optimal group size.Lack of Group Unanimity / AgreementWhen one other person in the group gave a different answer from the others, and the group answer was not unanimous, conformity dropped.Asch (1951) found that even the presence of just one confederate that goes against the majority choice can reduce conformity as much as 80%.This suggests that individuals conform because they are concerned about what other people think of them (i.e. normative influence).Difficulty of TaskWhen the (comparison) lines (e.g. A, B, C) were made more similar in length it was harder to judge the correct answer and conformity increased.When we are uncertain, it seems we look to others for confirmation. The more difficult the task the greater the conformity.Answer in PrivateWhen participants were allowed to answer in private (so the rest of the group do not know their response) conformity decreases.This is because there is less groups pressure and normative influence is not as powerful, as there is no fear of rejection from the group.Status of Majority GroupIf someone is of high status (e.g. your boss) or has a lot of knowledge (e.g. your teacher), they might be more influential, and so people will conform to their opinions more (e.g. informational influence).The higher the status of the group the higher the level of conformity.
22Asch’s Results Asch’s Results Conditions that Strengthen Conformity: About 1/3 of the participants conformed.70% conformed at least once.Conditions that Strengthen Conformity:The group is unanimousYou are insecure within the group or made to feel incompetentThe group is at least three people.You admire the group’s statusYou had made no prior commitment to any responseThe task is difficult (informational social influence)Your culture encourages respect for social standards
23Reasons for Conforming Normative social influence – conform to others to gain approval/avoid rejectionExample: fads and fashionsInformational social influence – (aka Social Proof) – conform to others because you think they are rightWhen we don’t know how to behave we copy other people..they act as information sources on how to behaveOccurs most often when:The situation is ambiguous. We have choices but do not know which to select.There is a crisis. We have no time to think and experiment. A decision is required now!Others are experts. If we accept the authority of others, they must know better than us.Examples:Go to a foreign county, follow what natives doListen to the weatherman and don’t drive to Ohio State when she predicts a snowstorm
24ComplianceCompliance - a demand, request, or rule from another person, group, or institution that influences another to change their behaviorYou change your behavior but not necessarily your beliefsExample: Your parents tell you to go to Ohio State when you want to go to Michigan. You agree to their requestWhat strategies have we already discussed would get someone to comply with a request??Foot in door, door in face phenomenon’s
25ObedienceObedience – following orders without question because they come from a legitimate authorityExamples:Milgram’s ExperimentStanford Prison ExperimentTeacher asks you to take a test, you take it without questioning her
26Milgram’s Study Of Obedience Independent VariableDependent VariableOperational DefinitionEthicsProximity of the learnerAmount of shock administeredRecord the highest amount of shock administeredInformed Consent – not truthful, harm to participant (stress), Debriefed, ConfidentialityOther tests: Prestige of the setting, Proximity of Authority, Presence of rebellious peers
28What did we learn from Milgram? Ordinary people can do shocking things – evils can grow out of compliance/obedience to others’ evils and situational attributesFactors that increase obedience:Experimenter in close proximity to “teacher”Learner placed in a different roomExperiment associated with prestigious location (Yale)EthicsHarm- stress on participants
29David's history teacher asked him why so many German people complied with Hitler's orders to systematically slaughter millions of innocent Jews. David suggested that the atrocities were committed because the Germans had become unusually cruel, sadistic people with abnormal and twisted personalities. Use your knowledge of the fundamental attribution error and Milgram's research on obedience to highlight the weaknesses of David's explanation.
30David is attributing the Germans actions to their inner dispositions rather than situational factors. Milgram's obedience research explains these atrocities: Milgram's studies indicate that the majority of people will follow orders by an authority figure, even if those orders involve harming others.
31Individual Behaviors in the Presence of Others Social FacilitationSocial LoafingDeindividiation
32Social Facilitation Theory Social Facilitation – stronger performance in the presence of othersIf you are really good at something (well learned tasks)….or it is an easy task…you will perform BETTER in front of a group.Why?ArousalExamples:counting backwards from 10 to 1Home field advantageComedy routines seem funnier in a crowded room than in an uncrowded roomSocial Impairment - If it is a difficult task or you are not very good at it…you will perform WORSE in front of a groupExample: Memorizing nonsense syllables
33Social LoafingSocial Loafing - the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling efforts toward a common goal than if they were individually accountable.More common among men and individualistic countriesExample – some teenagers work harder on individual projects than on group projects
34DeindividuationDeindividuation – presence of others arouses people and diminishes their responsibility.Works with Social FacilitationFeel anonymous and aroused by presence of others.Causes - Reduced self awareness and accountability when in a crowdExample - Rioting behaviors, mob violence, Lord of the FliesHow could this cause a social injustice?
35A crowd at a soccer game starts to boo, yell at the home team, and throw cups and trash at the players after the team loses a very close match. Explain how social facilitation and deindividuation contribute to the crowd's behavior.
36The principle of social facilitation may be influencing the crowd to boo and yell more loudly at the players. Our performance is enhanced when we are in the presence of others, and these fans may be yelling more loudly because they are in a crowd rather than alone. In addition, deindividuation is most likely influencing the fans' behaviors: In group situations that involve arousal and anonymity (such as being in a crowd at a soccer game), we tend to lose self-awareness and inhibitions, possibly leading to aggressive behaviors such as throwing trash at players.
372 effects of Group Interaction Group PolarizationGroup Think
38Group PolarizationGroup polarization - If a group is like-minded, discussion strengthens its prevailing opinion.Groups tend to make more extreme decisions than the individual.Example: Some students think Mr.. Jeter is a slightly better teacher than Mrs. Joseph After discussing it with each other they think that Mr. Jeter is definitely a better teacher.
40GroupthinkGroupthink - Group members suppress reservations about the ideas supported by the group.Desire for group harmony.Worse in highly cohesive groups—(group polarization).Avoided when leader welcomes outside opinionsExample: Challenger, Bay of Pigs Invasion
41Think pair shareIf representatives from the Republican and Democratic parties gathered to discuss a minimum wage bill, how might the concepts of group polarization and groupthink influence the discussion and eventual vote?
42Groupthink - might influence the eventual decision if each group is united in its views about the minimum wage bill and no one speaks against the group decision. Groupthink occurs when an unwise decision emerges from a group discussion in which the group's opinion is united and no dissenting views are heard.Group polarization- might occur if the Democratic and Republican groups are united in their opinions, and each group becomes more sure of its own opinion. Group polarization theory predicts that a group's preexisting like-minded belief will be strengthened through discussion.
43Cultural InfluenceCulture – behaviors, ideas, values, and traditions shared by a groupExample: Japanese cultureCulture within animalsCulture in humansPreservation of innovationDivision of labor
44Variations Across Cultures Norm – rules for accepted and expected behaviorExample:Personal space – the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodiesNorth Americans prefer more than Latin AmericansPace of lifeMore fast paced in U.S. than Mexico – mananaExpressivenessMediterranean cultures more warm, but less efficient than Northern Europe
45EthnocentrismEthnocentrism - belief that your own ethnic group is superior to othersJudge others by our own cultural standardsHow can ethnocentrism lead to social injustice?It is one of the major reasons for divisions among races and religious groups in society,
47The Power of Individuals Social control – regulation of peoples behavior through social normsPersonal control – the power of the individual to do the opposite of what is socially acceptedExample – 3 soldiers at Abu Ghraib prisonMinority influence – the power of one or two individuals to sway majoritiesHolding consistently to opinionSelf confidence
48Social Relations – how we relate to one another: prejudice, aggression, attraction, altruism, peacemaking
49Stereotypes, Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice - unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members3 components: beliefs, emotions and predisposition to actionExample: “I dislike fat people”Stereotype - Overgeneralized beliefs about a group of people.Example: “obese people are gluttonous”Discrimination - An action based on a prejudice (behavior).Example: to not hire an obese person
50Provide an example of prejudice, stereotype and discrimination for each of the following Solon GirlsTeachersAmericans
54Automatic PrejudiceImplicit racial associations: harboring unconscious racial associationsUnconscious patronization: evaluate performance based on racial stereotypeslow expectations result in inflated praise and insufficient criticism hindering minority student’s academic achievementRacial influenced perceptions - people more often mistakenly shot targets who were black.Seeing black – the more a person’s facial features are perceived as typical of their racial category, the more likely they are to elicit race-based responding.Reflexive bodily responses – studies have detected implicit prejudice in facial responses and activation of amygdala– demonstrates implicit prejudice.
55Social Roots of Prejudice 1. Social inequalities – justifystereotypesBlame the victim dynamic – victims of mistreatment are held partially responsible for their problemsExamples:Poverty breeds higher crime rates, therefore, it’s o.k. to discriminating against those in poverty.Slaves were lazy and ignorantVictims of rape are sexually provocativeHow does this create social injustice?
56Social Roots of Prejudice 2. Us vs. ThemSocial Identities – portion of our self-concept that comes from our membership in social groupsExample: I am an American, teacher, CatholicIn-Group – people with whom we share a common identityExample: SHS StudentsOut-group – People with whom we don’t share a common identityExample: Twinsburg StudentsIn Group Bias – tendency to favor our own groupExample: SHS is better than TwinsburgSolon vs. TwinsburgGirls rule, boys drool
57What are your social identities? How many different cliques are there at SHS?How do these groups differentiate themselves to others?Who are your in-groupsWho are your out-groupsHow can your group communicate to others that members don’t fit the stereotype
58Cognitive Roots of Prejudice CategorizationOut-group homogeneity – overestimating the similarity within other groupsOther-race effect (aka own-race bias, or cross-race effect) – the tendency to recall faces of ones own group more accurately than faces of other racesExample: “They all look alike”Vivid cases – tend to remember vivid cases more easily
59Cognitive Roots of Prejudice 3. Just-world phenomenon – tendency to believe that people get what they deserveExamples: Rich people got to be rich through hard work; homeless through laziness.Bad things happen to bad people, good things happen to good people
60Emotional Roots of Prejudice 1. Fear – 9/112. AngerScapegoat Theory – theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blameExample: Jews in Nazi Germany
61Think Pair ShareJill, a female employee at ACME Industries, recently complained that she had been sexually harassed by one of her male supervisors. Upon hearing of this complaint, Luis, a fellow employee, commented, “If the women around here would stop some of their flirting, they'd be left alone.” Jason, another co-worker, quickly added, “If the women in this country stopped trying to act like men, they'd all be treated with more respect.” Explain how these insensitive remarks illustrate some of the social, emotional, and cognitive roots of prejudice.
62social roots - Bryan’s comment (“If the women in this country stopped trying to act like men”) implies an ingroup bias: Jason identifies an “outgroup” (women) as the cause of the problem rather than his “ingroup” (men) as the reason for the problem.emotional roots, Kurt‘s comment (“If the women around here would stop some of their flirting”) provides an outlet for discomfort and anger by identifying an outgroup to blame (scapegoat theory) for the situation (“flirty” women).cognitive roots - both Kurt’s and Bryan’s comments are examples of the just-world phenomenon: the tendency for people to believe the world is just and people get what they deserve (in this case, “flirty” women and women who “act like men” are responsible for sexual harassment).
63Psychology of Aggression Aggression – any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroyAlways involves the intent to hurtVaries from culture to cultureNot instinctual
64Two men fight for a piece of bread The warden of the prison executes a convicted criminalA boxer gives his opponent a bloody noseA hunter kills an animal and mounts it as a trophyA man viciously kicks a cat
65The Biology of Aggression Instinctual?Genetic InfluencesBreedingTwin studiesY chromosomeNeural InfluencesLimbic system -Frontal LobeBiochemical InfluencesHormonesNeurotransmittersalcoholNo, varies to much from culture to cultureamygdala
66Aggression Theories 1. Aversive Events Frustration-aggression principle – blocking an attempt to achieve a goal creates angerFight or flight reaction to stressAdverse stimuli – physical pain, insults, high temperatures etc. can create angerExample: pitchers frustrated by batter’s home run, will hit the next player up to bat, or the batter the next time he is a bat2. Social and cultural influencesReinforcement – experience has taught that aggression paysAggression higher when: Ostracized, high disparity between rich and poor, minimal father care, stressedAggression-replacement program – communication skills, anger control, moral reasoning, modeling appropriate behavior
67Aggression Theories 3. Observing models of aggression sexually explicit media modelsRape myth – some women enjoy or invite rape and like itHigh TV Viewing = Acceptance of mythGreater use of pornography by sex offenders4. Acquiring Social ScriptsSocial scripts – mental tapes for how to act provided by our culture i.e. mediaExample: Sexual scripts or violent scripts obtained from movies and T.V, that are acted out in real life5. video games and violenceIncrease arousal, hostility, physical aggressiveness, lower gradesCatharsis hypothesis - disconfirmed
69Your psychology class is studying aggression Your psychology class is studying aggression. Phyllis, an outspoken student, says, “I think one big cause of aggression are those horrible violent video games. Boys are the only ones who like those games, and they are way more violent than girls.” Evaluate Phyllis' statement according to psychological findings about the biological factors of aggression and the psychological and social-cultural factors of aggression.
70biological factors of aggression relationship between testosterone and aggressionViolent criminals tend to be young men with higher-than-average testosterone levels.psychological and social-cultural factors of aggressionObserving models of aggression (such as those in violent video games) is associated with higher levels of aggressive behavior.
71Attraction 5 Factors of Attraction Proximity Physical Attractiveness SimilarityReciprocal LikingReward Theory of Attraction5 Factors of Attraction
721. ProximityMere exposure effect- Increased attraction to novel stimuli that become more familiarThe more we are exposed to something, the more we like itExample: Taiwanese man who sent 700 letters to his girlfriend asking to marry him. She did marry--
732. Physical Attractiveess The power of physical attractiveness
742. The Hotty Factor Being Beautiful… Predicts frequency of dating Perceived as healthier, happier, more honest and successful, but not more honest and compassionateUnrelated to self-esteem and happinessIn the eye of the cultureEvolutionarySymmetryDepends on our feelings for someone
752.Physical Attractiveness and Culture Obesity is so revered among Mauritania's white Moor Arab population that the young girls are sometimes force-fed to obtain a weight the government has described as "life-threatening".
772. Physical Attraction and Biological “Universals” Symmetrical FaceYouthful AppearanceHealthy looking
782. Physical Attractiveness and Psychology Led to believe someone has appealing traits (honest, humorous,) rather than unappealing (rude, unfair, abuses) – we perceive the person to be more attractive
793. Similarity Paula Abdul was wrong- opposites do NOT attract. Birds of the same feather do flock together.Similarity breeds content.More alike, the more liking endures
804. Reciprocal LikingReciprocal Liking - You are more likely to like someone who likes you.Why?When our self esteem is low
815. Reward theory of Attraction Reward Theory of Attraction - We continue relationships that offer more rewards than costsAssociating with people that are attractive is socially rewardingWhen someone works with us, it costs less time and effort to develop a friendship and enjoy the benefits
82Romantic LoveLovePassionate Love – intense positive absorption of anotherKey ingredient….arousalTwo Factor Theory of Emotion (Schachter/Singer)“My heart is beating, I think (cognition), I’m in loveIf aroused will feel more attraction for someoneCompanionate Love – deep affectionate attachmentEquity – both partners receive in proportion to what they giveExamples: sharing household choresSelf-disclosure – revealing of intimate details
83Research indicates that we often form more positive impressions of beautiful people than of those who are physically unattractive. Explain how advertisements and movies might encourage this tendency. Use your knowledge of the factors that facilitate interpersonal attraction to suggest how people could be influenced to feel more positively about those who are physically unattractive.
84Standards for attractiveness are influenced by Feel positively toward attractive people through two main areas of attraction research: proximity and physical attractiveness.Proximity - indicates that the closer we feel to others, the more attractive we find them to be.Mere-exposure effect - predicts that the more often we see an individual (such as someone in an ad or a movie), the more attractive we find that person and the more positive our behavior toward the person.Standards for attractiveness are influenced bycultural standards - e.g., for thinnessbiological “universals” e.g., a youthful-looking or healthy-looking appearance and a symmetrical facePeople who meet these cultural and biological standards of attractiveness are more likely to appear more often in ads and movies, resulting in our positive behavior toward them.
85Altruism Altruism - unselfish regard for the welfare of others Example: 9/11 people across the country donated time and money to assist
86Prosocial BehaviorBystander Effect - Tendency for a bystander to be less likely to help if other people are presentExample: Kitty Genovese case in Kew Gardens NY.Diffusion of Responsibility – When many people share the responsibility we think someone else will helpExample – Latane’s studyPluralistic Ignorance - People decide what to do by looking to others – a lack of reaction is interpreted as a non-emergency situation
89Norms for HelpingSocial exchange theory – we want to maximize the benefits and minimize the costsExample: Donating blood – weigh costs (time, discomfort, anxiety) vs. benefits (good feelings, social approval, less guilt)Intrinsically rewarding – reward pathway in brain = what neurotransmitter?Social Norms that Influence AltruismReciprocity norm – we help someone who has helped usExample: I’ll help you with your Psych homework because you’ve helped me with my Chem homeworkSocial-responsibility norm – we help people who need our helpExample: The elderly, children
90While walking through a busy city park, Mr While walking through a busy city park, Mr. Cruz experiences sharp chest pains that indicate to him the onset of a heart attack. Describe several things Mr. Cruz should do to increase the chances that someone will come to his aid and quickly provide him with appropriate medical attention. Explain the rationale for your advice in light of research on altruism and the decision-making process underlying bystander intervention.
91Conflict and Peacemaking Conflict – a perceived incompatibility of goals actions and ideasExample: marital disputeDestructive Social ProcessesSocial trap we harm our collective well being by following our personal interestsWhalers believed that taking a few whales wouldn’t hurt the species and other Whalers would take them if they didn’t …some species became endangered….same for buffalo
92Enemy PerceptionsMirror-image perceptions – mutual views seen by conflicting peopleExample: We are ethical and peaceful – they are evil and aggressive and visa-versaSelf-fulfilling prophecy – perceptions that can lead to their own fulfillmentExample: If Thomas thinks Lisa is annoyed with him, he may snub her causing her to act in ways that justify his perception
93Conflict and Peacemaking Contact – non competitive and between parties of equal statusCooperationSuperordinate goals – shared goals achieved through cooperationExample: 2 groups of boys at a summer camp who hated each other, worked together to fix the camp’s water systemCommunication - MediatorsConciliationGRIT – strategy designed to decrease international tensionExample: Kennedy gesture to banning nuclear tests above ground led to the Nuclear Test Ban treaty between the US