4 What is Behavior?Behavior is the activity of a living organism; human behavior includes everything that people doIt is an organisms interaction with its environmentCooper Heron, and Heward (2007)
5 Why do students display inappropriate behaviors? Behavior is the way children communicateMany children do not have social-emotional literacyAttempt to get needs met through behaviors and actionsIt has worked for them in the past (history of reinforcement)It is a behavior that has been reinforcedTo fulfill a need
6 What Maintains Behavior? Behaviors are maintained by what the student gets out of displaying the behavior and this is often described as the function of behaviorFunction=pay off or reward for the student
7 Why should we intervene? Research notes “that many students that misbehave often times also present with serious learning challenges.”(Walker, Stieber, Ramsey, & O’Neill, 1993)“Research strongly suggests that if schools raise their level of achievement, behavior decreases; and if schools work to decrease behavior problems, academics improve.”(Hawkins, Catalano, Kosterman, Abbott, & Hill, 1999)
8 Why Should We intervene? It has been noted that “school districts that utilize office referrals, out-of-school suspensions, and expulsions-without a comprehensive system that teaches positive and expected behaviors and rewards the same- are shown to actually have higher rates of problem behavior and academic failure.”(Mayer, Butterworth, Nafpaktitis, & Suzer-Azaroff, 1983)
9 Why is it important to determine functions of behavior? Keeps us from continuing ineffective interventionsHelps to determine appropriate interventionsSaves time and resourcesAssists in increasing the likelihood that the students outcomes will be successful
10 The Law: When are FBAs required by IDEA ‘97 An FBA must be conducted ifsuspensions or placements in an alternative setting equal more than 10 school days in a school yearsuspensions or placements constitute a change in placement (length, duration, proximity)the student is placed in an Interim Alternative Education Setting (IAES) for 45 days for weapons or drug offensesa due process hearing officer places a student in an IAES for behavior that is dangerous to self or others(Drasgow & Yell, 2001)
11 The Law: When Should FBAs be Conducted? An FBA should be conductedwhen the student’s problem behavior impedes the learning of self or otherswhen there is a known history of problem behaviorwhen the student’s suspensions or placements approach 10 cumulative dayswhen the student’s behavior presents a danger to self or others(Drasgow & Yell, 2001; Martin, 1999)
12 Timelines for FBAsFBAs must be conducted within 10 business days when the student*is first removed for more than 10 school days*removed in a manner that constitutes a change in placement*placed in an IAES for dangerous behavior* BIPs based on the FBA must be implemented as quickly as possible
13 Three Major Points Supporting the Disciplinary Changes of IDEA’97 Emphasis on the use of positive behavioral interventions, supports, and services for students who exhibit behavior problemsUse of positive programming to teach appropriate behaviors rather than simply using punishment-based procedures to eliminate inappropriate behavior
14 Updates to FBA BIP LawNew Special Education Restraint Law and the BIP processParental permission is required prior to conducting an FBA
15 Violations of the Law: National Due Process Hearings School districts lost in 13 out of 14 (94%) state level due process hearings.School districts failed to conduct an FBA and develop a BIP when it was required by IDEA in 11 of the cases.School districts lost in 3 of the cases for development of an inadequate FBA.
16 Three Tiered Service Model Academic SystemsBehavioral Systems1-5%1-5%Intensive, Individual InterventionsIndividual StudentsHigh IntensityIntensive, Individual InterventionsIndividual StudentsHigh InterventionsTargeted InterventionsAt-risk studentsClassroom/small group remediation5-10%5-10%Targeted InterventionsAt-risk studentsClassroom/small group focusPBISThe next few slides will be review for many of you. PBIS is part of a broader three tier system designed to address both the behavioral and academic needs of students. This slide shows that Academic Systems and Behavioral Systems (point) follow the same sequence of prevention and intervention activities and that 80-90% of students would be expected to respond to Tier I, (consisting of good first teaching, establishing a positive school climate, and universal instruction on healthy social-emotional adjustment) of the remaining 10-20%, 5-10% more to Tier II (including, for example, intensive academic intervention, family counseling) and 1-5% to tier III. Please hear me say that this model does not imply that disciplinary action with students is not needed or utilized.Universal InstructionAll settings, all studentsPreventive, proactive80-90%80-90%Universal PreventionAll settings, all studentsPreventive, proactivePBIS
18 Functional Behavior Assessment It uses an ABC approach (antecedent, behavior, and consequence)= 3 term contingencyThe first step in addressing problem behaviorsGathers data about the student and their behavior (indirect and direct assessments)Includes an interview of the teacher, family, and the studentIdentifies students strengths and needs; reinforcers and preferencesHelps to reveal patterns in behaviors
19 AntecedentAntecedent- The set of environmental conditions that immediately occur before a behaviorDirectives/ direct request, redirection, ask to complete/ participate in a non-preferred activity, etc.
20 BehaviorBehavior- A movement that produces a change in the environment
21 ConsequenceConsequence- The set of environmental conditions that immediately occur after a behaviorSent to the office, placed in time out, teacher supplied a verbal reprimand, teacher provides attention, student is given a wanted toy, etc.
22 4 Functions of Behavior There are Four Functions: Attention- from peers and adultsEscape/ Avoidance- from persons, activities, or environmentSensory- tactile needs or inputsAccess to a Tangible- an actual item (pencil, computer, food, etc)
23 How to Determine Function? Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA)A systematic method of assessing information about the purpose of a problem behavior; results are used to guide interventionsCooper, Heron, and Heward (2007)
25 Phase I: Descriptive Phase Indirect MethodsInterviews - Teacher, Parent, StudentRating ScalesAcademic Record ReviewDiscipline Record ReviewPrevious Intervention Attempts
26 Phase I: Descriptive Phase Direct Methods - Direct ObservationsScatter PlotABC AssessmentFrequency or Event RecordingInterval RecordingRating Forms
27 Phase II: Interpretive Phase Involves the development of hypothesis or summary statements about the triggers (antecedents) setting off the behavior and events (consequences) maintaining behavior.
28 Phase III: Verification Phase Direct changes are made in the environment to test the hypothesis or summary statements.Functional or Experimental AnalysisHypothesis-basedMulti-element (multiple behaviors)BriefIntervention Testing
29 Phase IV: Intervention Development & Monitoring Focus on increasing positive behaviorsFocus on teaching skillsFocus on making problem behaviors inefficient, ineffective, and irrelevantFocus on proactive instead of reactive strategiesMonitored closely for integrityDirect ObservationIntervention Checklists
30 Indirect Assessment Indirect Methods Interviews - Teacher, Parent, StudentRating ScalesAcademic Record ReviewDiscipline Record ReviewPrevious Intervention Attempts/ Review
31 Questions What is the setting event? (happens before they get to us) What appears to set off the problem behavior (antecedent/the predictor/ trigger)?What do the problem behaviors look like?What happens right after behavior occurs? (consequence)What does she gain from the behavior (function)?What do you want her to do instead? (replacement behavior)It’s as easy as the A-B-C’s!!!31
32 Examples of Indirect Assessments Motivational Assessment Scale (MAS)Created by Durrand and Crimmins 1986Likered scale assessment used to determine function of the behaviorAssists with determining function of behaviorIndirect Observation MeasureOther examples: FAST, QABF, FAI, etc.
33 Direct Assessment Direct Methods - Direct Observations Scatter Plot ABC AssessmentFrequency or Event RecordingInterval RecordingRating Forms
34 Additional Considerations Many problem behaviors may serve one functionOne problem behavior may serve multiple functions in the same settingSame problem behavior may serve a different function in a different contextFunction of a particular behavior may change over time
35 He does not care about anything!?! Choosing a Reinforcer Preference Assessments are importantIndex CardForced Choice Preference AssessmentHierarchy of ReinforcersFree play observationInterviewsUnderstanding satiation/ deprivation
36 Functional AnalysisDirect changes are made in the environment to test the hypothesis or summary statements.Functional or Experimental AnalysisHypothesis-basedMulti-element (multiple behaviors)BriefIntervention Testing
37 How to Conduct an FA in the classroom? Use in Context of the ClassroomDo 5 minute sessions in each conditionAloneAttentionPlayDemand
38 Functional Analysis Protocol Condition EO Consequence ContingencyAttention Ignored Th. Attends to PB Pos reinf (dep) (attention)________________________________________________________Demand Present Time out for PB Neg ReinfDemand (escape)Alone No stimulation N/A N/A(automatic)Play No work, open, N/A Controlfree time, attention
39 Ways to Change Behavior Change the AntecedentThe set of environmental conditions that immediately occur before a behaviorChanging the “A” actual cuts problem behavior before it gets out of hand (PBIS Techniques)Change the BehaviorA movement that produces a change in the environmentThis is actually occurs by teaching Replacement BehaviorsChange the ConsequenceThe set of environmental conditions that immediately occur after a behaviorThis takes great patience, strength, and consistency
40 Replacement Behaviors Replacement behaviors are behaviors you want to replace the target/ maladaptive behaviors displayed.You Must Teach Replacement Behaviors!!!
42 Data CollectionUnderstanding data collection is imperative to accurate data collection, seeing a true picture of target behavior, and ensuring fidelity of the intervention/ assessmentTypes of data collection/ recording:Partial intervalWhole intervalLatencyFrequency/ rateDuration
43 Partial Interval Type of Interval Recording Used for behaviors that appear continuousProvides an estimate of actual number of times the behavior occurstarget behavior counted if it happened anytime during the interval (over estimate)15s 30s s min 1m min 30X
44 Whole Interval Type of Interval Recording X Used for behaviors that appear continuousProvides an estimate of actual number of times the behavior occursOccurrence of target behavior counted ONLY if it lasts the entire predetermined interval (underestimate of behavior)15s 30s s min 1m min 30X
45 DurationUsed to look at the length of time the student engages in the behavior
46 LatencySimilar to duration but more interested in when behavior stops and startsHow long it takes a student to respond to a teacher request … “Clear your desk and get out a piece of paper and a pencil.”
47 Frequency/ rate Event Recording Total count of number of times the behavior occursTally marks used to determine frequency
48 Other ways to Collect Data about Behavior A-B-C (Continuous or Narrative Forms)ClickersTimers (Red-All-Gone)The Penny Pass
50 (Hello, Update, Goodbye) H.U.G.(Hello, Update, Goodbye)Name: ____________________________ Date: ________________Please indicate whether the student has met the goal during the time period indicated:Meets = 2 pts So, so = 1 point Doesn’t meet = 0 ptsHUG Daily Goal _____/_____ HUG Daily Score _____/_____Teacher Comments: Please state briefly any specific behaviors or achievements that demonstrate the student’s progress.GoalsAM to RecessAM RecessAM Recess to LunchLunch RecessPMBe SafeJ K LBe KindBe ResponsibleTotal PointsTeacher InitialsVery similar to CICO but this district did their own version of CICO…Parent’s Signature ___________________________________Parent’s Comments ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________50
51 Collect data pre, during, and post intervention Determine the target behaviorDefine it in clear operational termsDetermine when to collect dataWhat data collection method/recording typeData collection (observation, reports, data logs, measurement tool/ assessment, etc)Collect baseline data collected prior to interventionSummarize and graph dataPut an intervention in Place/ monitor- still collecting dataReview data and make changes as needed
52 Graph the data: Visual Analysis of Data This type of clinical evaluation assists the clinician/teacher with making data driven decisions in practice.Can see instantly if the intervention is workingGreat proof of intervention successBaseline data is needed…
53 What is a BIP? Behavior Intervention Plan includes: Focus on increasing positive behaviorsFocus on teaching skillsFocus on making problem behaviors inefficient, ineffective, and irrelevantFocus on proactive instead of reactive strategiesMonitored closely for integrityDirect ObservationIntervention Checklists (this is needed for BIP implementation)
54 Behavior Intervention Plans should include: Replacement behaviorWell defined target behaviorGoal for target behaviorPositive Behavior Interventions Supports
55 InterventionsInterventions should be based on the functions maintaining the behaviorUtilize data gathered in the indirect and direct assessment process to drive your interventionsPutting an inappropriate intervention in place can be counterproductive and actually reinforce the target behavior
56 How to Write an Effective BIP Use a Strengths based approachWrite specific, observable, obtainable, and measurable goalsUse the function of the behavior (your FBA results) as your driving tool for writing a BIPAllow the student some autonomyUse PBS techniques (Positive Behavior Strategies)
57 How to IMPLEMENT an Effective BIP Monitor and evaluate BIP (for 3-4 weeks)Update BIP if progress is not notedTeach Replacement Behaviors (WE MUST TEACH!)
58 Things to Remember before intervention… Planned Ignoring-Break eye contact, move away, and use a stony face/ silencePraise-ImmediateFrequentEnthusiasticEye contactDescribe behavior (behavior specific praise)VarietyJenson, 2003
59 Words of CautionWhile the following slides are grouped by function, many interventions work with multiple functions and/or regardless of the function (response cost or punishment-based interventions)!
60 Interventions for Attention-Maintained Behaviors
61 Attention Maintained Behavior Interventions The Attention Tag/ RibbonNon-exclusionary timeout procedureNeed a ribbon or a tag that is visible and noticeableStudent is supplied the ribbon/ tag upon arrival to schoolIf student displays unwanted behaviorThen the ribbon is removed and student is ignored for 3 minutes or until misbehavior stopsJABA
62 Attention The Good Behavior Game Interdependent Group contingent reinforcement procedureCreated in 1969 by Barrish, Saunders, and Wolf for a 4th grade classroomHow?Explain GBG GameCreate group rules/ posters (students assist)Define and explain behaviors that are wanted in class and explain behaviors that will create a loss in pointsPractice appropriate behavior/ expectations (role play, rehearsal, etc)Designate a time to use the GBGAllow students to choose a group reward (preference assessment)Create groups/ teamsTrack daily with tally marks visible on wall/ board (public posting)
63 Attention Caught ‘ya Being Good Uses Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports/ Antecedent ControlThe premise is to catch the students “Being Good” and Praise him. This focuses on praise for positive behaviors which encourages good behavior.
64 Caught ‘ya Being Good Taking Pictures Make it a Mystery Have a Bulletin BoardMake an “Ultimate” IncentiveAfternoon Announcements/ LettersStickers/ Stars/ Necklaces/ Silly BandsIdentified students get to have lunch with the principalPBIS/ JABA
65 Attention Proximity Control/ Proximity Praise- Teacher stays within close proximity of the student who is displaying inappropriate behavior.Instructor ignores misbehavior of the student and praises students near by that are displaying appropriate behaviorThen when student modifies his behavior IMMEDIATE praise must be implemented
66 Attention Differential Reinforcement – It is the reinforcement of one form of the behavior and not anotherUses positive reinforcement to differentiate appropriate student behavior from inappropriate behavior
67 Types of Differential Reinforcement DRO- (Other) ignore problem behavior while reinforcing any replacement behavior within a specified time frameDRA- (Alternative) ignore inappropriate behavior and reinforce an alternative behaviorDRH- (High Rates) reinforce only after the appropriate behavior has happened a set/ determined number of timesDRL- (Low Rates) reinforce individual only if the behavior occurs at a predetermined low rateDRC-(Communicative) ignore inappropriate behavior and reinforce a replacement skill/ communication skill that leads to a needDRI- (Incompatible) Instructor reinforces a behavior that actually interferes with the inappropriate behavior and ignores the inappropriate behavior
68 Attention Extinction- Extinction is the non-reinforcement of previously reinforced behaviorsThis procedure includes ignoring a behavior-withholding attention for a previously reinforced responseWhen inappropriate behavior is ignored another appropriate behavior must be reinforced (Fair Pair Rule)Beware of the difficulty of using extinction in a classroom!!!!What is an extinction burst???
69 Attention Token Economy A Token Economy is a reinforcement system that uses symbols to change behavior. Tokens are earned for good behaviors, and later exchanged for a preferred item/ activity/ reinforcer
70 Check-in Check-out Cycle Morning Check-InWeekly Data ReviewBIPClass Check-Out4-5 Weeks Graph ReviewedHome Check-InTeacher ChecksTeacher ChecksProgram UpdateEmbed self-management strategies as driven by the dataUse natural signals for monitoring as much as possibleSelf-monitorSelf-record, check for accuracyFewer check points during the dayMaintain AM and PM times for awhileManage own CICO accountMore on self management in the future…..Targeted interventionsHighly Efficient, structured supportCICO is one optionAssess for whom it will workEnlist whole faculty involvementCICO will still need supplement from Tertiary, Function-based support systemClass Check-InAfternoon Check-OutExit
71 Attention Check-in Check-out (CICO) GOALS Language Arts Math Reading Social Studies/ ScienceTotal Points1. Follow the teacher’s directions the first time.2. Complete all assignments in a timely manner.3. Complete all homework assignments.Teacher InitialsParents Comments
74 Escape Maintained Behavior Interventions Overcorrection-Restitutional- requires student to correct the effects of the misbehavior by restoring the environment to better than its original conditionPositive- requires student to practice appropriate behavior an abundant number of timesNeutral Practice- student repeats an action that is neither related to terminal behavior nor is it restitutional/ also known as contingent exerciseFull Cleanliness- used in potty training
75 Escape Maintained Verbal Prompt- Use questions to prompt behavior Gestural prompt- teacher uses gestures to encourage behaviorPhysical/ tactile prompt- touch students shoulder, hand, finger, etcManual Guidance- known as hand over handUse a least to most prompting system“Wait, Ask, say, show, do” wait for child to initiate after a directive is provided, ask the student a general question, “what do you need to do?,” say what is expected, show a gesture, and then prompt to complete the action.
76 Escape Non-contingent Break/ Chunking the work Allowing the student a break on a fixed schedule/ intervalBreak the activity into smaller parts that are followed by a reinforcer/ breakYou can also do a contingent break procedure
77 EscapeBreak Card-This is a procedure that is based on Skinner’s Verbal Behavior- manding proceduresStudent must be taught to request a break in an appropriate mannerNeed a visual cue (let student choose)Set a limit on the break cardMake sure all teachers are allowingThis contingency
78 EscapeTherapy Box-(Differential Reinforcement of Communicative Behavior)Procedure teaches student to mand for a breakUses a break card contingencyTeaches the student and teacher about behavior chainsEmotional Literacy training
79 Escape Behavioral Momentum- Helps to increase compliance Usually seen in activities that are viewed as difficult for the studentThis procedure includes identifying a minimum of three behaviors which are considered high probability behaviors (student can and will complete). At least three request using the high p are done in succession immediately before making a request to complete a low p activity.Once compliance is started it will usually continue…remember that praise is needed after each high p activity is completed
80 Escape Daily Schedule (Visual)- Use a small visual schedule on the students deskPocket scheduleThe student can actively participate in checking off completed workVisibly see what is coming nextUse this in conjunction with a break card (set up on schedule when breaks will happen)
82 Escape Layered Grouping A strategy used to provide appropriate instruction for each person in the group. This is a type of differentiated instruction.Start off with a basic group skill, after the initial group period, dismiss students whom upcoming events will not be appropriate (you can use a timer), they work in a smaller group on needed skills, then after the second activity is completed a few more students are dismissed, the last group is held with the most accelerated students that is focused on more challenging materials and then lengthen group time for each group. This is a great way to utilize independent study areas, rotations, etc…
83 Escape Runners We must make the classroom a better set of conditions Where is the kid going?Safety firstStimulus Pairing with a Visual SymbolTeaching a manding procedure for a break
84 Interventions for Beh Maintained by Access to Tangible
85 Access to Tangible “First - Then” Contingency or “If-Then” First-Then Boards are used to assist the student with understanding and completing task before participating in a preferred activityOffering Choices…
87 Tangible Busy Box- Follows the First-Then Contingency Conduct a Preference Assessment (tangible likes)Place tangible rewards in a shoe boxStudent has access to the box after a terminal behavior is observedCan be helpful for students who finish work quickly too
89 Sensory Provide sensory outputs Wiggle Games/ movement activities Taking a ShowerGetting Ready for BedGet Ready Spaghetti/ Melt Like an Ice cream ConeUse Movement activities during transitions too (tip toe to the table, walk like a quiet monkey, etc)Throwing the WigglesSensory BoxScheduling OT/PT after hard work activities
90 Sensory Self-monitoring- Very effective for student with ADHD, Asperger’s, and Impulse control issuesStudent is made aware of the maladaptive behavior they displayThe student is informed of the behaviors that are expectedCoping skills are taught to assist with sensory needsStudent ranks himself on displaying appropriate behaviorTimer used/ motovator (watch/ beeper)/ sound. The system is set to go off on a fixed schedule. When the timer goes off the student grades themselves on behavior at the time the timer went off, every 5th time the timer goes off the teacher is prompted by the student to grade the studentAssists student with self-regulation
91 Sensory Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behaviors (DRI)- This is used to stop maladaptive behaviors from happening due to the inability for the student to participate in the unwanted behavior while completing other tasks(thumb sucking, hand flapping, nail biting, etc)
92 Sensory Maintained Behavior Provide Opportunities for Kinesthetic LearningKinesthetic Learning, also known as Quantum Learning, uses touch and movements to help students learnThink of learning to drive a stick shift; your brain remembers throughyour body’s coordinated movements
93 Sensory-KinestheticActive involvement in dramatic skits, field trips, hands-on projects, and physical activity helps students remember and retain knowledge they may loose if the material was only seen or heard…Think Show!Practice Social Skills (taking Turns) by partnering in a dance, play or exerciseRehearse math or counting facts while marching or skippingLearn vocabulary definitions while encountering flashcards alongside an obstacle courseLearning Left and Right through dance movesScience ExperimentsTeach concepts such as open and close with a door/ box, over and under with an obstacle course
94 Sensory Weighted vest Undershirts Theraband around legs of chairs FidgetsVelcro under deskContingent Break for sensory break
96 Resources2002 Surgeon General’s Report on Antisocial Behavior (http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/youthviolence/)Center on Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning (http://www.csefel/uiuc.edu/what-works.html)Florida PBS Project (http://flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu/index.asp)Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence (http://www.colorado.edu/cspv/)Safe and Responsive Schools Project (http://www.indiana.edu/~safescchl/index.html)Collaborative for Academic, Social and Emotional Learning (http://www.casel.org/home/index.php)
97 Behavior Services of the Mid-South LLC Dr. Susan ElswickCEO/ President(901)
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