Presentation on theme: "3. Suprasegmentals Suprasegmental features are those aspects of speech that involve more than single sound segments. The principal suprasegmentals are:"— Presentation transcript:
13. SuprasegmentalsSuprasegmental features are those aspects of speech that involve more than single sound segments.The principal suprasegmentals are:
23.1 The syllable structure σOnset RimeNucleus Codak r æ k t
6Sonority scaleIt is interesting to find that in English consonant clusters in onset and coda positions disallow many consonant combinations.For example, we can have help, lump, pray, and quick, but not *hepl, *lupm, *rpay, or *wqick.It is found that a sonority scale is at work. The degree of sonority of different classes of sound affects their possible positions in the syllable:
9In a word such as cracked, the sonority of each sound gradually rises to a peak at the nucleus and then falls at the coda:5 *4 *3*1 * *k r æ k t
10This explains why *rkatk is not allowed: 5 *4 *3*1 * *r k æ t k
11Problems with the sonority scale Consider the case of silk and sickle. They consist of the same sounds, but are arranged in a different order. Whereas silk follows the correct sequence of the sonority scale, sickle does not.The traditional practice is to take sickle as a disyllabic word so that [kl] forms a syllable of its own, with [l] being considered to be syllabic.
12Two views have been found to explain this. The case with [s] in the onset position also behaves unusually, in that it can combine with almost any onset to form a cluster of up to three consonants, e.g. [spl-], [spr-], [str-], [skw-].Two views have been found to explain this.One is to take [s] as a separate syllable, i.e. to treat words like stock as disyllabic, but this is however against most native speakers’ intuition.Another view is to take such a segment as an “appendix”.
13PhonotacticsThe rules that describe possible sequences of sounds for forming English words.Language can differ in their phonotactic rules, so that mbotto might be a possible word of Swahili, or psore a possible word of Greek, but they are not possible words in English.
14Phonotactic rule 1:Sequences of repeated consonants are not possible./sssitttt/As the snake slid swiftly past him, Harry could have sworn a low, hissing voice said, ‘Brazil, here I come…Thanksss, amigo.’
15Phonotactic rule 2:The glottal fricative /h/ never occurs in the coda of a syllable.This rules out the possibility of beh.
16To rule out flezk and zipb Other coda rules:If the second consonant in a complex coda is voiced, the first consonant in the coda must also be voiced.When a non-alveolar nasal is in a coda together with a non-alveolar obstruent, they must have the same place of articulation, and the obstruent must be a voiceless stop.Two obstruents in a coda together must have the same voicing.
17To rule out psore and mbotto Basic onset rules:/ŋ/ is not a possible onset.Complex onsets may not contain affricates or /h/.Two-consonant complex onsets may contain either:A. first consonant: any obstruent other than /s/; second consonant: liquid or glide (l,r,j,w).B. first consonant: /s/; second consonant: nasal, liquid, glide or voiceless obstruent (except //).