Presentation on theme: "IEPs and Behavior Intervention Plans for Students with EBD"— Presentation transcript:
1 IEPs and Behavior Intervention Plans for Students with EBD Jim ShrinerIllinois Council for Children with Behavioral DisordersFebruary 2011Lisle, ILPreparation of this presentation was supported, in part, by a grant (R324J060002) from the U. S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center on Special Education Research, and from the Illinois Stat Board of Education (Part B- Discretionary Programs) awarded to the author. Opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of the U. S. Department of Education or Offices within it.1
2 IEP-Q FocusSupport provided by the Tutorial will result in the development of higher quality IEPs that:• Help prioritize annual goals in relation to state standards and the general education curriculum.• Are used routinely in planning and implementing instruction on general curricular skills.As a result, IEP goals will be reviewed and met with a higher frequency and there will be an increase in students’ standards-based achievement.2
3 Help Topics Site Features Help Topics offer guidance, examples and answers to frequently asked questions for nearly every area of the Illinois IEP.Links to IEP planning worksheets, examples, student scenarios and relevant tools on the site provide complete assistance gathered from an experienced group of IEP experts.https://iepq.education.illinois.edu3
6 Site FeaturesToolboxOur IEP Tools feature Goal Assistants to help instructors write Academic, Functional and Transition goals that are referenced to Illinois Learning and Social/Emotional Standards.Other tools include reference charts, worksheets for teachers, parents and students, and links to other tools on the Web.6
13 Where in the IEP? Present levels Special factors Annual goals Program summaryAttached page“Anywhere and everywhere…” Present level of performance- Baseline or start point- Description of context of behavior- Possible function of behavior Special factors Annual goals/short term objectives or benchmarks- Conditions- Replacement behavior- Skill development Program summary- Special education- Related services- Supplementary aids and services- Program modifications and supports for school personnelSeparate attached pageOne way to translate Evaluation data into IEP Components:1. Definition of the replacement or desired behavior BECOMES THE ANNUAL GOAL2. Identify the current level of functioning for that replacement behavior, including the undesirable behavior (and settings, etc.) BECOMES THE PRESENT LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE3. Identify intervention strategies BECOMES LESSON PLANS, CRISIS PLAN, DETAILS IN A BIP, CONDITIONS IN GOALS/OBJECTIVES/BENCHMARKS4. List the schedule and ways of collecting data BECOMES THE PLAN FOR EVALUATING PROGRESS TOWARD ANNUAL GOALS
14 Functional Behavioral Assessment Site FeaturesFunctional Behavioral AssessmentParticipants / Student StrengthsOperational Definition of Target BehaviorSetting / Antecedents / ConsequencesHypothesis of Behavioral Function14
15 Base the BIP on a Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) Define target behaviorDevelop a hypothesis as to the function of the behaviorCollect data (direct and indirectly)Validate the function and key context variablesTriangulate dataData analysisDevelop the BIP[Note: This is not a presentation on Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA). A study guide on FBA is available on the DPI website (www.dpi.state.wi.us/dpi/dlsea/een/hmtopics.html) and then click on “functional behavioral assessment”. There is only 1 slide on FBA just as a quick review, and because a BIP should be based on an FBA.]The purpose of FBA is to determine the need that is being met by the student’s behavior. Based on this information, a plan can then be developed which addresses that need in a more appropriate/acceptable manner.Direct data collection means observing the student in question in typical daily activities and routines.. Indirect methods include record reviews, examination of permanent products (work samples, test papers, etc.), and interviews with others who know and work with the student, as well as the student himself/herself.Triangulating data means having multiple (at least 3) sources or confirmations of information (example: an interview that is confirmed by direct observation and a second interview).Data analysis -- this means taking the data you have and analyzing it to determine if you have validating the hypothesized function of the behavior.____________________In developing behavior support plans, it is important to remember the following:Support our behavior – family, teachers, staff. May involve changes in setting, schedules, curriculum, teaching methods, rewards and punishers, etc.Build on FBA resultsBe technically sound – based on foundation principles of reinforcement, generalization; make the behavior irrelevant, inefficient, ineffective.Fit the setting where the BIP will be implemented – consider the values, resources, and skills of the people who will be implementing; does the plan fit the natural routines? Is it efficient? Is it reinforcing rather than punishing? Does it fit the skills of those involved? Are the people involved willing to perform the procedures?Source: FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT AND PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT FOR PROBLEM BEHAVIOR: 2d edition. O’Neill, Horner, Albin, Sprague, Storey, Newton, Brooks/Cole Publishing Co., Pacific Grove, CA
16 Behavioral Intent Students act for a purpose Behavioral intent = purpose sought by the studentMost children seek similar goals in social situationsBehavior used by students with behavior problems is not accepted or desired by othersBehavioral intent:Behavior problems are indicators of the student’s social goal or intent at any given time. When students act, they act for a purpose.Behavioral intent = purpose sought by the student. We infer this from looking at a student’s overt behaviors in various situations.Most children seek similar goals in social situations. Behavioral intents of most students with behavior problems are the same as those of socially competent students, but…The difference is that the problem behavior is not accepted or desired by others. The behavior may still work for the student, however – the student has discovered that they work for him/her.The problem is not the purpose or intent – it’s how the student behaves to achieve that purpose.Source:“Instructionally Differentiated Programming: A Needs-Based Approached for Students with Behavior Disorders” by K. Kay Cessna and others. Chapter CO State Dept. of Education, Special Education Services Unit, Denver.
17 Behavior Intervention Plans... Support desired alternatives that allow student to meet their needsMake the current undesired behavior less effective in meeting the student’s needBased on the function of the student’s behavior (the need being met), an effective BIP should address more appropriate or desirable alternatives that still allow the student to meet his/her needs. If there is also an inappropriate or undesired behavior being exhibited, consider how to make that less effective in meeting the student’s needs.Questions to consider: What new skills must be taught? What supports need to be in place in order for the student to function more appropriately and independently? Consider setting event strategies, immediate antecedent strategies, teaching strategies, and consequence strategies. How can we make the problem behaviors irrelevant, inefficient, and ineffective? Is the BIP feasible – does it fit natural routines? Are the goals consistent with the values of the individuals involved? Is it efficient in terms of time and resources? Do the individuals who must carry out the plan have the skills to do so? Will the plan produce some positive short-term results so that success is seen as a result of everyone’s efforts?Keep in mind that the BIP may need to have 2 “pieces” – 1 for the desired behavior and 1 for the undesired behavior.And be sure to emphasize positives!
20 Goals for Target vs. Replacement Behaviors We must affect the efficiency of target and replacement behaviors:Replacement behavior:Target behavior:irrelevantineffectiveinefficientrelevanteffectiveefficient
21 Focus on PositivesPositive behavioral interventions, strategies and supportsLong-term behavior change only comes from positivesNeed to balance the equationIDEA ’97 requires the use of positive behavioral interventions, strategies and supports if the student’s behavior interferes with his/her learning or that of others.Negative consequences do not produce long term behavior change – support and positive reinforcement for desired behavior helps the student develop intrinsic motivation and results in long-term change. Negatives may change behavior but do not change attitudes – the goal is for the student to internalize the value of the behavior and that is accomplished by using positives.There is too much emphasis on negative consequences, punishment and control – we need to balance that with positives: positive consequences, teaching replacement behaviors, support to practice and generalize appropriate behaviors, etc. In some cases, only positives are necessary and we can eliminate the negatives completely.Too often positive interventions do not produce immediate results, and so we fall back on the negatives. We need to be sure to keep the balance or to focus more strongly on positives.Rewards vs. bribes: rewards are something given in return for good acts; bribes are given or promised to induce a person to do something illegal or wrong.“The curriculum emphasis is often on behavioral management first…Yet often, these seem largely designed to help maintain silence in the classroom, not to teach children how better to manage their anger, sadness, or impulses.”--The Curriculum of Control” by Polly Nichols, BEYOND BEHAVIOR, Winter 1992.
23 2 Components of a BIP Teaching plan Crisis plan The problem with many BIPs is that they only include a crisis (or discipline) plan, and there is no attempt to manipulate the environment, teach replacement behaviors, instruct the student in basic skill development, etc. – in other words, the positive components are missing. We need to balance the equation.
24 Teaching Plan Definitions Prevention Intervention Skill building Definitions: clearly define the target behavior, replacement behavior, the specifics of consequences (what do I do, how, and when?). See slide 28 for further discussion of definitions.Also, who will be responsible for what? While this does not have to be included in the IEP, it is a good time to discuss who will be responsible for which components so that nothing falls between the cracks.Prevention, intervention and skill building are discussed on the next 3 slides.
25 Teaching Model short term objective short term objective ProblemBehaviorSettingEventTrigger(antecedent)Naturally Maintaining ConsequenceLTOReplacement Behaviorshort term objectivemeet desired criteriaArtificial Reinforcers (teacher controlled)short term objectivemeet desired criteriashort term objectivemeet desired criteria
27 Evaluating the BIP Systematic review Data collection Communication Criteria for success (long and short term)When evaluating the plan, ask:Has the plan been implemented?If implemented, is there intervention integrity and treatment fidelity? In other words, was the plan appropriately implemented? Was there consistency across settings and people? Was the reinforcement schedule followed? Was the plan given a fair shot?Were there unforeseen complications (illness of student, student started or stopped taking medications, family emergencies, long term absence by teacher or other key individuals)?How will we systematically review the BIP? Who is going to collect what data? How will that be shared, communicated? How will decisions (about whether to meet again, change the BIP, etc.) be made?Is the plan having a positive impact on the problem behavior of the student? Is the plan having a positive impact on the behavior of teachers, family members, and others that interact with the student?What are the criteria for success – when you will be able to say the plan has been effective? Think both long and short term success.
30 Resource Library Site Features The Resource Library brings together important sources of information on IEP development, including books, journal articles, web sites, and behavior data collection forms.30
36 The IEP Quality Indicator Scale: IQUIS Mitchell L. Yell, Ph.D.Erik Drasgow, Ph.D.Insoo Oh, Ph.D.XiaoFeng (Steven) Liu, Ph.D.The IQUIS is an evaluation instrument used to assess the procedural and substantive quality of individualized education programs (IEPs)36
37 IQUIS Substantive Requirements The IEP Quality Indicator Scale - IQUISIQUIS Substantive RequirementsSubstantive requirements: Substantive components of the IEP refer to the quality or meaningfulness of the IEPExample: If a goal is observable, measurable, and appropriate given a students (PLAAFP) statement that it meets the IQUIS definition of substantiveWe have found no IEP assessment instruments that examine the substantive quality of an IEP37
42 Agreement Highlights IQUIS & IQUIS-B Agreement The IQUIS yields good overall agreement levels.Some sections (e.g. Behavior) need refinement to raise agreement levels.Procedural and Substantive items, when grouped on IQUIS, meet acceptable agreement levels.Supplemental Form B (Annual Goals/Short-term Objectives) contains substantive items only, and results in high agreement levels.IQUIS & IQUIS-B Agreement42
43 Academic Year 2008-2009 Focus on Academic Improvement 25% of students (n=37) had both Academic and Functional Goals (excluding Speech)20 students had Behavior Intervention PlansStudy Highlights: Year 243
44 Preliminary Highlights: Year 2 Table A4IEP quality comparison before/after Tutorial using the IEP Quality Indicator Scale (IQUIS) for both the High and Low Usage Groups.* Before Tutorial/After Tutorial Percentage Change for Subscale Items (p< .05).** Before Tutorial/After Tutorial Percentage Change for Subscale Items (p< .01).44
45 Comparison Highlights: IQUIS The percentage of items rated as adequate improved for PROCEDURAL items from pre-Tutorial use (92%) to post-Tutorial use (95%).The percentage of items rated as adequate improved for SUBSTANTIVE items from pre-Tutorial use (42%) to post-Tutorial use (54%)The use of an “all or nothing” scoring protocol limited the sensitivity of the IQUIS to capture the relative strength of pre-post changes within and across IEPs. However, goals and objectives did maintain an upward trend.Preliminary Highlights: Year 245
46 Initial Student Outcomes Data: Year 1 (Pilot Test)Figure 1: Mean score comparison of MAP Reading Assessment :Low Usage and High Usage Groups.46
47 Status and Next StepsStatus and Next StepsEfforts to expand the Tutorial content to include areas of access skills and social/emotional learning(e.g., study/organizational skills, social/behavioral skills, self-regulatory skills, and self-advocacy skills).Increased involvement/input of Related Services personnel (e.g., psychologist, school social worker)Excluding Speech, Social/behavioral goals account for about 50% of all related services entries (Illinois State Board of Education, 2008)47
48 At this time, ISBE requires that a District Superintendent or Now Available to Illinois EducatorsPublic Version Website:https://iepq.education.illinois.eduAt this time, ISBE requires that aDistrict Superintendent orDirector of Special Educationrequest access for his/her teachers.48