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The First Years of the War

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Presentation on theme: "The First Years of the War"— Presentation transcript:

1 The First Years of the War 1861-1863

2 Take Five… Ft. Sumter is MOST significant for being   A) the location of the end of the Civil War.   B) destroyed by the Union when taking Port Royal.   C) the target of General Sherman's March to the Sea.   D) where the first shots of the Civil War were fired.

3 The Art and Science of War
Antoine-Henri Jomini Art of War West Point Position, Maneuver & Concentration High ground Occupying major cities Retreat

4 The Armies Cavalry Artillery Infantry Corps of Engineers
The Quartermaster Corps

5 The typical battle Advancing through grapeshot Hand to hand combat
Smoke and confusion

6 The soldiers Billy Yank and Johnny Reb Conscription Exemptions
Substitutions Riots Draft dodgers Desertion Bounties

7 Men Present for Duty in the Civil War

8 Ohio Military Service

9 Soldiers’ Occupations: North/South Combined

10 Johnny Reb & Billy Yank

11 Immigrants as a % of a State’s Population in 1860

12 Buy Your Way Out of Military Service

13 Camp Life

14 Army life Drudgery Poor food and shelter Logistical problems
Profiteers Disease and lack of medical treatment

15 Reasons for Southern Exemptions
Haitian slave revolt (1791) Denmark Vesey (Freedmen’s revolt (1822-Charleston, SC) Nat Turner (1831-Southampton, VA) Propaganda Uncle Tom’s Cabin William Lloyd Garrison’s The Liberator David Walker’s The Appeal

16 The first campaigns 1861 A short and painless war Lincoln’s plan
Bull Run or Battle of Manassas General McDowell v General Beauregard The “rebel yell” “Stonewall” Jackson and Joe Johnston Southern victory

17 Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas) July, 1861

18 “Stonewall Jackson” "If anyone says he heard the rebel yell and wasn't scared, then ,he never heard it." A Northern soldiers comments on the rebel yell given when confederates charged their positions.

19 Preparation Overconfidence in the south Regrouping-Army of the Potomac
General McClellan

20 General George McClellan

21 Differing strategies Northern strategy Winfield Scott’s Anaconda Plan
Defend Washington & Pressure on Richmond Gain control of the Mississippi Valley Blockade the south

22 The “Anaconda” Plan

23 George McClellan, Again!
Lincoln’s Generals Winfield Scott Joseph Hooker Ulysses S. Grant Irwin McDowell George McClellan George Meade Ambrose Burnside George McClellan, Again!

24 Ulysses S. Grant

25 Southern strategy Foreign allies Great Britain France Napoleon III
Stop Union advances Foreign allies Great Britain France Napoleon III King Cotton dethroned “Cotton diplomacy” The Trent affair James Mason & John Slidell Charles Francis Adams

26 The War in 1862 “Copperheads” Suspension of the right of habeas corpus
Suppression of anti-administration newspapers The exile of Clement Vallandisham Defeatism Southern victories General Jackson & General Robert E. Lee

27 The Confederate Generals Nathan Bedford Forrest
“Stonewall” Jackson Nathan Bedford Forrest George Pickett Jeb Stuart James Longstreet Robert E. Lee

28 General Robert E. Lee

29 Western campaign-A shift in the war
General Halleck & General Ulysses S. Grant Battle of Shiloh Church General Albert Sydney Johnston General Buell The War at Sea Threatening the blockade The Merrimack (The Virginia) The Monitor

30 The Monitor vs. the Merrimac
The Battle of the Ironclads, March, 1862 The Monitor vs. the Merrimac

31 Damage on the Deck of the Monitor

32 Munitions Confederates Union-Army of the Potomac General McClellan
Springfield repeating rifle Political differences

33 McClellan: I Can Do It All!

34 The Peninsula Campaign
McClellan attempts to take Richmond Lee bluffs 2nd Battle of Manassas Davis encourages Northern victories Battle of Antietam Lee’s army escapes to Virginia

35 War in the East:

36 Calvary…Jeb Stuart, Nathan Bedford Forrest etc…

37 Lincoln Visits Antietam

38 Battle of Antietam “Bloodiest Single Day of the War”
September 17, 1862 23,000 casualties

39 Emancipation Emancipation Proclamation January 1, 1863
Enlisting in the army British neutrality

40 Emancipation in 1863

41 The Emancipation Proclamation

42 The Southern View of Emancipation

43 Radical Republican support

44 54th Massachusetts Col Robert Gould Shaw
Recruited by white abolitionists “death sentence” by the Confederacy James Island, SC Fort Wagner, Charleston, SC Fort Pillow

45 African-American Recruiting Poster

46 The Famous 54th Massachusetts

47 August Saint-Gaudens Memorial to Col. Robert Gould Shaw

48 African-Americans in Civil War Battles

49 Black Troops Freeing Slaves

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