5 TodayWe are going to learn about another one of Freud’s ideas about personality: Defense Mechanisms
6 Defense MechanismsAre the methods the ego uses to avoid facing emotions or ideas that cause pain or stress. (Goal 4 of Psychology!)Defense Mechanisms, like the id, ego and superego operates beneath our conscious.
7 What are they? Repression Rationalization Displacement Regression ProjectionReaction FormationDenialSublimation
8 1. Repression Pushes painful or stressful ideas into the subconscious. Like a tea-kettle holds in steam, people hold in their urges.
9 Problem with repression When steam builds up, the tea-kettle pops it’s lid.
10 When people let their emotions and urges build up inside of them they eventually explode through outbursts of anger and maybe developing other psychological and emotional problems.
11 2. RationalizationDistorts unacceptable ideas and behaviors to justify them. Makes excuses to try to make it seem like unacceptable behavior is ok.
12 Example of Rationalization A student who cheats on a test may say:“I only cheated on a few questions, I knew most of the answers!”
13 3. DisplacementTo transfer an impulse or idea from a threatening object to a LESS threatening object. Example: If you are yelled at by your boss you can’t yell back you’ll get fired!So, you go home and yell at your loved ones!
14 So, you go home and yell at your loved ones! Works for dad!
15 4. RegressionWhen someone is under a lot of stress, they return to behavior from an earlier stage of development.
16 Example of RegressionSomeone who gets divorced may become clingy to parents again like they were as a child.
17 5. ProjectionPeople deal with unacceptable impulses by acting as if OTHER people have them.They see their own faults in other people.
18 6. Reaction Formation People act the opposite of how they really feel.
19 Example of Reaction Formation Acting like you hate someone you really have a crush on.
20 7. DenialA person refuses to accept the reality of anything that is bad.
21 Example of DenialPeople think that they won’t get sick and die from smoking because they are in denial.
22 8. SublimationWhen people channel impulses into socially acceptable behavior.Example: Someone who is aggressive…
23 Can channel their aggression into playing sports
24 Effects of Defense Mechanisms Using defense mechanisms can be normal to protect people from painful feelings. BUT…..
25 Defense Mechanisms can be unhealthy… If the lead people to ignore the issues that cause feelings of pain.According to Freud, If you have a healthy ego, you should be able to balance the ID and Superego without using defense mechanisms
26 Final thoughts about Freud Today concepts like the ID and Oedipus Complex are considered unscientific but Freud’s work was very important to Psychology.
27 Why?1. Freud helped to develop compassion for those with Psychological disorders.In the past, people were just dismissed as being “crazy” but after Freud’s research more people realized that psychological problems weren’t just weaknesses.
28 2. Introduced idea that childhood influences adulthood Importance of recognizing emotional needs of children.This inspired others to continue the research Freud started.
29 Homework: Do Defense Mechanisms Packet Make picture notecards of the following terms:RepressionRationalizationDisplacementRegressionProjectionReaction FormationDenialSublimation