Presentation on theme: "Principles of Ecology Define Ecology It is the study of the interactions of organisms with one another and their surroundings. Ecology is Greek for oikos."— Presentation transcript:
Principles of Ecology Define Ecology It is the study of the interactions of organisms with one another and their surroundings. Ecology is Greek for oikos which means house or household. Biosphere is the part of the earth in which life occurs.
What is a population? # of a specific species in a given area. What is a community? All the populations in a given area. Ecosystem – consists of biotic and abiotic factors that surrounds organisms and affects their way of life. Organism Population Communities Ecosystems Biosphere (pg. 59)
Ecosystem What are some examples of abiotic factors? Precipitation, sunlight, weather, temp., ect. What are some examples of biotic factors? Animals, plants, fungus, algae, bacteria
What is a habitat? A physical area in which an organism lives. If you destroy or change the habitat an organism lives in, then you affect the organism itself. Niche – the way of life of a species Ex. A bird’s beak for cracking seeds or tearing meat are niches for birds.
Producers & Consumers What are producers? Organisms able to make their own food. These are autotrophs (plants) What is a consumer? Organisms that get their energy either directly or indirectly from producers.
3 types of consumers 1. Primary consumer Herbivores 2. Secondary consumer Carnivores 3. Tertiary consumers Top Carnivores (feed on secondary consumers) Omnivores eat consumers & producers. Scavengers feed on dead organisms.
Decomposers obtain their energy from non-living organic matter. Trophic levels are feeding levels that each organism is categorized into. 1 st trophic level producer 2 nd trophic level herbivore 3 rd trophic level consumer
Food Chain What is a food chain A specific sequence in which organisms obtain energy in an ecosystem. Usually only 4 to 5 levels The 1 st level has the most energy and energy is lost as it keeps moving up energy levels. Make your own food chain
Food Web What is a food web? It is an interrelated sequence of food chains. More than 1 species can feed off of a specific species. This occurs more frequently Make your own food web.
3 types of Ecological Pyramids An ecological pyramid is used to represent the energy relationships among trophic levels. 1. Energy Pyramid Shows the total amount of incoming energy at each trophic level. 2. Biomass Pyramid Shows the total mass of living tissue at each level.
3. Numbers Pyramid Illustrates the total number of organisms at each trophic level. 3 Biogeochemical Cycles 1. Water cycle 2. Nitrogen cycle 3. Carbon cycle
Ch. 4 - Ecological Succession This is where an existing community is gradually replaced by another community. 2 types of successions 1. Primary – an area that has never supported life before. Ex. Volcanic island, retreating glaciers 2. Secondary – an area that has supported previous life. Ex. Abandoned farmland
Climax community – is a relatively stable collection of plants and animals. A balance in nature Ecological successions will usually lead to a climax community. Ex. An abandoned plowed field will eventually grow back to prairie grassland, which is what the field was originally.
2 Main Types of Biomes 1. Terrestrial Biomes – Land 2. Aquatic Biomes – Water What is a Biome? It is an environment that has a characteristic climax community.
Terrestrial Biomes 1. Polar Biome – ice Surround North and South poles. Mainly penguins Coldest biome; little if any precipitation 2. Tundra Nearly treeless area that is covered by mosses, lichens, and grasses Permafrost soil – a layer of permanently frozen subsoil
Undergoes a freezing and thawing cycle. This stunts any plant growth. Caribou, reindeer, wolves, polar bears, ducks, geese. 3. Taiga (Coniferous forest) Dominated by conifers(pines, firs, spruce) Occurs in many of the higher elevations of many mountain ranges in the U.S.
Cold winters, but mild enough winters to allow many plants and animals to reproduce. Moose, elk, bears, mountain goats, ect. 4. Deciduous Forest Along the eastern coast of the U.S. and southern coast of Canada. Known for its changing seasons (autumn)
Humus soil layer has an abundance of organic nutrients from decaying leaves. Very fertile soil. Mountain lions, chipmunks, squirrels, raccoons, opossums, foxes, deer 5. Grassland (4 main types) 1. Plains & Prairies – North America 2. Steppes – Soviet Union 3. Veldt – South America 4. Pampas - Argentina
Characteristics of the Prairie Hot summers and cold winters Heavily farmed A variety of grasses and leafy plants Grazing mammals – gopher, deer, mice, rats, rabbits, turtles, buffalo, skunks 6. Desert Little rainfall – less than 10 inches/year
Usually hot and dry Little vegetation Lizards, scorpions, snakes 7. Rain Forest (Tropical and Temperate) Lots of rainfall – 75 to 150 inches/year Warm and humid Most diverse biome with various plants & animals. Many organisms unnamed.
Temperate rainforests occur from central California to southern Alaska. Redwood forest and spruces. Rains a lot in Washington and Oregon.
Aquatic Biomes (3 types) 1. Marine Ocean water habitats 2 main zones 1. Photic zone – where light penetrates (about 200m deep) 2. Aphotic zone – where light doesn’t penetrate (more than 200m deep)
Most organisms in the marine biome live in the intertidal zone. The intertidal zone grows and shrinks as the tides move in and out with high & low tides. 2. Freshwater Biome Rivers, streams, lakes Use for drinking for organisms and life for organisms.
2 types of lakes and ponds 1. Eutrophic lakes Rich in organic matter & vegetation. 2. Oligotrophic lakes Little organic matter. Clear water 3. Estuaries It is a mixture of freshwater and salt water.
Where would estuaries be found? Great for fish, shrimp, and crabs. As young mature they journey out into the open sea and then return to the estuaries to lay their young.