Presentation on theme: "Principles of Ecology Define Ecology"— Presentation transcript:
1Principles of Ecology Define Ecology It is the study of the interactions of organisms with one another and their surroundings.Ecology is Greek for oikos which means house or household.Biosphere is the part of the earth in which life occurs.
2What is a population?# of a specific species in a given area.What is a community?All the populations in a given area.Ecosystem – consists of biotic and abiotic factors that surrounds organisms and affects their way of life.Organism Population Communities Ecosystems Biosphere (pg. 59)
3EcosystemWhat are some examples of abiotic factors?Precipitation, sunlight, weather, temp., ect.What are some examples of biotic factors?Animals, plants, fungus, algae, bacteria
4What is a habitat?A physical area in which an organism lives.If you destroy or change the habitat an organism lives in, then you affect the organism itself.Niche – the way of life of a speciesEx. A bird’s beak for cracking seeds or tearing meat are niches for birds.
5Producers & Consumers What are producers? Organisms able to make their own food.These are autotrophs (plants)What is a consumer?Organisms that get their energy either directly or indirectly from producers.
63 types of consumers 1. Primary consumer Herbivores 2. Secondary consumer Carnivores3. Tertiary consumers Top Carnivores (feed on secondary consumers)Omnivores eat consumers & producers.Scavengers feed on dead organisms.
7Decomposers obtain their energy from non-living organic matter. Trophic levels are feeding levels that each organism is categorized into.1st trophic level producer2nd trophic level herbivore3rd trophic level consumer
8Food Chain What is a food chain A specific sequence in which organisms obtain energy in an ecosystem.Usually only 4 to 5 levelsThe 1st level has the most energy and energy is lost as it keeps moving up energy levels.Make your own food chain
9Food WebWhat is a food web?It is an interrelated sequence of food chains.More than 1 species can feed off of a specific species.This occurs more frequentlyMake your own food web.
103 types of Ecological Pyramids An ecological pyramid is used to represent the energy relationships among trophic levels.1. Energy PyramidShows the total amount of incoming energy at each trophic level.2. Biomass PyramidShows the total mass of living tissue at each level.
113. Numbers PyramidIllustrates the total number of organisms at each trophic level.3 Biogeochemical Cycles1. Water cycle2. Nitrogen cycle3. Carbon cycle
12Ch. 4 - Ecological Succession This is where an existing community is gradually replaced by another community.2 types of successions1. Primary – an area that has never supported life before.Ex. Volcanic island, retreating glaciers2. Secondary – an area that has supported previous life. Ex. Abandoned farmland
13Climax community – is a relatively stable collection of plants and animals. A balance in natureEcological successions will usually lead to a climax community.Ex. An abandoned plowed field will eventually grow back to prairie grassland, which is what the field was originally.
142 Main Types of Biomes1. Terrestrial Biomes – Land2. Aquatic Biomes – WaterWhat is a Biome?It is an environment that has a characteristic climax community.
15Terrestrial Biomes 1. Polar Biome – ice Surround North and South poles.Mainly penguinsColdest biome; little if any precipitation2. TundraNearly treeless area that is covered by mosses, lichens, and grassesPermafrost soil – a layer of permanently frozen subsoil
16Undergoes a freezing and thawing cycle. This stunts any plant growth. Caribou, reindeer, wolves, polar bears, ducks, geese.3. Taiga (Coniferous forest)Dominated by conifers(pines, firs, spruce)Occurs in many of the higher elevations of many mountain ranges in the U.S.
17Cold winters, but mild enough winters to allow many plants and animals to reproduce. Moose, elk, bears, mountain goats, ect.4. Deciduous ForestAlong the eastern coast of the U.S. and southern coast of Canada.Known for its changing seasons (autumn)
18Humus soil layer has an abundance of organic nutrients from decaying leaves. Very fertile soil. Mountain lions, chipmunks, squirrels, raccoons, opossums, foxes, deer5. Grassland (4 main types)1. Plains & Prairies – North America2. Steppes – Soviet Union3. Veldt – South America4. Pampas - Argentina
19Characteristics of the Prairie Hot summers and cold wintersHeavily farmedA variety of grasses and leafy plantsGrazing mammals – gopher, deer, mice, rats, rabbits, turtles, buffalo, skunks6. DesertLittle rainfall – less than 10 inches/year
20Usually hot and dryLittle vegetationLizards, scorpions, snakes7. Rain Forest (Tropical and Temperate)Lots of rainfall – 75 to 150 inches/yearWarm and humidMost diverse biome with various plants & animals. Many organisms unnamed.
21Temperate rainforests occur from central California to southern Alaska. Redwood forest and spruces.Rains a lot in Washington and Oregon.
22Aquatic Biomes (3 types) 1. MarineOcean water habitats2 main zones1. Photic zone – where light penetrates (about 200m deep)2. Aphotic zone – where light doesn’t penetrate (more than 200m deep)
23Most organisms in the marine biome live in the intertidal zone Most organisms in the marine biome live in the intertidal zone. The intertidal zone grows and shrinks as the tides move in and out with high & low tides.2. Freshwater BiomeRivers, streams, lakesUse for drinking for organisms and life for organisms.
242 types of lakes and ponds 1. Eutrophic lakesRich in organic matter & vegetation.2. Oligotrophic lakesLittle organic matter. Clear water3. EstuariesIt is a mixture of freshwater and salt water.
25Where would estuaries be found? Great for fish, shrimp, and crabs.As young mature they journey out into the open sea and then return to the estuaries to lay their young.