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1 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta PROCESS Reading Assignment Supplementary module 5 PROCESSES, EVENTS & TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIPS.

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Presentation on theme: "1 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta PROCESS Reading Assignment Supplementary module 5 PROCESSES, EVENTS & TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIPS."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta PROCESS Reading Assignment Supplementary module 5 PROCESSES, EVENTS & TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIPS

3 2 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta DISCRETE CHANGE ENTITY V1 V2 V3 V4 Instance Present Past V1 V2 V3 V4 Instance V1 V2 V3 V4 Instance Time ATTRIBUTE VALUES & RELATIONSHIPS CHANGE IN RESPONSE TO DISCRETE EVENTS CONSTRAINTS ON ENTITIES CHANGE IN RESPONSE TO DISCRETE EVENTS RELATIONSHIPS INVOLVE A FINITE SET OF ENTITY INSTANCES IN FINITE AND DISCRETE POINTS IN TIME

4 3 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIPS The sweep of time makes temporal relationships special –Time is a (dense) ordinal domain –Time cannot be reversed –The ordinality of a temporal relationship increases the information content of its non-temporal parent(s) “The moving finger, having writ, moves on” –States of past time slices are frozen –Temporal relationships recognize the irreversibility and direction of time CARDINALITY CONSTRAINTS ON TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIPS

5 4 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta Past CARDINALITY CONSTRAINTS ON TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIP Examples of constituent Object Classes possible combinations for which constraints may be defined in a three-way relationship m..n possible combinations of time slices for which constraints may be defined over three state changes customerproduct retailer Examples of Components of a tuple Time Slices Examples of temporal combinations (which might be constrained) HIGH ORDER TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIP Present Flow of time Sold to..buys thru.. Temporal Matrix

6 5 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIPS A relationship infused with time is a process –Because it conveys before and after information: Resources come before products –This is the basis of causality: The meaning of cause and effect is created thus Processes inherit the properties of relationships –And create their polymorphisms Just as objects and relationships created polymorphisms of the basic semantics of Pattern in step with added information In this section we will discuss these properties of processes RELATIONSHIP EVENT precede [succeed] PROCESS Subtype of Product Produce 1 or more Subtype of use 1 or more [used by 0 or more] [produced by 0 or more] Resource Object

7 6 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta A. B. RESOURCE BAKE COOKIE REQUEST FRESH COOKIES EXTERNAL EVENT Cookie WORK PRODUCT Dough Consumed by produce trigger PROCESS Event ProductResource Used by 0 or more (an event) [use 1 or more] Produce 1 or more [produced by 0 or more Trigger 0 or more triggered by 1 or more Resource Expiry time for process RESOURCE LIFE Beginning of Resource life for process Used within 0 or more valid [Valid for 1 or more use] Subset of PROCESS Resources may be consumed or referenced by a process –Referenced resources are catalysts or facilitators –Consumption is equivalent to reducing the capacity of the resource to engage with the process Consumption is a temporal polymorphism of capacity Capacity to engage is context sensitive –May apply to all or some processes. Capacity to engage, that depends on the process engaging the resource, is a polymorphism of generic capacity to engage Resource life may be conceived as consumption of a resource by an idempotent process –Eg: drugs expire, limited time offers, perishable items, agreements with term limits Events may also be resources –A trigger for a process is a role of event. The triggering event is a resource.

8 7 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta ENQUIRY/OBSERVATION The enquiry is a process –Synonym for observation –The work product of observation is information: The state of an object The state of the object instance will change from “unobserved” to “observed” States of the instance observed may also change from “Unknown” to a known state with specific values for observed properties –The observation may even change the states of known properties Eg: Management attention might reduce defect rates, even if the management makes no changes to the observed process

9 8 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta PROPERTIES OF PROCESSES: Cycle time Cycle Time: The time lapse between the two ends of a temporal relationship Must all processes begin and end? – Processes may be sagas Patterns of infinite extent in one or both directions in time Eg: the process of routinely loading and dispatching trucks from a factory, radioactive decay –Start and finish may be “Unknown” values Event of known, finite duration Subtype of Add: End time or duration (polymorphism of cycle time) State (Ended) Start time State (scheduled, started, In progress, Suspended Cancelled) EVENT Saga (Event with no known end; could be infinite) Subtype of (Add product) Endless Saga (Event with no end) Subtype of (Add infinite open upper bound) Indeterminate Saga (Event with an indeterminate but finite end) Subtype of (Finite but boundless process) Subtype of Add: Cycle time Moment (Event of negligible duration) Subtype of Could also be aggregations or compositions No: (re) Universal States of Processes Not Occurred Occurred Started Stopped Finished Suspended In Progress Do Not Start Do Not restart Inclusion Polymorphism Events too have history A few surprises Interrupt Cancel

10 9 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta PROPERTIES OF PROCESSES: Inverse Temporal inverses, reversibility and reversion: –Temporal polymorphism of the inverse of a relationship –The flow of time adds a new dimension to the inverse – the concept of reversibility of a process –Eg: we cannot unbake a cookie to produce the dough it was baked from The process is irreversible –We can freeze the water we melted `The melting process for water is reversible Although the inverse reverses a relationship, it still has to go forward in time and cannot erase the history of the objects it relates. –Reversion may not be absolute, accurate, reliable, complete or valid –Extent to which the reversion recovers consumed resources may vary by resources consumed Usually less, may be equal or more (maps to completeness of reversal with respect to a resource), may produce equivalent but not identical resources (extent of validity of reversion) Polymorphism of cardinality constraints –Number of reversals permitted (non-temporal polymorphism) –Number of simultaneous reversals permitted (temporal polymorphism) –Number of consecutive reversals permitted (temporal polymorphism) –Cardinality constraints may involve temporal and non-temporal dimensions of the relationship

11 10 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta PROPERTIES OF PROCESSES: Recursion, Reflexivity, Idempotency Temporal recursion, temporal reflexivity and temporal idempotency: –The properties of recursion, reflexivity and idempotency may apply independently to an instance of the object, to time slices of objects, or simultaneously to both A class recursive temporal relationship also loops back to the same class, but perhaps different time slices of the same, or different object instances –If it is also time slice reflexive, it may (but does not always have to) connect the same time slice –If time slice irreflexive, it cannot do so –If time slice idempotent, then it must do so. A class irreflexive temporal relationship cannot loop back to the same object instance. A time slice irreflexive temporal relationship cannot loop back to the same time slice. An idempotent temporal relationship loops back to the same object instance, but –May be time slice irreflexive – it may have to connect different time slices of the same object instance Concept of temporal order, ie how far into the future do the influence of events reach, is a polymorphism of this –May be time slice reflexive, i.e., it may be permitted to connect the same time slice of the same object, but is not required to always do so. When a relationship loops back to the same time slice, there is no passage of time; it cannot be a process because there is no “before” and “after”. A totally idempotent temporal relationship must always connect the same time slices of the same object instance. –It cannot be a process A time slice idempotent temporal relationship must always relate concurrent time slices of object instances –The object instances could belong to the same or different object classes. –Cannot be a process A reflexive relationship may or may not loop back to the same time slice of the same object instance, and may or may not loop back to the same object instance, provided it loops pack to an instance of the same class (for example, a person may be his own counsel in a court of law at one time, and be represented by someone else at a diffent time; the representation relationship loops back to the class of persons in both cases). –Those instances of the relationship that loop back to the same time slice cannot be processes Eg: If a person must represent himself in a court of law in future, that representation is a process –May consist of compositions of subprocesses like preparation, planning and so on. –However, the irreducible fact that the person is currently representing himself at the court, at this very instant, cannot involve the flow of time, and hence it becomes a non-temporal relationship, provided past or future history are out of scope A temporally antisymmetric relationship is a relationship that is asymmetric unless it loops back to the same time slice of the same object instance (for example, Person inform Person)

12 11 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta RELATIONSHIP RECURSIVE Polymorphisms of Relationships OBJECT RELATIONSHIP RECURSIVE OBJECT RETURN

13 12 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta PROPERTIES OF PROCESSES: Symmetry A symmetrical process is a meaningless concept –Time is asymmetrical –Processes always connect resources to products over a forward span of time All processes must be asymmetrical –Reversion of the process is its inverse Symmetry requires the inverse and the relationship be identical –This is meaningless for processes: Reversion of a process can never be the same as the process it reverses. That a process does not change over time is a form of temporal symmetry –The property of stationarity –Non-stationary processes will change their characteristics (properties) over time PROPERTIES OF PROCESSES: Mutability Temporal mutability: When mutability changes over time –Eg: for a limited time, the temporary and permanent license plates of a new car are legally mutable. –Temporal mutability may involve combinations of time slices However.. –A polymorphism of non-stationarity

14 13 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta PROPERTIES OF PROCESSES: Order Temporal order: How remote a history will affect behavior Becomes quite complex for processes –How many time slices a relationship spans for each object class –How many time slices a relationship spans for each object instance OBJECT CLASS V1 V2 V3 V4 Instance Present Past V1 V2 V3 V4 Instance V1 V2 V3 V4 Instance Time Instance Recursive, 2 nd order rel. Class Recursive, 3 rd order rel. –Combinations of time slices: Which time periods are combined Object instances Object classes Both Overall Temporal order: Related time slice farthest back in history –If only the current state impacts state transitions, temporal order = 1 –If neither current state, nor history matter, temporal order = 0

15 14 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta PROPERTIES OF PROCESSES: Degree The temporal degree of a relationship with respect to a participating object instance is the number of distinct time slices of that object instance the relationship involves –Temporal degree of an idempotent relationship: No. of times a relationship loops back to the same object instance –Overall temporal degree of a relationship is the total number of time slices of all objects that the relationship involves –The relationship can only loop forward in time –May loop across object instances or classes OBJECT CLASS V1 V2 V3 V4 Instance 3 Present Past V1 V2 V3 V4 Instance 2 V1 V2 V3 V4 Instance 1 Time Idempotent relationship: Temporal degree with respect to object 3 = 2 Recursive relationship: temporal degree = 2. –Combinations of time slices: How many are combined over which time periods Object instances Object classes Both Relationship across classes: temporal degree = 2. OBJECT –Constraints on temporal degree limits the length of tuples of time slices

16 15 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta PROPERTIES OF PROCESSES: Degree (2) Sign Check Sign Can distinct time slices be concurrent? –Yes! Provided they are time slices of the same object in different states Each state is a polymorphism of the check Same check: seems to imply 1 st degree, but a 2-tuple is involved: two instances of the signature process Second temporal degree, idempotent relationship Parallel process: signatures may or may not be in the same time slice Idempotent relationship of the 2 nd degree, but both loops occur in parallel Scenario: Both the CEO and CFO must sign a check for it to be payable THE PROCESS Payable

17 16 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta Are the sub-processes that constitute the check signing process also subtypes of the check signing process when considered individually? PROCESS MAP See Case Study on reusing and modifying process knowledge in supplementary Module 5

18 17 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta PRESENT PAST possible combinations for which constraints may be defined in a three-way relationship across classes m..n Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Instance 3 Instance 1 Instance 2 m..n possible combinations for which constraints may be defined in a three-way recursive relationship across Instances possible combinations of time slices for which constraints may be defined over three state changes

19 18 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta PROPERTIES OF PROCESSES: Cardinality Ratios Temporal Cardinality: Cardinality of combinations across time slices –Batch Processes: The cardinality ratio of a single cell describes how many items of an object class were simultaneously involved in an instance of the process at the time Cardinality ratio of 2 or more on “produce” = batch process Batch Size: If the object class is a product of the process, the cardinality rato of the cell that represents the contemporary time slice tells us how many items of the product a single instance of the process produces at the time –This is the cardinality ratio of the “produce” relationship below Resource requirement: If the object class is a resource, it tells us how many items of the resource are required at a time by an instance of the process RELATIONSHIP EVENT precede [succeed] PROCESS Subtype of Product Produce 1 or more Subtype of use 1 or more [used by 0 or more] [produced by 0 or more] Resource Object Cardinality Ratio Cardinality Ratio

20 19 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta Bake Cookie Concurrent Instances of Bake Cookie Concurrency vs Repetition Concurrent Instances of Bake Cookie Concurrent Instances of Bake Cookie FLOW OF TIME Concurrency at given moments (Concurrency : cardinality of the process at a given time) Repetition (cardinality of the process across time slots) Bake Cookie (3) (4) (2) PROPERTIES OF PROCESSES: Cardinality Non-temporal cardinality does not care about the (“unknown”) flow of time = total cardinality

21 20 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta Bake Cookie Concurrent Instances of Bake Cookie The meaning of Cascade Concurrent Instances of Bake Cookie FLOW OF TIME Number of successors per predecessor (Cascade ratio: Number of processes triggered by each predecessor) Bake Cookie (1) (4) PROPERTIES OF PROCESSES: Cardinality Cardinality Ratio

22 21 PROPERTIES OF PROCESSES: Efficiency/Productivity Efficiency with respect to a given resource is the ratio between the cardinality ratio of the product and the cardinality ratio of the resource –For higher order relationships, the cardinality ratios of other resources are held at a fixed level PROCESS Product Produce 1 or more use 1 or more [used by 0 or more] [produced by 0 or more] Resource Divide by Efficiency Cycle Time Divide by Productivity

23 22 PROPERTIES OF PROCESSES: Capacity Temporal capacity: similar to non-temporal capacity –Cardinality upper bounds: Limited capacity to produce product or use resource –May vary by object class, instance or time slice or any combination of these Eg: an instance of a razor blade engaged in a shaving process cannot be used by any other process concurrently (capacity for concurrent engagement) Eg: A Person may concurrently be engaged in a maximum of 4 projects at a time (capacity for concurrent engagement) Eg: Razor blade may be good for only 5 shaves (Capacity for repetition) – How much of a resource is engaged or consumed is normalized by the “use” relationship between the resource and the process What kind of capacity is normalized by the “produce” relationship? Is a process a polymorphism of a product? Is the product a polymorphism of a goal?

24 23 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta PROCESS DECOMPOSITION RESOURCE BAKE COOKIE REQUEST FRESH COOKIES EXTERNAL EVENT Cookie WORK PRODUCT Dough Make cookie Dough Arrange dough glob on cookie sheet Bake dough Unload cookie A. B. Consumed by produce trigger precedes ANOTHER EXTERNAL EVENT A process is a polymorphism of a succession constraint –Succession constraint forges the meaning of “precede” Subprocess is different from the subtype of a process –Subprocess is a part of a composite process Together, the subprocesses imply (are transitive with) the process –Eg: “Arrange Dough Glob” is a subprocess in “Bake Cookie” –Eg: A subtype of “Bake Cookie” might have been “Bake sugar free cookie”

25 24 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta TAKE ORDER PICK ITEMS RAISE INVOICE SHIP ITEMS WITH INVOICE TAKE ORDER PICK ITEMS RAISE INVOICE SHIP ITEMS WITH INVOICE Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM Notation from PMI) Universal Modeling Language (UML notation from OMG) COMMONLY USED NOTATIONS Topos of collaboration CONDITIONAL EVENTS – MUTUAL INCLUSION Parallel Processes

26 25 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta Cardinality Ratio = 1 Successor Predecessor (with respect to successor) Every instance of its successor is triggered by a single instance of the conjunction

27 26 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta INTERVIEW CANDIDATE MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE SUCCESSION OF EVENTS X ISSUE REGRET LETTER MAKE OFFER TOPOS OF CONFLICT Mutually exclusive relationships define the topos of conflict –The conflict here is not between employer and candidate, but between making or refusing an offer CONDITIONAL EVENTS – MUTUAL EXCLUSION

28 27 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta Example of mutually exclusive temporal compositions TOPOS OF COLLABORATION Topos of conflict

29 28 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta INTERVIEW CANDIDATE ACCEPT CANDIDATE REJECT CANDIDATE MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE SUCCESSION OF EVENTS X ISSUE REGRET LETTER MAKE OFFER COMPOSITION

30 29 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta ANALYZE ISSUE OPEN NEW PROBLEM ALERT MANAGEMENT TAKE SERVICE CALL SUBTYPE OF Severe new problem Succeeded by 0 or more [succeed 1] Succeeded by 0 or more [succeed 1] Belongs to the topos of collaboration or not? Topos of asymmetric collaboration CONDITIONAL EVENTS – SUBTYPING OF SUCCESSION

31 30 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta MORE COMPLEX CONDITIONAL EVENTS Complex occurrence constraints can stem from constraints on the degree and order of the relationship in three dimensions: Complex occurrence constraints may also tie states of instances and classes of processes together with occurrence, precedence and succession constraints –Some simple examples are: A processes that must be suspended if another one has started A process that must be started if another one is cancelled, etc. Automate validation of constraints and interdependencies in large and complex temporal or causal networks Check for and eliminate unintended side effects Deadly embraces Validate null spaces Universal States of Processes Not Occurred Occurred Started Stopped Finished Suspended In Progress Do Not Start Do Not restart Inclusion Polymorphism Interrupt Cancel Latency

32 31 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta Cardinality Ratio = 1 Predecessor Successor Predecessor BEGINEND BEGINEND BEGINEND Cycle Time Delay ADD LATENCY CONSTRAINTS TO THE MIX More complex themes Waiting period (with each kind of occurrence constraint): Eg: 3 days grace period for a contract Optional or mandatory mutual exclusion, mutual inclusion with or without time delay or within a time slot defined in terms of the start or finish of a process Processes that must start when one or more of its predecessors end without time delay or within a deadline (inclusion constraint) The subtyping constraint: Processes that may start only after its predecessor ends without time delay or deadline (inclusion constraint) A few Common themes

33 32 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta Predecessor Successor Predecessor BEGINENDBEGINENDBEGINEND Cycle Time Delay EXAMPLE OF LATENCY

34 33 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta Predecessor BEGINENDBEGINEND Cycle Time Delay Successor BEGINEND Cycle Time Delay (Begin Delay) EXAMPLE OF LATENCY

35 34 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta Predecessor BEGINENDBEGINEND Cycle Time Delay Successor BEGINEND Cycle Time Delay (Begin Delay) EXAMPLE OF LATENCY

36 35 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta Predecessor BEGINENDBEGINEND Cycle Time Delay Successor BEGINEND Cycle Time Delay (Begin Delay) EXAMPLE OF LATENCY

37 36 ANALYZE ISSUE OPEN NEW PROBLEM ALERT MANAGEMENT TAKE SERVICE CALL SUBTYPE OF Severe new problem Succeeded by 0 or more [succeed 1] Succeeded by 0 or more [succeed 1] CONDITIONAL EVENTS – SUBTYPING OF SUCCESSION

38 37 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta ANALYZE ISSUE OPEN NEW PROBLEM ALERT MANAGEMENT TAKE SERVICE CALL SEVERE NEW PROBLEM trigger Severe problem TRANSITIVE TRIAD Succeeded by 0 or more [succeed 1] Succeeded by 0 or more [succeed 1] SUBTYPE OF Example of a transitive process With non-temporal transitive sets of relationships, any one of the relationships in the transitive set may be removed to normalize information When temporal information is included, the last process in the transitive set should be eliminated, because its predecessors will imply its occurence Succeeded by 0 or more [succeed 1]

39 38 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta RESOURCE BAKE COOKIE REQUEST FRESH COOKIES EXTERNAL EVENT Cookie WORK PRODUCT Dough Make cookie Dough Arrange dough glob on cookie sheet Bake dough Unload cookie A. EVENT COMPOSITION REQUEST FRESH COOKIES Make cookie Dough Arrange dough glob on cookie sheet Bake doughUnload cookie (IRREDUCIBLE FACT - NO SPLITTING !) Dough Mix Water Dough WORK PRODUCT/RESOURCE Cookie Sheet (Fresh) Cookie Sheet (in use) Dough globsCookie batch Cookie Sheet (in use) Cookie Cookie Sheet (used) WASTE OR BY PRODUCT TRANSITIVE TRIAD PROCESS COMPOSITION (Process Map) BAKE COOKIE Cookie PURPOSE OF BAKE COOKIE Subtype of  (Change scope?) Is the product a polymorphism of a goal? Is a process a polymorphism of a product? Supplementary Module 5: Essence of a Process and goals of a business;

40 39 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta PRODUCT OF A PROCESS Work Product: The purpose of the process By Product: A lower priority goal being achieved as a part of the process Waste product: An item of no relevance or worse (undesirable item) produced as a part of achieving the purpose of the process An arbitrary classification determined by how the enterprise defines its purpose. Process engineering starts when the enterprise starts defining how it will achieve its overall purpose –Processes are polymorphisms of this purpose The resources and work products of a governing process are properties of governed processes A governing process is a polymorphism of a high order pattern Governing processes may be governed by governing processes, which may in turn be governed by other governing processes and so on –The concept of governance order is a polymorphism of the order of a pattern –Like constraints that constrain other constraints See Supplementary Module 5: Box 56 STRUCTURE AND GOVERNANCE

41 40 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta INPUT & OUTPUT PROCESSES INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT PROCESS TRANSFORMATION PROCESS May be split only if each input process is an independent irreducible fact May be split only if each output process is an independent irreducible fact CORE BUSINESS PROCESS OF THE COMPOSITION (normalizes its purpose. Is also repository of rules for creating products with resources) Input process normalizes rules about feeding resources to the business process Output process normalizes rules about the flow of products from the business process Eg: The act of unloading the cookies from the cookie sheet produces a used sheet and a batch of cookies –A single event and irreducible fact –We cannot split the output process of the cookie from the output process of the cookie sheet Cannot be split if there are complex cardinality, latency and other constraints (eg: a synchronization condition) between input processes for different resources –Eg: feeding of dough globs arranged on a cookie sheet implies the cookie sheet and the dough must be input simultaneously –Then the input process for each resource cannot be split because it is a single irreducible fact

42 41 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta CONSIDERATIONS Load Balancing –Allocation of limited resources –Affects latency Breaks out a new state: Enabled (subtype of Suspended) with respect to a resource Latent processes may –Be cancelled –Wait for the resource May be deadlocked –Substitute the needed resource with a mutable resource –Acquire the needed resource (partially or fully) A polymorphism of “conflict” if this causes mutual exclusivity constraints to kick in –the resource becomes unavailable to other processes Governing process may determine which option is used –Parallel execution may decrease overall cycle time, but is prone to chaos as complexity increases –Must be well governed Started Stopped Finished Suspended In Progress Do Not Start Do Not restart Inclusion Polymorphism Universal States of Processes Not Occurred Occurred

43 42 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta ADDITIONAL PROPERTIES OF PROCESSES Marginal Differences –Consider differences between current and proposed states for: Cycle time –Not additive in a the aggregate –Additive over a critical path Economic value added –May not be additive in the aggregate Each instance may add value simultaneously to multiple compositions through reuse Activity Cost –Direct Line Activity Cost –Overheads and are normalized by the aggregate A composition of processes may have conditional activities –Affects each item Supplementary Module 5: Process Maps, Supply chains and Business Process Engineering

44 43 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta PROCESS OWNERSHIP R=Responsibility A=Authority W=Work C=Consult F=Facilitate (a weak form of governance)

45 44 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta R=Responsibility A=Authority W=Work C=Consult F=Facilitate (a weak form of governance) Subtype of Implications Each role is transitive with constituent subprocesses When the same person or organization plays multiple roles, it will suffice to specify the lower level role RAWCF RULES Good Practice Assign to a single individual when possible Not always possible: Eg: Tug-of-war The irreducible fact cannot be a topos of conflict if this practice must be followed Must be assigned at task level Must be assigned by execution time May be assigned at execution time

46 45 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta AGILITY: STRUCTURED vs. UNSTRUCTURED PROCESSES Unknown values of properties of a process contribute to its lack of structure Unknown values must be instantiated at execution time Agile processes will instantiate at execution time Governance processes must instantiate and regulate these Cannot be ad- hoc (All properties of processes have not been shown in the figure) (Most Structure) Less certain (Least Structure) What effect will this have on business operations? Governance and management style? Automation? Supplementary Module 5: Box 59 and Processes that gain or lose structure

47 46 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta AUDITABILITY Universal attributes of every temporal object: –Who made the change (All the dimensions of process ownership) –When the change was made –The instance of the process that caused the change and the (instances of resources) that were used –Why it was made (the causal chain that led to the process) –How long it took to make the change (cycle time)

48 47 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta Process Reengineering Change goals –Substitute Mutable goals; change scope; degrees of freedom Change RAWCF –Horizontal or vertical integration Change Process dependencies Substitute (mutable) resources Change any of the other process parameters we have discussed Automate to achieve the above goals: Remember “W” is transitive: A person is still responsible for execution

49 48 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta SUPPLY CHAINS PROJECT: Map the Aris, SCOR, CPFR, Netmarket and Rosettanet supply chains to the patterns in your text book. Show how they may all be integrated Reading Assignment Supplementary Module 5 Integrating Businesses through Process Reengineering PROJECT: Patterns of e-commerce

50 49 Product Reengineering Quality is derived from the Voice of the Customer Financial Stakeholders CSF: How are we performing financially? FeaturesMetricsGoals Customers CSF: Are they delighted? FeaturesMetricsGoals Regulators CSF: Are we compliant? FeaturesMetricsGoals Learning & Knowledge CSF: Are we adaptable? FeaturesMetricsGoals Business Process Owner CSF: Are they optimal? FeaturesMetricsGoals Features Metrics FOCUS OF ALL VALUE Process Quality Compliance Quality Inovation/adaptation Quality All requirements and quality drivers must focus on creating value for the business –Value for the customer –Value for the shareholder Shareholder Value Customer Value –Other stakeholders’ needs are enablers of these goals Regulators, Process owners, innovators and the community of knowledge

51 50 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta See figure 2.18 in your text book, Box 62 in supplementary module 5 PRODUCT REENGINEERING A feature adds information –May satisfy, hinder satisfaction of, or be irrelevant to satisfying need –A feature is a constraint in information space Product innovation involves –Adding features that enhance satisfaction –Removing features that hinder satisfaction Eg: An electronic check may be signed simultaneous by requisite signatories –The paper check was constrained to be in one place at a time; feature inherited from physical object –Removing irrelevant features if it makes economic sense

52 51 © Amit Mitra and Amar Gupta EXAMPLE OF AUTOMATED PRODUCT INNOVATION BEFORE AFTER


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