2What is Ecology???Ecology is the branch of biology that studies the interactions of organisms with one another and with their physical environment.
3The two factors that make up the environment of an organism: BIOTIC FACTORSIt includes all the living organisms in the environment.ex: ProducersConsumersDecomposersABIOTIC FACTORSLightHeat or solar energyWaterMineralsSoilOxygenWind etc.
51. POPULATIONA population is a group of individuals of the same species existing together in a given area.Ex: *human population in Ankara*squirrel population in ODTÜ forest*volvox population in Eymir lakeFor example, all of the Great Diving Beetle larvae and adults in the pond.
62. COMMUNITYAll the populations of different organisms within agiven areamake up the community.Ex: All of the populations in ODTÜ forestFor example, all of the numerous species of micro-organisms, plants and animals living in the pond
73. ECOSYSTEMA certain area in which organisms interact with each other and with their environment. An ecosystem includes a community and its physical environment.Ex: ODTÜ forestEymir lakeThe pond ecosystem includes all of the non-living components - the water, the soil surrounding the pond, the mud on the bottom, the weather and microclimate, together with the living community of organisms
84. BIOMEOne of the major terrestrial ecosystems, characterized by climatic and soil conditions.Biomes are named according to the dominant plant population of them.TundraConiferous forest
15NICHEThe role of a species in an ecosystem. In balanced ecosystem each species occupies its own niche.Ex: Nitrogen fixing bacteria nitrogen fixationPine tree ODTÜ forest photosynthesisSaprobes in soil decompose dead material
16Nutrition in Ecosystem 1.Autotroph:An organism able to make all the complex organic molecules (its own food molecules) using simple inorganic compounds.Ex: Photocynthetic bacteriaAlgaePlantsChemosynthetic bacteria
17Nutrition in Ecosystem 2.Heterotroph:An organism that cannot derive energy from photosynthesis or inorganic chemicals, and so must feed on other plants or animals.Ex: Holozoic organismsSaprobesMost of bacteriaFungi
18Nutrition in Ecosystem A) Holozoic organisms:Organisms take in solid organic food from ingesting other living organismsHerbivoresOmnivoresCarnivores
19Predator Prey Any organism that catches and kills other organisms. Organism that is actively captured and used as food by predators.
24Food Chains and Food Webs Food Chain: A series of organisms through which food energy is passed.Producers, consumers and decomposers make up the food chain.All the feeding categories that occur in an ecosystem represent different trophic levels.
34Ecological Pyramids Pyramid of biomass: gr/m2 CARNIVORESHERBIVORESPRODUCERSBecause energy is lost at every step of a food chain, the biomass of primary producers tends to be greater than that of the herbivores that consume them, and herbivore biomass is greater than the biomass of the predators.
35Ecological Pyramids Pyramid of biomass: gr/m2 ProducersHerbivoresCarnivoresInverted pyramid of biomass in some aquatic ecosystems
36Biological Magnification Certain harmful substances, usually ones not found in nature but introduced by man, may get into plants and/or animals.These poisonous substances may not be broken down in the body or excreted easily, efficiently and quickly. Instead, they accumulate in the tissues, and as the living organism eats more, the concentration of these substances increases and they pass from one trophic level to the next. This phenomenon is called 'Biological magnification'.
3997% of the water on earth is in the oceans Only 3% of the water on earth is freshwaterAbout 2.4% of the water on earth is permanently frozen in glaciers and at the polar ice capsAbout 1/2 of 1 % of the water on earth is groundwaterOnly about 1/100 of 1% of the water on earth is in the rivers and lakesIt takes 39,090 gallons of water to make a new car, including the tiresOver 17,000,000 houses use private wells for their drinking water supplyA person can live about a month without food, but can live only about 1 week without water