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2 hurricane earthquake storm tornado wildfire tsunami flood avalanchelandslide Volcanic eruption Thunder and lightninhg hailstones drought famine

3 An oil slick demonstra tors Recycling Bottle bank Dumping industrial waste CFC Smoke from factories Exhaust fumes Cutting down of rainforests

4 5. Weather conditions NounAdjectiveVerbWords connected Sun Cloud Fog Heat Wind Ice Shower Humidity Storm Thunder lightning snow Sleet hail gale thaw smog melt freezing blizzard Drizzle shower thunder mist slush mild warm boiling drought flood chilly heatwave settle dry breeze pour down wet Overcast torrential hurricane sun fog heat wind ice cloud rain thunder storm snow sunnyshinewarmmild cloudySet in foggy rainy Icy/freezing windy hot snowy stormy thundery freeze rain strike snow Fog/set in heat blowgale hail sleet overcast smog boiling thaw melt blizzard drizzleshower mist slush drought flood chilly heatwave settle breeze wet hurricane

5 THE WEATHER S ________ B ________ S ________ D ________ S ________ H ________ T ________ M _______ S ________ SNOWDRIFTS SLEET BLIZZARD SLUSH D RIZZLE SHOWER HAIL THUNDERSTORM MIST SMOG Melts/ thaws Mild Settle Hazy Breeze Overcast / poured Boiling/ humid Storm / torrential / flooded Damp muggy hail

6 cool chilly freezing Below zero warm scorching milddamp drizzling showers Pouring down breeze Gale-force

7 heatwave drought hailstones lightning thunder blizzard flood hurricane tornado monsoon

8 strong thick heavy icy bright clear changeable sunny settled

9 Listening:The Flood in Prague The river was s___________ and finally o __________ in Prague, The C______ Republic His flat was next to the river b _____ Do something s ____________ So far, so good! He was a ___________ of l ____________ b ____________ into his house He S__________ u _____ all night He s _________ the w _________ evening and night listening to the News b ________ that gave r ____________on … The water level was r ____________ He could hear cars s __________ and s _____ o _____ De vez en cuando = F ___________________________ I looked out of the window. The car park finally was e ________,,No quedaba ningún coche= ______________________ He went to a r __________ house The car in front w _________ in the water to make its way through the water He thought he could make it He m ____________ (= could) to do it His flat was badly d __________ swollenoverflew Czech bank sensible afraid looters breaking stayedup spentwholebulletins reports rising startsetoff From time to time empty there weren ´t any cars left Relative´s waded managed damaged

10 GRAMMAR Then complete these sentences with appropriate Passive (if possible) or active forms of the verbs.(A) 1 A number of priceless works of art _________________ in the earthquake. 2 By the time Carol _________________we had finished eating and were ready to go. 3 No record _____________of the visit he claimed to have made to Paris in 1941. 4 Because my visa had expired I ______________ from re-entering the country. 5 It is generally agreed that new industries _____________for the southern part of the country. 6 If Nick hadn't come along, I don't know what would __________________ 7 The economic situation in the region _____________ quite sharply over the last year. 8 The coastline ______________ into the distance as our ship sailed further away. 9 It's incredible to think that these clothes _____________ by Queen Victoria. 10 A new drug _________________ to combat asthma in small children. 11 When Kathy left the room, everyone__________________ 12 A number of political prisoners ________________ within the next few days. Arrive destroy deteriorate develop follow exist happen need prevent recede release wear Were destroyed arrived existed Am prevented Are needed Have happened has deteriorated receded Have been worn Has been developed followed Will be released

11 O _______ = synonym with criminal B_________ = this is what dogs do when a gun has got bullets is L ________ H_______ = when it rains balls of ice J ____ = synonym with prison R_______ = when you commit a crime again S _______ = destroy / waste/ L_______= When soil slides down a mountain sweeping everything on its way M__________________ = Salirse con la suya A _______ = let someone do something L______ D ____ T ____ = use a knife to break vehicle´s wheels L ________ = what you can see after thunder D_______ L _______ = carnet de conducir B_________ information behind an event or fact S _______ = not allow a worker to continue at work for some time A F _____ of lightning B________ S ______ = a beautiful place C _____ place= with lots of things around when there is water everywhere, there is a F __ D_______ = long period of hot weather B _________ = annoy / disturb / nag someone D ____ = object attached to a table used to store things F_______ = long period of dying hungry people S ______ = hacer turismo Offender Jail Make one´s point Driving licence Beauty spot bother Bark Reoffend Allow Background Cramped place drawer Loaded Spoil Let tyres down Suspend Flood Famine Hail Landslide Lightning Flash Drought sightseeing

12 Definitions Blizzard Mild Slush Snowdrift Sleet Drizzle Mist Scorching Muggy Shower Thaw

13 Yesterday we didn´t talk about the _ _ _ _ _ / _ _ _ _ _ We talked about G ____ W _____ that is c ______ by G ______ G _____ such as E _____ fumes, S _____ from factories, C ______ s, a high C _________ of fossil F _____ : O ___ and C ____. Let´s say, H ______ A _______. These gases make the earth´s atmosphere get thicker preventing the planet from R ______ the heat and energy we get from the sun This makes that the temperature rise. As a result the polar I ____ C ___ are M _____ and consequently this might F ____ coastal areas round the globe. It may change the climate of the planet with severe weather conditions such as D ____, tornados, etc. So people can do something by R ______, S _____ energy, change to L __-C ___ light B ____, stop dumping industrial W ____ into rivers, or we could travel O _____ instead of taking the plane Global warming caused Greenhouse gases Exhaust smoke CO2/CFCsconsumption fuels oil carbon Human activity reaching Ice caps melting flood droughts recycling saving Low-consumingbulbs waste overland Ozone layer


15 I ______ E ______ S ______ B _____ O ___ S _____ S ______ C ______ V ______ R ______ Global Issues Volcanos erupt epidemicsspread WarsBreak Out hurricanes Sweep Earthquakes shake People without food Starve Dead people in a war Casualties Affected people in a warVictims people who flee from a war Refugees topics Flu A The ourbreak of the war Starve to death I´m starving

16 suffered destroyed injured famine twister disasters deadwounded

17 1.Disposal 2.Heavily 3.Over-populated 4.Layer 5.Greenhouse 6.Resources 7.over-fishing 8. Destruction 9.Farming 10. Conditions

18 polluting environmental harmful conservation protection destroying damaging industrial

19 1.Acid rain 2.Recycle 3.Fumes 4.Pollution 5.Greenhouse effect 6.Greenhouse 7.Ozone layer 8. Global warming 9. Bottle bank 10. Desertification 11. Endangered 12. Extint 13. Tidal enrgy/solar power

20 The T _______ tips are: 1.F ______ less. Use buses and trains I ________. If you have to fly, give money to organizations to O ______ your emissions. 2. Dry as little as possible. Use bikes or buy a H _____ car that can C ____ when you B _____ or you can C _____ S ______ with a friend 3. Use E _______ - S _______ light Bulbs 4. Plant tress. A D ______ of them can absorb a W _______ H ________ emissions 5. Don´t K ______ your TV or others E _________ A _______ on S _______ B ____ 6. Use the cold water W _______ on your washing machines and use the dishwasher. Don´t H ________ the dishes 7. Buy organic food and carry your S _______ bags 8. Turn your H _____down and wear a sweater if you´re cold. Use your air C ____________ reasonably 9. Have short showers not baths 10. Recycle paper, bottles, glass and H ________ W ________ top fly instead offset hybrid charge brake Car share Energy-saving dozenwhole household keepelectrical appliances standby wash handwash shopping heating conditioning household waste

21 nounVerbAdjectiveAdverb Good Hungry Nourish Anxious obstinate belong lie pollution damage industry harm delight goodnessTo be goodwell hungerTo be hungry hungrily nourishment Nourished/ing nourishingly anxietyTo be anx.anxiously obstinacyTo be obs. obstinately belonging liar lying pollute Polluted/ing damage damaging industrialize industrial Do harm harmful To be delighfuldelightful

22 From Oliver Twist 1. Cuando sus padres murieron le llevaron a un orfanato donde trabajaban y se morían de hambre. Un día Oliver pidió más comida y le echaron. Le colocaron con un funerario, pero después de una paliza de un compañero se fuga a Londres y es encontrado por Dodger que le llevó a Fagin que le envió a robar objetos de valor. Pero el más despiadado fue Sykes. 2. Se te está bien empleado 3. Es un novato 4. Es incapaz de hacerlo 5. No está bien 6. Esta lanzando un farol 6. Nos delató 1.When his parents died, he was taken to an orphanage/workhouse where they worked long hours on very little food. One day Oliver asked for more and was expelled. He was placed with an undertaker but after a mate´s beating he ran away to London. He was found by Dodger who took him to Fagin who sent him to steal valuables but Sykes was the most ruthless to him 2. It served him right 3. He is very green 4. He´s not up to it 5. He´s out of sorts 6. He´s shamming 6. He peached on us

23 Translate the following: -cabezonería - hambre - encantador - lucha -atender a los clientes - no sabe nadar y puede ahogarse -no me acoses que no te temo - no me fio de él, es un mentiroso -no nos dejes ahora que es cuando más te necesitamos -eran muy estrictos y nos azotaban si contestábamos - cogió sus pertenencias y se fue -posibilidades de que - alojamiento - obstinacy hunger delightful struggle Assist customers/ attent to customers I can ´t swim and I can get drowned Don ´t bully me, I don ´t fear you … I don ´t trust him. He´s a liar Don ´t desert us now that we need you the most They were too strict and they flogged usif answered back He took his belongings and ran away The odds arelodging

24 VERBAL TENSES THE PRESENT THE PAST THE FUTURE SIMPLE: I go/ he goesSIMPLE: I went SIMPLE: I will go / I would go Continuous: I´m going Perfect: I have gone Perfect Continuous: I have been going Continuous: I was goingContinuous: I will be going/ I´d be going Perfect: I had gonePerfect: I will have gone / I´d have gone Perfect Continuous: I had been going Perfect Continuous: I will have been going / I´d have been going Conditional

25 The future – the form Simple Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous I will / won´t do I will be doing I will have done I will have been doing

26 I will be starting my first morning class I´ll have got to school I will be … I will have I will be … I will have


28 To express Future Simple we use: Present Simple Present Continuous Be going to Will/shall Modal verbs Others...

29 PRESENT SIMPLE For Timetables: buses, TV programmes, shops, concerts, etc. Ex. ¿A qué hora abren las tiendas mañana? What time do the shops open tomorrow? U2 concert _________ (start) at 9 next Saturday U2 concert starts at 9 next Saturday

30 PRESENT CONTINUOUS For Personal Future Plans ( as if written in a diary) Ex. What are you doing next weekend? I´m playing football on Saturday afternoon and going to the cinema with Andrea in the evening

31 PRACTICE: Present simple or Present continuous 1. Are you busy this week Sam?. Not very much but I ________________ (revise) for an exam on Friday. 2.What time __________________ (begin) your English class?. It ___________ (start) at 7 3.Your plane _____________ (leave) at 6, so I ______________ (pick) you up at 5. 4.Your plane _______________ (land) in Dublin at 7. The manager ____________ (meet) you at the airport. 5.Then, you _____________ (stay) at Ritch Hotel because the conference __________ (be) in the morning. 6.I _____________ (not/like) conferences. ______________ (come/Carol) with me?. 7.The English lesson on Thursday ____________ (not/finish) at 1:25, it ______________ (finish ) at 1:30 8. On Saturday evening I ____________ (not/go) out with Karen I ___________ (go) to Sting´s concert Am revising Do you begin Starts Leaves Am picking Lands is meeting are staying Is Don ´t like Is Carol coming with me? Doesn ´t finish Finishes Am not going Am going

32 BE GOING TO (I´m gonna...) For Intentions Ex. I´ve failed the exam. What are you going to do now? - I´m not going to tell my parents, that´s for sure. For Predictions (based on what you can see or know) Ex. Victor is a big mouth, the tutor is going to punish him someday

33 Will / won´t For Instant decisions Ex. Teacher: I need a person to get a piece of chalk. Martin: Don´t worry teacher, I´ll go For Predictions (based on what you think) Ex. I think in the year 2050 everybody will have cars fueled by hydrogen For offers and promises Ex. Shall I help you? Ex. I promise I will do it

34 Will or Going to 1.Oh no! look at the time!. I ___________(be) terribly late. 2.If you want to go the shop you can borrow my brother´s bike I´m sure he _________ (not/mind) 3.Why are you turning on the TV?. Because I ________________ (watch) the news. 4.Oh, I´ve just realised. I haven ´t got any money. Don´t worry I _____________ (lend) you 10$ 5.I´ve got a splitting headache. Wait here, I ________________ (get) an aspirin for you. 6.I´ve decided to repaint this room. Really. What colour ______________(you/paint) it?. 7.Did you post that letter for me?. Oh!, I completely forgot. I _____________ (do) it now. 8.Have you decided what to do about that job?. Yes I ____________ (not/apply) for it. It´s rubbish! 9.Ann, I need someone to take me to the airport. That´s no problem. I ___________ (take) you 10.John, do you want me to take you to the airport?. No, Ann __________ (take) me. Am going to be Won ´t mind Am going to watch Will lend Will get Are you going to paint it Will do Am not going to apply Will take Is going to take

35 Modal Verbs: may, might, can... May / might (puede, podría) Ex. Puede que te lleve mañana I may take you tomorrow

36 Present simple, present continuous, be going to or will for the future 1.Do you have any plans for the summer?. Yes, I____________ (go) to the beach. 2.When __________ (the next train/leave)?. It ______________ (leave) at 7. 3.Is it really her birthday?. Then, I ____________ (buy) some flowers. 4.What ___________ (you/do) this weekend?. Do you want to come to the match?. OK, Which teams ______(play)? 5.Don´t carry all those heavy bags. Some of us ______________ (help) you. 6.I´m sorry I can´t see you tomorrow. I _________________ (visit) some relatives. 7.In the year 2300 everybody ___________________ (live) in other galaxies. 8.I need you to take me to the train station. Ok, I ___________ (take) you in a minute. What time ______________ (leave) the train?. At 7. So we ______________ (leave) at about 5 o´clock Am going Does it leave Leaves Will buy Are you doing / are you going to do Are playing Will help Am visiting Will live Will take Does it leave Are leaving

37 More practice Are you doing Will come Shall we meet Begins Will meet Am seeing Shall I ask Will see Are going Does the film begin Are you meeting Will be

38 1. Salgo a las 5:30 mañana por la mañana 2. ¿ A qué hora te sale el avión? 3. ¿Y qué vas a hacer allí? 4. Te vas a aburrir 5. Seguro que sí 6. ¿Me mandarás una postal? 7. Sí creo que,lo haré. Te lo prometo 8. Puede que vaya a recogerte al aeropuerto. ¿A qué hora voy? 1. I am leaving at 5:30 tomorrow morning 2. What time does the plane leave ? 3.What are you going to do there? 4. You are going to get bored 5. Sure I will 6. Will you send me a postcard? 7. I think I will. I promise I will 8.I may go to the airport to pick you up. What time shall I go? 1.Personal plan – Present Continuous 2.Timetable – Present simple 3.Intentions- Be going to 4.Prediction based on what you know- be going to 5.Prediction based on what you think- Will 6. Promise – Will 7.(the same as nº 5) 8.Possibility – May/ might -/ asking for suggestions - Shall

39 Translate or fill in the gaps 1. Aunque se nos avisó que iba a haber vientos huracanados, no sabíamos que iba a arrancar los árboles del húmedo suelo. También nos dijeron que no anduviéramos en bici y que nos quedáramos en casa 2. Gracias a Dios que pude llegar porque me tuve que agarrar a un semáforo para que no me metiera en la carretera y a otros se los llevaba, o los llevaba para atrás, y había pilas de contenedores. iQué lío! 3. El pasado miércoles fue el más caluroso que ha habido en este país. Claro la gente no tenía aire acondicionado y tuvimos que prepararnos a sudar. Si por lo menos tuvieran ventiladores. Although we were warned there were going to be hurricane-force winds, We didn ´t know it was going to rip trees out of the wet soil We were also told not to cycle and to stay indoors 2. Thank God that I could get there as I had to grab hold a traffic light so as not to be blown into the road Some others were blown over or backwards and there were piles of rubbish bins. What a mess! Last Wednesday was the hottest day ever in this country Yet people didn ´t have air conditioning and we had to get ready for sweating If only they had fans

40 Translate or fill in the gaps 4. Me despertó mi hija gritando. Hacía casi 50 años que no nevaba. Decidimos no enviarlos al cole e hicimos un muñeco de nieve. La gente estaba alucinada como en trance como si estuvieran haciendo una peli de alto presupuesto. Fue un caos para la gente que iba a trabajar. I got woken up by my daughter screaming. I hasn´t snowed here for nearly 50 years. We decided not to sent the kids to school and we made a snowman People were amazed as if in a trance, as if a high-budget film were being made It was chaos, though, for those people whowere going to work.


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